Masonic Research Society
The Story of "Old Glory"
The Oldest Flag
By Bro. Jno. W. Barry, Iowa
WE Masons who teach so continuously and so much
point with a pride truly laudable to the part of Masonry in
establishing the greatest
symbol known among nations – the stars and stripes now so fondly called
At its entrance it was received on the sharp
of many instruments, but being borne by those taught to yield their
than their honor, it passed all obstructions and was finally raised and
triumph it will wave o'er the land of the free so long as it is the
home of the
While most of the Masons were united in
king's claim of "a divine right to govern wrong," yet some of them were
on the king's side, but for the most part they moved to Canada, so that
while every patriot was not a Mason, yet every Mason was a patriot.
from the States had long memories which served to promote and prolong a
enmity toward us by Canada than had ever been evinced by England,
the benign influence of the Masonic tie. Even to this day our Canadian
esteem it an honor that their ancestors refused to turn "traitor" and
with us a Revolutionary ancestor is a birth mark of distinction – yet
of time has brought a kindlier note and "God save the King" and
are chanted to the same tune, and Old Glory is honored now by the
its bitterest foes at its entrance in 1776.
The Entrance of "Old
First will be given the story of the flag from
of the patriot - just as our fathers fought to establish it. Then will
of the things done by those who met upon the level and fought on the
Truly our flag came from "darkness to light"
and many facts about its earlier history can never be known. The
patriot cause in
1776 was worked out in the very shadow of the firing squad and the
gallows. It was
no jest but a most serious remark of Franklin that if they did not hang
they most certainly would hang separately. In Congress, therefore, the
Masonry, in which so many of them were initiates, was strictly enjoined
The Secret Pact
The "Secret Pact" (1) was a commandment in
Congress to which every member was required to subscribe:
Resolved that every member of this Congress
himself under the ties of virtue, honor and love of his country not to
or indirectly any matter or thing agitated or debated in Congress
before the same
shall have been determined, without leave of the Congress; nor any
matter or thing
determined in Congress which a majority shall order to be kept secret,
if any member shall violate the agreement, he shall be expelled this
deemed an enemy to the liberties of America and liable to be treated as
that every member signify his consent to this agreement by signing the
The names include the leaders of the time –
them the very makers of America. In keeping with the spirit of the
the secretary of Congress, Charles Thompson, made a record of only
requiring it. So the wonder is not that we have so few facts touching
but rather that we have any.
Washington Gives the British
On January 1, 1776, the New Constitutional army
organized and a "Union flag" was raised. In writing to his secretary,
Joseph Reed, at Philadelphia Washington said referring to this flag and
speech spurning the petition of Congress:
"The speech I send you. A volume of them was
out by the Boston gentry, and farcical enough, we gave great joy to
them (red coats,
I mean) without knowing or intending it, for on that day, the day which
to our new Army, but before the proclamation came to hand we had
hoisted the Union
Flag in compliment to the United Colonies. But behold, it was received
as a token of the deep impression the speech had made on us, and as a
submission. So we learn by a person out of Boston last night. By this
time I presume
they think it strange that we have not made a formal surrender of our
What sort of a flag could this have been?
The Only Contemporary Drawing
of Washington's First Flag
Benson J. Lossing, who was a most eminent
in preparing his history of General Philip Schuyler, found among the
this drawing in colors – the only one known to exist of the new flag
used by the
Americans in 1776. As none of their flags are preserved to us, this
drawing is a
most important link in the flag story.
Benson J. Lossing says: (2) "Why the hoisting
the Union Flag in compliment to the colonies should have been received
by the British
as "signal of submission," was a question historians could not answer
until 1855, when the writer of this work discovered among the papers of
Philip Schuyler a drawing of the Royal Savage with the Union flag at
The sloop and flag are here shown in No. 1. The drawing is endorsed in
of Gen. Schuyler as "Captain Wynkoop's schooner on Lake Champlain," it
being one of a small fleet under command of Arnold, assembled by
Schuyler to oppose
the British advance from Canada. Here you see the only contemporaneous
the flag like the one raised by Washington at Cambridge. From the
of the Royal Savage flag plus the disjointed references in
the flag Washington raised to the "joy" of the enemy is found to be one
and the same and is shown in No. 3 and is known as the Cambridge flag.
counterpart of the flag of India.
The Flag Washington Raised
It is often stated that the Cambridge flag was
of a Committee from Congress – but such claim rests on inferences only.
Congress did send a committee composed of Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin
Thomas Lynch to confer with Washington at Cambridge. This committee
16, 1775, and remained in conference with Washington and leading
a week. The minutes of the committee's proceedings are on file in the
of State, Washington, D. C., together with a letter in the writing of
signed by all the committee. Lloyd Balderston of Ridgway, Pa., (3) has
examined these documents carefully. The letter was written to John
of Congress, and fully described all the committee had done. But there
in the minutes or in the letter giving the remotest intimation
regarding a flag
of any kind. How these flags came to be or who made them is unknown but
Lossing says, we know why they were taken as indicating submission. The
to be found in a well-known flag of India.
The English East India Company
It is the flag of the English East India
practically owned India, subject only to the English king and not until
1858, were its regal powers surrendered. This Company maintained a
large army of
its own as well as ships of commerce and of war. It had the right to
make war and
peace "in all heathen nations" and administered all laws – civil and
No. 4 shows its flag in 1704, the 13 red and white stripes referring to
St. George's Cross to England. It was reproduced by Rear-Admiral George
in his monumental work of 800 pages on the United States flag. [Lib
1917 Vol 1, Vol 2] He takes it from
a work called "The Present State of the Universe" [Lib*] by J.
4th edition, published in London, 1704. (4) At the time, 1704, the
cross of St.
George was the flag of England and the 13 stripes of alternate red and
badge of her loyal East India Company, whose tea was used by St.
in its now famous Ocean Tea Party at Boston in 1773. There were slight
the union of the flag of India, following the changes in the flag of
1858 when India became a crown colony. These changes will be more
in connection with Figure 5 which is St. George's Cross. This Cross was
of England until her union with Scotland in 1707. Then No. 5 was united
6, St. Andrew's Cross, which at that time was the flag of Scotland,
making No. 7
the union flag of England known as the King's Colors. So after 1707,
Colors took the place of St. George's Cross in the flag of the English
Company, making it the exact counterpart of the Royal Savage flag and
Cambridge flag. In 1801 No. 4, Figure 8, St. Patrick's Cross, then the
flag of Ireland,
was united with No. 7, the King's Colors, making No. 9, the flag of
Again the flag of the English East India
its "union" to accord with the flag of England. (5) The word "union"
in connection with flags refers to any device in the upper staff
a union of government – as of England and Scotland in 1707.
The King's speech had just been sent out and
tone was expected to overawe the rebels, whose many flags – several to
– were known and dubbed by the English, "rebel rags." Naturally they
all looked upon as the emblems of traitors but when (6) the "Union
raised by Washington was seen, many of the English troops being fresh
it was at once recognized as the distinctive flag of a loyal English
it gave them joy and an indication of "submission." Truly Washington
have signaled them thus: – "However natural this supposition may be to
yet it is erroneous," for to the honor of those "embattled farmers"
be it said that Washington then and there proceeded to give the most
blow in the annals of war. Truly that which he proposed, he performed,
powder and under the very guns of the English fleet and army, he
disbanded one army
and organized another and on March 17, 1776, forced the British to
and flee in terror from that flag which scarce two months ago, they had
a flag of submission. Verily, that "supposition was erroneous."
Following his success at Boston, Washington was
to Philadelphia to confer with Congress. He arrived on May 22 and
returned to the
Army on June 5, and was not again in Philadelphia until August 2, 1777.
time Washington was in Philadelphia the only official mention yet
flags of any kind is in a post-script of his letter under date of May
to Major General Putnam, as follows:
"P. S. I desire
you'll speak to the several Col's and hurry them to get their colours
The "colours" of a regiment may be very different from the flag of the
country – and again might be the same.
There is no other mention of flags in anything
or semi-official until Saturday, June 14, 1777, almost a year after the
of Independence when Congress without previous discussion, resolution
report, recorded the "entrance" of Old Glory.
Original Journal of Congress
Page 243 of the original journal of Congress is
in No. 10 reproduced from a photograph. (7) That it may be the more
we reprint the flag resolution together with the John Paul Jones
following it, as if giving a reason for adopting the flag on this
First the secretary, Charles Thompson, wrote, "Resolved, That the flag
United states consist of." Then he erased "consist of" and wrote
above "be distinguished," and changed "of" to "by."
Finally he deleted the words "distinguished by," making the resolution
read as follows:
the Flag of the United States be 13 stripes alternate red and white,
that the Union
be 13 stars white in a blue field representing a new constellation."
Immediately following is the resolution
Paul Jones to command the Ranger, as follows:
"The Council of
the state of Massachusetts Bay having represented by letter to the
Congress that Capt. John Roach sometime since appointed to command the
ship of war the Ranger is a person of doubtful character and ought not
to be entrusted
with such a command. Therefore
Resolved that Captain
John Roach be suspended until the Navy Board for the eastern department
inquired fully into his character and reported thereon to the Marine
Resolved that Captain
John Paul Jones be appointed to command the said ship Ranger.
Resolved that William
Whipple Esq. member of Congress, and of the Marine committee, John
continental agent and the said Capt. John Paul Jones be authorized to
lieutenant and other commissioned and warrant officers necessary for
the said ship
and that blank commissions …" –
the resolution is finished on the next page of
Congress Giving Official
Sanction to a Flag in Actual Use
The papers of the day took no notice of the
of a flag by Congress – not until August was the fact even mentioned.
3, 1777, the flag resolution appeared over the signature of Charles
secretary. Again April 23, 1783, after peace had been secured, Congress
flag resolution over the signature of Secretary Thompson to be
republished in the
Pennsylvania Gazette, REQUESTING OTHER PAPERS TO COPY. (8)
From the total lack of interest in the public
of the time, it would seem that the resolution of Congress was merely
to give official
recognition to a flag already familiar and in use. Why it was done June
instead of some other day appears in the resolution immediately
Bro. John Paul Jones to the command of the Ranger which actually
Glory" clear around England and right into her harbors.
Avery says, (9) "After the Declaration of
the British "union" was removed from the colors of the new nation."
True he does not say WHEN the British "union" was removed, but after
Declaration, there was EVERY REASON why the King's Colors should NOT be
on the American
flag. Indeed the resolution itself is a proof that the flag being
adopted was actually
before Congress and too familiar to need detailed description, as to
of the stripes, whether the top and bottom stripes should be red or
there should be 7 red or only 6, or as to the arrangement of the stars,
or as to
whether there should be stars or some other device in the staff CORNER
or in some
other part of the flag. It seems reasonable to conclude that Jones
the Ranger and about to make his renowned voyage, needed all AUTHORIZED
Congress adopted one in actual use but there is no official record of
any kind except
that above given.
Who Made The Flag Congress
In No. 11 is shown the flag adopted by Congress
flag signaling the entrance of a new nation, "a new constellation,"
Whence the idea and who made the flag?
George Canby's work on The Evolution of the
Flag, [Lib 1909] shows
with reasonable conclusiveness that when Washington was in Philadelphia
the Declaration of Independence, he with Robert Morris and George Ross,
of Congress, called at a little upholstering shop in Arch Street. This
was run by
Betsy Ross, whose husband, John Ross, had been killed a short time
in the service of his country. He was the nephew of George Ross, member
who now with Robert Morris brings Washington to one of the most expert
in Philadelphia – and who up to 1827 continued to make flags for the
– a fact which makes it seem all the more probable that she really did
first one, an honor never claimed by anyone else.
In No. 12 is shown the little upholstering shop
Betsy Ross made flags for the U.S. from June, 1776, to 1827 when she
her daughter Clarissa Sidney Wilson, continued to make flags until 1857
moved to Fort Madison, Iowa. So for 81 years flags for the U. S. were
made in this
house now preserved by a patriotic association as a shrine of American
A large proportion of the money to buy the Flag House and maintain it
as a shrine of American liberty in the city of "brotherly love," was
by 10 cent subscriptions. A copy of Weisgerber's famous painting was
given to each
subscriber. The picture is shown in No. 13, in which the painter
agreeably to an
artist's license has reversed the historic fact and instead of showing
ordering the flag to be made, he shows him, with Robert Morris and
inspecting the finished work. The picture of Betsy Ross is built up as
from photographs of her four daughters, there being no actual picture
of her – so
far as known. The event here shown took place between May 22 and June
5, 1776, during
Washington's stay in Philadelphia, about a year before the flag
was not in Philadelphia again until Aug. 2, 1777, almost 2 months after
of June 14th. The event is based on the sworn testimony of the four
Betsy Ross, who had helped her in the work and as before stated
on the business herself after the death of her mother.
As further corroboration, in the Pennsylvania
is an order dated May 29, 1777, "paying Elizabeth Ross fourteen pounds
shillings two pence for making ships colours." lf this payment was as
as usual the chances are the work had been done long before. It is true
colours" might not be stars and stripes, but it is also true that at
there was no reason for making any other than our own Old Glory for
colours." It is also suggested that "ships colours" might have been
state flags but the fact is Pennsylvania had no state flag then and not
9, 1799. So this record in fact does corroborate the Betsy Ross
incident. Use before
official adoption June 11, 1777.
"Old Glory" Jan.
3, 1777 – The Testimony of Washington's Aid
Col. John Trumbull's reputation as an
is worldwide and rests on his FIDELITY to historic FACTS.
As he himself says, "Every minute article of
down to the buttons and spurs, were carefully painted from the
(12) Col. Trumbull was present in command of his Company at Bunker Hill
and he fought
as Washington's aid at Trenton and Princeton, taking active part in the
He is therefore a competent witness. But before giving his testimony as
to the early
use of the stars and stripes, let us show a sample of his accuracy in
In his "Bunker Hill," (Fig. 11) note the Pine
Tree flag opposing the King's colors. Joseph Warren is down just below
the gun of
John Knowlton who is one who had just shot at Pitcairn seen falling
into the arms
of his son under the King's colors. At the extreme right is Sam Salem
who also has shot at Pitcairn. The Americans were particularly incensed
for many things and recently because in stirring a glass of grog with
had said that in that way he would stir the blood of the Yankees. But
attention is called to the flags. (13)
Again in his "Burgoyne," (Fig. 15) the troops
are arranged in accord with historic fact – Gates receiving the
of Burgoyne and returning it in compliment to the bravery of a
vanquished foe, and
all is accurate "to the buttons on the coats."
In his "Yorktown," (Fig. 16) is again the
accuracy of a camera – the French on the left with their flag of white
Americans on the right, Washington at their head and the stars and
him. Between the lines the English marched in new uniforms but with
and drums beating an Old English march – "The World Turned Upside
In the center General Lincoln receives from Gen. O'Hara the sword of
in token of his surrender, and returns it to him in token of
No. 17 (Color Plate) is Trumbull's story of the battle of Princeton,
being a direct
photograph from the original. In his "Bunker Hill," "Burgoyne"
and "Cornwallis," the scenes are everywhere admitted as correct and
of their correctness Congress paid Trumbull $32,000 for them. At Bunker
took an active part, and at Princeton was aid to Washington. Surely
know what flag he was fighting under and he shows "Old Glory" and this
on Jan. 3, 1777. This was six months before its official adoption by
in his "Bunker Hill," he does not show "Old Glory" because it
was not there and he is recording the facts. Why shall we not give his
the same credit for accuracy, so freely accorded his "Bunker Hill" and
other productions? Further, Trumbull is corroborated by another
was in "Trenton" a week before, and also in active command.
of Old Glory Dec. 26, 7776 – Testimony Of A Company Commander
Charles Wilson Peale was a soldier, painter and
He commanded a company at that awful Crossing of the Delaware, Dec. 26,
was actively engaged in the far famed Battle of Trenton. He is presumed
what flag his company carried and therefore a competent witness. His
at Trenton," (Fig. 18) gives his testimony as to the flag used. Here it
secured by direct photograph after long and patient effort. The
painting now protected
by a glass front hangs at the head of the grand stair case in the
Senate wing of
the Capitol at Washington.
This drawing was made in 1779 only two years
event, and many years later Titian R. Peale, his son, said in a letter
both Preble and Canby:-
"I have just had
time to visit the Smithsonian Institute to see the portrait of
by my father, C.W. Peale, after the battle of Trenton. It is marked in
1779. The flag represented is a blue field with white stars arranged in
I don't know THAT I ever heard my father speak of that flag, but the
Washington's feet I know he painted from the flags then captured, and
left with him for the purpose. He was always very particular in matters
record in his pictures; the service sword in that picture is an
instance and probably
caused its acceptance by Congress. . . I have no other authority, but
that the flag was the flag of our army at that time, 1779. My father
company at the battles of Germantown, Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth,
a soldier as well as a painter, and I am sure, represented the flag
then in use,
not a regimental flag, but one to mark the new republic."
Therefore when the stars and stripes received
baptism of blood at Trenton, Dec. 26, 1776, and a week later at
Princeton, one can
easily understand why Congress adopted it on June 14, 1777, in a
resolution of only
thirty words – less than the limit of a day message at ordinary
To sum up, first, the record shows that
his own initiative and authority raised the Cambridge flag of 13
stripes with the
King's colors in its union. Second, though there be no actual record,
yet the weight
of evidence indicates that Washington again on his own INITIATIVE and
ordered the stars and stripes to be made; and that he used the stars
at the battles of Trenton and Princeton and on other occasions, and
in the flag resolution of June 14, 1777, gave official recognition, for
time, to the flag so used and constituted it the flag of the United
each state holding itself to be a "sovereign independent commonwealth"
and in most cases having a flag of its own, a variety of flags
continued to be used,
so that even after peace had been secured in 1783, Congress had the
republished over the signature of its secretary and requested all
papers to copy.
How essentially necessary such re-publication really was is evidenced
by the fact
that the "Board of War" did not know in 1779 a flag had been adopted.
However this is not so strange for even now one Congress often shows
of what a previous Congress had done.
(1) Journal of
American History, Vol 2, p. 235
(2) Vide page 1432, Vol. II Cyclopedia of U. S. History
(3) Vide Evolution of The American Flag, Canby & Baldbrston.
(4) Vide Preble p. 220.
(5) Vide Preble p. 221 showing a cut of the English East India
Company's flag in
1834, with the 13 stripes and the present flag of England in its
(6) Vide Preble p. 193
(7) Vide Canby's Evolution of the American Flag.
(8) Vide Canby's Evolution of the American Flag
(9) Vide Avery Vol. 6, p. 68.
(10) Vide Canby's Evolution of the American Flag
(11) Vide 2d Series Vol. I, page 164
(12) Vide Washington Irving's Washington Vol. IV, p. 327.
(13) Vide Avery's History of the United States Vol. 5.
(To be Continued)
Shake Hands -- [A Poem]
Frederick Leroy Sargent
(The following is a translation of Beranger's
"La Sainte Alliance des
Peuples." The original, written in 1818 to celebrate the evacuation of
territory, is quoted in the Nation of Dec. 23, 1915, for its early use
of the expression
"place in the sun.")
have I seen descending
on the world;
Peace, strewing gold, and flowers, and corn.
The air was calm, War's blood-stained banners furled,
And drowsy, sullen thunders overborne.
Peace said: "O peoples of English, French,
Belgian, Russian, and Germanic lands,
In holy alliance your hatreds quench;
Equals in valor, shake hands!
Mortals, a burden of hate hath wearied you.
Call not vain troubled sleep a victory won!
Portion the limited land, to each his due,
That each can so enjoy his place in the sun.
So long as ye are yoked to the chariot of power,
True happiness afar behind you stands.
Peoples of Europe, sanctify this hour;
Equals in justice, shake hands."
Ernst and Falk
(Translated From the German of G.E. Lessing
By Louis Block, Past Grand
Master of Masons in Iowa)
(Last year Past Grand Master Block translated
two of the five Discourses which make up the famous little Masonic
and Falk," by Lessing. (The Builder, Vol-1, pp. 20, 59). Owing to
and the pressure of business which piled up high during the interlude,
he was unable
to finish the work. Herewith we present the Third Discourse, to
the reader must needs turn back to the first two. As a preface to the
Discourses we gave a brief sketch of Lessing and his work, for a fuller
of whom the reader is referred to a delightful little book on "The Life
Writings of Lessing," by T. W. Rolleston, in the Great Writers series.
it makes scant reference to the Masonic life of Lessing, it is a fine
record of his noble and fruitful life.)
|| You have eluded me all day in the crush of the
company. But I have followed you into your bed room.
|| Had you something so important to tell me? The
day has tired me of ordinary conversation.
|| You mock my curiosity.
|| Your curiosity?
|| Which you this morning knew how to arouse in
such a masterly way.
|| What did we talk about this morning?
|| About the Free-Masons.
|| Well? I surely did not betray their secret in
the rush and whirl?
|| That which you said could not be betrayed?
|| Now I must confess that sets me at rest again.
|| But you did tell me something about the
Freemasons that was unexpected by me, that astonished me, that made me
|| What was that?
|| O, don't torment me! – you certainly remember.
|| Yes it comes back to me by degrees. That was
what made you so absent-minded all day long among your lady and
|| That was it! And I cannot go to sleep unless
you answer me at least one more question.
|| That depends upon what the question may be.
|| How can you prove to me, or at least make it
seem probable, that the Masons really have such great and worthy
|| Did I speak to you about their objects? I did
not know it. On the contrary seeing that you could form no conception
at all of the real activity of the Free-Masons, I simply called your
attention to one matter in which much may yet occur concerning which
the minds of our statesmen have as yet not even dreamed. Perhaps the
Free-Masons are working at that. Or perhaps at – Just to take away your
prejudice that all sites worthy of buildings had already been
discovered and occupied, that all the needed structures had already
been distributed among the workmen required for the task.
|| Turn and twist about now as you will. It is
enough that from your speeches I have now come to think of the
Free-Masons as people who have voluntarily taken it upon themselves to
strive against the inevitable evils of the state.
|| That conception can at least do the Free-Masons
no harm. Stick to it! Only get it right! Mix nothing in it that does
not belong in it! The inevitable evils of the State! – Not this state,
nor that state. Not the inevitable evils, which – a certain
constitution having been once adopted – must necessarily result from
that adopted constitution. With these the Free-Mason never concerns
himself, at least not as a Free-Mason. The alleviation and curing of
these he leaves to the citizen who may deal with them according to his
insight, his courage, and, at his peril. Evils of a far different kind
and of a higher character form the field of his activity.
|| That I have very clearly grasped. – Not the
evils that make discontented citizens but those evils without which
even the most fortunate citizen could not exist.
|| Right! To strive against – how do you put it? –
to strive against these.
|| That is saying a little too much. To work
against them? To do away with them wholly? That cannot be, for along
with them one would at the same time destroy the state itself. They
must not even be suddenly called to the attention of those who have as
yet no intimation of them. At most, to stimulate a perception of them
from afar, to foster its growth, to transplant the young sprout, to
cultivate it and make it blossom – can here be called striving against
these evils. Do you see now why I said, that although the Free-Masons
had long been active that still centuries might pass away without their
being able to say: this have we done?
|| And now I also understand the second feature of
the problem – good deeds which shall make good deeds dispensable.
|| 'Tis well – now go and study those evils and
learn to know them all and weigh their influences one upon the other
and be assured that this study will reveal things to you which in days
of depression will appear to be most disheartening and incomprehensible
exceptions to providence and virtue. This revelation, this
enlightenment will make you peaceful and happy – even without your
being called a Free-Mason.
|| You lay so much stress on this being called.
|| Because one can be something without being
|| That's good! I understand – but to get back to
my question, which I must but clothe in a little different form. Now
that I do know the evils against which Free-Masonry contends –
|| You know them?
|| Did you not name them for me yourself?
|| I named a few as instances. Just a few of those
which are apparent even to the most short-sighted eye, just a few of
the most unquestionable, the most far-reaching. But how many are there
not still remaining which although they are not so clear, so
unquestionable and so all inclusive are never the less no less certain,
none the less inevitable.
|| Then let me confine my question to only those
parts which you have yourself named for me. How can you show me that
the Free-Masons have really given their attention to these? You are
silent? You are thinking it over?
|| Assuredly not over what answer I should make to
this question! – but I do not know what reasons you may have for
putting this question.
|| And you will answer my question if I tell you
the reasons that prompt it?
|| That I promise you.
|| I know and distrust your ingenuity.
|| My ingenuity
|| I feared you might sell me your speculations
|| Much obliged!
|| Does that offend you?
|| Rather must I thank you for calling that
"ingenuity" which you might have called something far different.
|| Certainly not; on the contrary I know how
easily the clever man deceives himself, how easily he suspects and
attributes to other people plans and intentions of which they had never
|| But, upon what does one base his idea of the
plans and intentions of others? Surely upon their own actions alone?
|| Upon what else? And here I come again to my
question – From what single unquestionable act of the Free-Masons may
we conclude that it is but one of Free-Masonry's objects through itself
and in itself to do away with that division and disunion which you have
said states and governments make inevitable among men?
|| And that without detriment to these states and
|| So much the better! It is not even necessary
that there should be actions from which this might be concluded. Just
so long as there are certain peculiarities or oddities which point to
it or arise out of it. You must have begun with some such in making
your supposition, assuming that your system was only hypothetical.
|| Your distrust still shows itself. But I trust
it will disappear when I bring home to your consciousness one of the
fundamental principles of Free-Masonry.
|| And which may that be?
|| One of which they have never made a secret. One
according to which they have always acted before the eyes of the whole
|| And that is?
|| That is to welcome into their order every
worthy man of fitting disposition without regard to his nationality,
his creed, or his social station.
|| Naturally this fundamental principle takes for
granted the existence of men who have risen above such divisions,
rather than those who intend to create them. For nitre must be in the
air before it can deposit itself upon the walls in the form of
|| O, yes!
|| And why should not the Free-Masons here call to
their service the common ruse? That is, to pursue a part of one's
secret objects quite openly in order that Mistrust, which always
suspects something different from what it sees, may be led astray.
|| And why not?
|| Why should not the artist, who can make silver,
deal in old broken silver so as to arouse less suspicion that he could
|| Why not?
|| Ernst! Did you hear me? You answer as in a
dream, I believe.
|| No, friend! But I have enough, enough for
tonight. Early tomorrow morning I return to the city.
|| Already? Why so soon?
|| You know me and ask? How much longer will your
|| I only began it day before yesterday.
|| Then I shall see you again before you finish
it. Farewell! Good-night.
|| Good-night. Farewell!
* * *
By Way of Information
The spark had kindled. Ernst went and became a
What he found there forms the subject of a fourth and fifth discourse
the road divides.
Character is the warp of ancestry and the woof
woven by the power of will on the loom of life.
– J. F. N.
A human being may lack eyes and be none the
character; a human being may lack hands and be none the poorer in
whenever in life a person lacks any great emotion, that person is
poorer in everything.
Allen. A Cathedral Singer.
By Bro. O.D. Street, Alabama
AMONG the modest and
homely virtues taught by Masonry are Patience and Perseverance. It is
Masonry emphasizes the modest and the homely which gives it its
powers. Let us then for a moment consider these two, because, as a
rule, we are
forgetful of the great part they play in the achievements of the human
Our ritual says, "Time,
patience and perseverance accomplish all things." Or to state it
but just as truly, "Without time, patience and perseverance is nothing
that is accomplished."
We stand in the presence
of a great painting or piece of statuary. We are wont to think of it as
in a moment of inspiration from the hands and brain of the artist. We
years of patient study and practice and the seasons of hardships and
the hours of
disappointment which beset him before he could even attempt such a
work. We do not
know of the ruined stones or spoiled canvasses which preceded the
We view a splendid
edifice, designed with wisdom, erected in strength, and adorned with
looks like some super-human mind might have dreamed it into being. But
who can estimate
the hours of toil spent in preparation by the architect who planned it,
who calculated the weight and thrust of its roof and walls, the artist
it, and the masons who built it? We do not see the apparent confusion
which attended its erection, the multitude of discordant sounds, the
moving to and
fro, the humble hod-carrier trudging up and down with brick and mortar
the rubbish and the dirt. We can never know the number of designs on
drawn, redrawn, then destroyed, and drawn again. Some of our greatest
not only years but a whole generation; a few of them, several
We sit beneath the
eloquent words and the musical voice of the orator; it all seems so
easy. We did
not know him when his tongue stammered and his words came ill-chosen
We did not witness the bitter failures, the moments of irresolution,
not to say
despair, the renewed determination and the long struggle that followed.
We read the works of
a great writer. He says things so much like we feel that we would have
ourselves. The thoughts flow so naturally and the conclusions are so
wonder why it had not occurred to us to write this very book. It seems
we are sure we could do it. But let us try it even after we have read
The right word does not come to us, we gradually become conscious that
we use half
a dozen words to express a thought which he expresses better in one.
The order of
our thoughts soon becomes like a defeated army in retreat, baggage,
and cavalry all jumbled together. We throw down the pen in disgust
with the belief that the writer has accomplished this thing through an
of genius. We don't know the number of manuscripts he had rejected at
We do not see him poring over the dictionary and the thesaurus, the
lists of synonyms
and antonyms, seeking for words and noting their nice distinctions of
were sound asleep perhaps when he was burning the "midnight lamp,"
weary, blotting and blurring, interlining and erasing, and finally
burning his manuscripts.
We are dazzled by the
brilliance of the achievements of a great general; his armies disappear
for a time
and then reappear in a most unexpected manner at the most unexpected
places as if
by magic, spreading destruction, confusion, and terror among his
enemies. We can
see so little of how it is done we think surely here is a God-given
power, an inherent
talent which required no training. We would change this opinion if we
see him in the subordinate capacities faithfully, thoroughly, and
discharging his lowly duties, possibly for many years before he was
with responsible command. We forget that he reached his high station by
promotion for being able to do quickly and well a small and humble
of the spotlight of publicity.
In all these instances,
as probably in all others if we only knew the whole truth, it is time,
and perseverance that has wrought such great results. It has required
a life-time; sometimes several life-times. First there was preparation,
next failure, then renewed effort, finally success.
The years of preparation
demanded Patience; most persons cannot endure this apparent waste of
are impatient to try their luck in a profession or in business. We are
of the indolent; we are speaking of those filled with zeal and a
They rush in without preparation or only half prepared. The majority
fail and retire
from the race; they merely struggle for existence the rest of their
lives. If some
seem to succeed in a measure, rest assured their success is much less
than it might
have been with proper preparation.
Some have the Patience
necessary to get them through the preparatory stage. With high hopes
prospects they enter life feeling that they cannot fail. In an evil
overtakes them and failure results. The majority never rise from this
to try again; they lack Perseverance.
The few, however, learn
from the past; nothing daunted, they rally for another effort. As often
they try again. One with this full measure of Perseverance is sure to
life only holds out. And if life fails he succeeds nevertheless; thus
fears and doubts of the future is a great moral victory for which
reward will come
in the next, if not in this life.
Patience, which waits
for results, and Perseverance, which unceasingly strives to produce
in unison cannot ultimately fail.
What a volume of truth,
we exclaim, in these few simple, familiar words of our ritual! Could
the young initiate
only grasp this truth fully before it is too late, it would be worth to
fold all the time, effort, and money bestowed by him upon the
I am the Supreme Architect
in the City of Life. Human hearts are the sites whereon I build noble,
I am the symbol of
sovereignty; yet multitudes find me a commoner. The handgrasp expresses
of my nature. Love, charity, gentleness of word, kindness – these are
Through altruistic relationships, pity for the distressed, unwavering
every human crisis, I speak to those who know me not.
I am often disguised
in the co-operation which causes fraternal ties of fellowship. My
for the interests of everyone identifies me a universal benefactor.
I teach individuals
to act in terms of mutual concession, generous judgment, and
I unlock the sacred portals of the lodge room and reign therein with
The marts of competitive trade court my superiority. I am a master
people assemble to foster higher principles. I acknowledge that service
is the measure
of greatness and that through me men become sublime in helpfulness.
I am the message bearer
of good will; the courier who relays the Gospel of Brotherhood; the
in every enterprise which champions man-to-man ennoblement and makes
neighborly. Great men unconsciously write my biography –
I AM FRATERNITY.
Louis Varnum Woulfe.
Imprisoned -- [A Poem]
Within my heart some hopes there are,
Like captive birds, that flit and sing, –
Yet beat against their prison walls,
And long to mount on loftier wing.
I dare not set the door ajar,
For well I know if once they fled,
My heart an empty cage would be,
And all life's music, hushed and dead.
Song of the Builders -- [A Poem]
"War Rhymes and Peace Poems,"
By Frank Adams Mitchell
As the first faint flush of the morning glow
Falls full on a sleeping world;
While the curtain of night is lifted slow,
And the banner of stars is furled;
The morning march of the builder band
Regins as the sun waves its silver wand.
Sturdy and strong, they march along
To the step of the Builder's morning song.
We shoulder our tools and march away,
And fill our lungs with the fresh, new day;
To the hammer's ring, our song we sing,
For the joy of work is a glorious thing.
So merrily ho! for every blow
Of the Builder's arm makes the city grow.
"Five Souls" -- [A Poem]
Jenkin Lloyd Jones
Perhaps the most searching
poem of the war is one entitled "Five Souls," written by an obscure
clerk heretofore unknown in the realm of letters. In this poem the
spirits of a
Pole, an Austrian, a Tyrolese, a Frenchman, a native of Lorraine, and a
having been torn from their bodies on battle fields, chant us back the
I gave my life for freedom – this I know:
For those who bade me fight had told me so.
The Fuller sisters
of England, now singing in America, have adapted these lines to an
movement from Beethoven. In a quiet midnight after listening to the
song there came
to me an additional stanza, a chorus of the "Five Souls," after they
touched by the higher knowledge which has reached them in "the house
with hands, eternal in the heavens."
On God's eternal hills we now do mourn;
Our broken homes with wives and children dear.
That we were brothers then, as now, 'tis clear.
For war is hate and leaves the world forlorn.
We lost our lives through error, now we know:
For love supernal, it doth teach us so.
The Meaning of Initiation
By Bro. Frank C. Higgins,
(More than once we have called attention,
and otherwise, to the admirable work of Brother Frank C. Higgins, of
Society, New York, in his department of Masonic Research in the Masonic
At first it began as a column of inquiry and answer dealing with the
of the meaning of Masonry, but it grew, most happily, into a series of
studies, or lessons – Masonry, as Brother Higgins conceives it, being
among us, albeit little understood, of the ancient philosophy of Cosmic
which, among the Hebrews, traced everything to the great Jehovah; at
once a religious
and a scientific pursuit, conducted along mathematical, geometrical and
lines. In this field Brother Higgins is a master, and comes nearer than
With whose work we are acquainted, making the treasures of that rich
culture intelligible to the average reader. In order to call attention
his researches, and also to express the hope that they may be gathered
form, we venture to reproduce two brief sections of his series of
with the meaning of initiation. This Society keeps an open and
toward all its fellow-workers, glad and grateful for anyone who toils
to make our
great and many-sided Masonry more intelligible and effective. – The
In all ancient rites and mysteries the
in which were received by initiation, the greatest care was always
respect to certain details, which if not properly carried out might mar
the entire ceremony.
The true significance of all initiation has
that of a spiritual rebirth. The sacred Agrouchada of the Hindus says,
first birth is merely the advent into material life; the second birth
is the entrance
to a spiritual life."
The newly initiated into the first degree of
was called douidja, which means "twice born." The very word initiate
that the candidate is at least symbolically in the same situation as if
he had had
no previous existence. He is to be ushered into an altogether new world.
In ancient initiations the extremity of
expressed by the rent garments of contrition for past offenses in the
to be blotted out, the bosom offered to the executinner's sword, and
of a captive.
Preparing the Candidate
The most curious custom perhaps had to do with
might be termed the complete preparation of the candidate against the
that had affected his previous career. During the multitude of
centuries in the
course of which astrology was thought to play the strongest part in
every circumstance affecting the welfare of humanity was deemed to have
in one or another of the planets, or perhaps in a lucky or evil
combination of several.
The science of medicine rose entirely from this curious belief in
The ancient physician diagnosed his patient's malady according to the
under the latter's unlucky stars and tried to cure it by application of
designated as governed by those planets favorable to him. The same idea
the individual with reference to articles carried upon his person. The
carried various charms and amulets intended to draw favorable planetary
to his aid, and was just as careful to avoid substance that might
produce a contrary
In the ordering of the candidate for initiation
the ancient mysteries this belief played an important part. The
carry upon his person nothing that would invite the attention of occult
powers through the mysterious tie that bound them to terrestrial
The lists of plants, flowers, minerals, metals,
other things that were subject to these mysterious influences were long
Gold linked him with the sun which incited to the besetting sin of
pride; silver drew upon him the fickle qualities of the moon; copper,
Venus, provoked lust, and iron, the metal of Mars, quarrelsomeness;
and oppression, the qualities of Jupiter; lead, sloth and indolence,
Saturn; while mercury or quicksilver was responsible for dishonesty and
Therefore a key or a coin, and above all a sword, was likely to bring
upon the whole mysterious operation of regeneration.
Above all were enjoined upon the candidate the
sacred virtues, which by the Jain sects in India are still called "the
jewels," represented by three circles, "right belief," "right
knowledge," and "right conduct." In order to reach the spiritual
plane, in which the soul is entirely freed from the bonds of matter,
the chief necessities, and the person who clung to them would certainly
until he reached the state of liberation.
Three Regular Steps
To the ancient candidate were also recommended
three successive steps which open the soul to free and unobstructed
communication on both the psychic and the spiritual planes." The first
to still the ego and empty the mind of every bias and standard of self
The second consisted, when this passive state had been induced, in
fixing and holding
the attention upon the specific object about which the truth was
Thirdly, the foregoing two steps having been
the individual was to stand firmly and persistently in the receptive
attitude for the immediate revelation of the truth, in the full
expectation of getting
it. This receptive state and expectant attitude opened the
consciousness to "the
psychic vibrations that write unerringly their story on the receptive
Whom Does The Candidate
Within the simple and easily formulated problem
in the heading is contained the sublimest of all secrets, which various
of the higher
degrees have sought to answer, each in its own way. It involves the
of all the symbolic degrees to the initiate himself, without which they
are as empty
In all the ancient mysteries a character was
by the candidate, and as the candidates were any and the character
the same, it must have represented something essentially common to all
the precise similarity of the experiences to which each individual
subjected argued the identical lesson in all cases.
Examination of all available detail, especially
sacred writings of many races, confirms us in the conviction that this
character was but an allegorical representation of the ego or "self,"
engaged in the warfare of which it has been said that the victor is
he who taketh a city" and emerging a conqueror in the very instant of
defeat. We receive our earliest concrete presentation of such a
character in the
celebrated document known as the Egyptian Book of the Dead, the Bible
of the builders
of the Pyramids, fragments of which are found wrapped in the cloths of
The Pilgrim Soul
The Book of the Dead presents the wanderings of
soul through the underworld to the council of the gods, who were to
listen to its
accusers, give heed to its defenders, and finally weigh its accumulated
in the scales against the feather symbol of "truth." The name of this
character is given as Ani the Scribe. [Lib 1913, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] It finally transpired
that this name was equivalent to the Latin term ego, meaning the "I Am"
or "self" in man. This leads to what was perhaps the greatest and most
important of all secret teachings of the ancient world, one that has
become so obscured
by the confusion of its many dramatic representations with real
– that most clear and careful labor is required to trace the main ideas
to age and people to people, in order to show that they are
exactly the same.
There is no difficulty whatever in recognizing
principle in every man as being an actual spark of the infinite
precipitated into material existence, through the labyrinth of which it
to strive in ceaseless search for the Master's Word, the secret of its
immortal destiny. If this idea of the struggle of a divine and immortal
down with the burden of matter and assailed at every turn by foes that
the continual transformations of matter from "life" to "death"
and "death" to "life," be taken as the vital principle of every
drama of regeneration, from the "Book of the Dead" to John Bunyan's
Progress," [Lib 1885] we too
shall have progressed a long way upon the road to understanding that of
The Pilot Star
The beautiful star that is the chief emblem of
Arch degree, besides being the sacred symbol of Israel, has had no
during the thousands of years from the most ancient Brahmanism to the
today. Even when called "the United Seal of Vishnu and Siva," the
and the "Mortal," or "Fire" the symbol of Spirit, and "Water"
the symbol of Matter, it represented the same idea, that of the "Self
the Perfect Man, who had learned the subjugation of human passions and
in attitude toward God and fellow man. Thus the up-pointing triangle
stood for the
ascent of matter into spirit which is typified by the phrase
of the body," and the down-pointing triangle the descent of spirit into
and the complete star represents the immortal being fitted to dwell in
house not built with hands, eternal in the heavens."
What Did You Do? -- [A Poem]
Bro. J. W. Foley, P.G.M., North
you give him a
lift? He's a brother of man,
And bearing about all the burden he can.
Did you give him a smile? He was downcast and blue,
And the smile would have helped him to battle it through.
Did you give him your hand? He was slipping downhill,
And the world, so I fancied, was using him ill.
Did you give him a word? Did you show him the road.
Or did you just let him go on with his load?
Did you help him along? He's a sinner like you,
But the grasp of your hand might have carried him through.
Did you give him good cheer? Just a word and a smile
Were what he most needed that last weary mile.
Do you know what he bore in that burden of cares
That is every man's load and that sympathy shares?
Did you try to find out what he needed from you,
Or did you just leave him to battle it through?
Do you know what it means to be losing the fight,
When a lift just in time might set everything right?
Do you know what it means – just the clasp of a hand,
When a man's borne about all a man ought to stand?
Did you ask what it was – why the quivering lip,
And the glistening tears down the pale cheeks that slip?
Were you brother of his when the time came to be?
Did you offer to help him or didn't you see?
Don't you know it's the part of a brother of man,
To find what the grief is and help when you can?
Did you stop when he asked you to give him a lift,
Or were you so busy you left him to shift?
Oh, I know what you meant – what you say may be true –
But the test of your manhood is, What did you DO?
Did you reach out a hand? Did you find him the road,
Or did you just let him go by with his load?
Lodge Furnishings and Degrees
By Bro. H.R. Evans, Lit.
D. 33d Hon., Washington, D.C.
"We 'ad'nt good
regalia and our Lodge was old and bare,
But we knew the Ancient Landmarks, and we kept 'em to a hair."
Lodge. [Lib 1907, p 318/332]
MAN is first made a Mason in his heart, after
Lodge takes hold of him and does the rest. In Rudyard Kipling's Mother
was no regalia to speak of and the room was old and bare, but good work
because the members knew the ancient landmarks and observed them in the
well as the letter of the law. I have seen the degrees of Craft Masonry
an old barn, a box for an altar, with three sputtering tallow candles
stuck in cleft
sticks doing duty for the three lesser lights. And yet, the ritual of
was impressively presented. The glorious creations of Master Will
intellect were acted in barn-like structures, without curtain or
scenery, but the
Elizabethan audiences were not critical; imagination supplied what was
dramatic mise-en-scène. Perhaps it is well not to rely too much on
lest you dull the imagination of the spectator. There is a new school
artists – Russian and German – that paints broadly and
a palace, for example, by a column or two, or a doorway heavily
Too great attention to scenic detail does distract the attention from
to the scenery. You often hear people say, when speaking of some
"O the scenery was wonderful; such magnificence, such realism!" Never
a word about the participants in the play. They might as well have been
pulled by strings. Now I believe that a happy medium can be struck
between an overplus
of scenery and a woeful lack of the same; likewise with the costumes of
The Masonic degrees, from Entered Apprentice to Sublime Prince of the
(32d) are dramas, and should be so regarded by Masons. They should be
and presented with appropriate scenic effects, if the lodge funds
permit. But a
happy limit should be reached in this regard, lest the imagination be
tendency in the West has been to make a theatre of the Scottish Rite
I have had the pleasure of witnessing some very fine degrees in the
where everything was elaborately staged, the Brethren being seated in
and galleries just like people at a show. I do not desire to be
the effect on me has been peculiar. I have always felt that I was not
in a Masonic
Temple but in a theatre; that I was not a part of the affair but a mere
In a Blue Lodge I never had this feeling, because there was no stage,
was done on the floor; I was an actual participant in the degree. I
that I prefer floor work, and yet there are some degrees of the
Scottish Rite that
appear better on a stage than on the floor of the Cathedral. Perhaps a
of floor and stage is the solution of the problem. In out-door scenes
is the thing. It certainly requires a plethora of imagination to
conjure up a rock-bound
sea coast in a carpeted and well-upholstered lodge. But for interior
lodge room should suffice and the act consummated therein. I do not
think that the
spectators – the class, for instance – should occupy the entire floor
space of the
lodge. That space should be reserved for the actors in the Masonic
drama. I have
seen the 31d of the Rite worked both on the stage and on the floor, and
ago come to the conclusion that the floor is the proper place to
present it. When
acted on the lodge floor, it comes home to you in a wonderfully
You feel that you are indeed that poor mummy from Memphis at the Court
of the Divine
Osiris. The imagination is stirred to its very depths. But in an
presentation the imagination has nothing to work on; does not
participate in the
scene, as it were. It all seems unreal, the mere shadow of a shade,
when the curtain closes in.
In Mobile, Alabama, the 31d is regarded
as a floor degree, and some remarkable effects of a spectacular nature
that are awe-inspiring, very simple means being utilized to bring them
fact, the Consistory of Mobile has no stage, does not believe in one,
and yet puts
on all the degrees of the Rite in a manner most impressive. Several of
cathedrals of the Scottish Rite in the Southwest have followed the
In Brother Rosenbaum's jurisdiction, at Little
Ark., the stage is the thing to catch the conscience of the – I was
going to say
"king," to complete the Shakespearean quotation, but will change it to
"Brethren." I do not believe there is a consistory in the United States
where the Scottish Rite degrees are so splendidly presented as in
Little Rock, the
old home of Albert Pike. If the shade of Pike ever visits this earth,
it must rejoice
in the degrees as presented by the Brethren in Arkansas. Brother
Rosenbaum is a
past master of mise-en-scène. No one who has witnessed the rendition of
degree, at Little Rock, will ever forget it. But after all is said, I
work; the more the better. It is only the personal preference of one
and I do not consider myself an expert in things dramatic. I always
want to feel
that I am an integral part of the Masonic drama, and not a mere
I do in the Blue Lodge, but not always in the Scottish Rite Cathedral.
But as I
said before, the happy medium is perhaps the stage and floor.
With this idea in view, how should the room be
I should say, first of all, that the apartment where the degrees are
be fashioned after an ancient temple – partly Jewish, partly Egyptian
Temple partook of both features. The ceiling might be painted to
represent the zodiac.
The principal symbols of the Rite should be painted upon medallions
around the walls,
or upon the proscenium arch. This would do away with the use of a
lantern. The stage
of course should be equipped for the presentation of all out-door
scenes, with the
proper lighting effects. The Masonic altar should never be on the
stage, but in
its regular place in the lodge room. It should, however, be portable,
so as to clear
the room of all furniture when big floor work was required. There
should be no opera-chairs
on the main floor. The furniture should correspond with the
architecture of the
room. Robes of blue, brown, black, etc., might be provided for all
on the main floor as spectators. It would give a bit of realism to the
believe this is done in some jurisdictions, and consider it very
I can anticipate one criticism from the
my views, namely: If you fashion the auditorium after an Oriental
does the Templar idea come in? The Scottish Rite is built upon the
of Freemasonry. The room should represent a gothic chamber in keeping
with the meeting
place of Knights Templars – those who went to protect pilgrims to the
and came back from the Orient imbued with the esoteric philosophy of
the East; the
secret enemies of the Roman hierarchy. Well, perhaps, the criticism is
but as there are more Oriental degrees worked in the Rite than any
other, it comes
expedient to build the auditorium after the ancient temple type of
As regards the architecture of a Scottish Rite
I rejoice in the building of the Consistory at Meridian, Mississippi, a
of which is contained in the New Age Magazine, for July, 1915. It is an
Temple, so modernized as to admit light into its rooms without
destroying that weird
effect peculiar to this style of architecture. I consider it a little
gem. But here,
the carping critic will insinuate: "Why Egyptian? – and not Gothic? It
cathedral, don't you know!" Well, Mr. Critic, I throw up the sponge! If
want to pin me down to a mere technicality, I have nothing more to say.
Egyptian temple for mine – with its mysterious sphinxes flanking the
painted pillars with lotus capitals, its –! I might expatiate forever
on this theme
without satisfying anybody except myself. Cathedral let it be, if you
Gothic to the Egyptian type, and are a stickler for mere words. I have
degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite worked in all kinds
and in all kinds of ways; but I shall never forget the Rose Croix
degree at Little
Rock; the 31d at St. Louis (I have never seen the Mobile presentation);
at Wichita; the 15d in my own beloved Consistory at Washington, D. C.;
and the Master
Mason's degree, at Guthrie. Gentlemen, I thank you!
The Trowel -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Rob Morris
at presentation of trowel to candidate)
Within the Walls, need mortar yet –
A cement mixed with ancient skill,
And tempered at the Builder's will:
With this each crevice is concealed –
Each flaw and crack securely sealed, –
And all the blocks within their place
United in one perfect mass!
For this the Trowel's use is given, –
It makes the work secure and even;
Secure, that storms may not displace,
Even, that Beauty's lines may grace;
It is the proof of Mason's art
Rightly to do the Trowel's part!
The rest is all reduced to rule,
But this must come from God's own school!
We build the "House not made with hands;"
Our Master, from Celestial lands,
Points out the plan, the blocks, the place,
And bids us build in strength and grace:
From quarries' store we choose the rock,
We shape and smooth the perfect block,
And placing it upon the wall,
Humbly the Master's blessing call.
But there is yet a work undone, –
To fix the true and polished stone!
The Master's blessings will not fall
Upon a loose, disjointed wall;
Exposed to ravages of time,
It cannot have the mark sublime
That age and honor did bestow
Upon the FANE on sion's brow.
Brothers, true Builders of the soul,
Would you become one perfect whole,
That all the blasts which time can move
Shall only strengthen you in love?
Would you, as Life's swift sands shall run,
Build up the Temple here begun,
That Death's worst onset it may brave,
And you eternal wages have?
Then fix in love's cement the heart!
Study and act the Trowel's part.
Strive in the Compass' span to live,
And mutual concessions give!
Daily your prayers and alms bestow,
As yonder light doth clearly show,
And walking by the Plummet just,
In God your hope, in God your trust.
The Rites of Freemasonry
By Bro. J.L. Carson, Virginia
MASONIC students are prepared to accept the
at one time and another there have been over one hundred Rites, and at
hundred Degrees or grades connected directly and indirectly with
of these were, of course, quasi-Masonic, their names and origins being
unknown, and their history if it was known would be worthless except so
far as it
might interest the Masonic antiquarian. If it were possible to list all
and unknown rites and degrees, they would fill quite a large volume,
and after all
serve no good purpose as many, indeed most of them, were the outcome of
if not worse.
To the Brethren who have only recently joined
the following short resume of the more important of the Masonic Rites
may be interesting
and perhaps instructive. If it proves to be so, then the object of this
have been accomplished.
Our newly raised Brother seeking for Masonic
naturally asks us what is a Rite? How many degrees make a Rite? To what
I belong or do I belong to any? All perfectly natural questions, and
worthy of our
A Rite in Freemasonry is a collection of grades
always founded on the First three, the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow
the Master Mason. All the various Rites except the York and English
their systems with the Fourth degree, some claiming as many as
I will try and give our inquiring Brother a few
about the best known of these Rites, so that he may recognize which of
them he already
belongs to, and decide which Rite will be most acceptable to the
in which he resides, and govern himself accordingly.
The York Rite
was the oldest and first established Masonic
of the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason degrees. When
dismembered or disrupted the third degree about 1770, he destroyed the
of this Rite, and as that portion he took from it has never been
Rite therefore does not now exist. It never had any connection with the
of all England, or the York Grand Lodge as it was called, but
represented the working
of the Premier Grand Lodge established or revived in 1717, and for
fifty years after
Why this Rite got the name of York who can
was and is an unmeaning term, but the name has been so generally used
by those in
high places, it is no wonder the young craftsman gets confused.
The English Rite,
as laid down in the Articles of the Union in
as follows: "It is declared and pronounced that pure ancient Masonry
of three degrees, and no more, viz: those of the Entered Apprentice,
Craft, and the Master Mason, including the Supreme Order of the Holy
But this article is not intended to prevent any Lodge or Chapter from
meeting in any of the degrees of the Orders of Chivalry, according to
of the said orders." Thus the English Rite rests upon the three
but makes the Royal Arch the completion of the Masonic edifice.
The Irish Rite
If the Irish had a "boat of their own at the
of the flood" they could not rest without a Masonic Rite of their own,
they have, – to my mind it is the most complete, useful and best
in existence today. Like all other Rites it is based on the First Three
followed by the Past Master, Mark Master, Royal Arch, and Knight
Templar, and all
these various degrees stand for. These degrees must be taken in the
before the Prince Masons degree is conferred; this brings us into the
Accepted Scottish Rite at the 18d, followed by the Knight of the Sun
K. H. 30d, Commanders Inquisitors Grand Inspectors 31d, Prince of the
32d, Supreme Council 33d. There are less than four hundred Prince
Masons 18d in
Ireland; The one Council of the 28d is limited to thirty-five
The College of Philosophical Masons 30d consists of thirty subscribing
The Tribunal of the 31d is limited to twenty-one; and the Consistory
have over sixteen members in addition to the nine members of the
The American Rite
or York Rite as it is commonly though
is peculiar to the United states of America, and the term American Rite
applicable. It confers under the Royal Arch Chapter the Mark Master 4d,
5d, Most Excellent Master 6d, Holy Royal Arch 7d. The Council takes
care of Royal
Master 8d, Select Master 9d, Super Excellent Master 10d, while the
Knight Red Cross
11d, Knight Templar 12d, and Knight of Malta 13d are taken care of by
The Ancient and Accepted
A brother in good standing in his Blue Lodge
to take the degrees of this rite, which does not of course include any
of the degrees
of the American Rite, and is administered by bodies of the Thirty Third
called Supreme Councils. This Rite is today more widely extended than
all the others
put together, no other Rite being worked to any very great extent the
Canada, Great Britain, the Latin countries of Europe and South America.
takes care of the degrees from the 4d to 14d in Lodges of Perfection.
15d to 18d
in Chapters of Rose Croix. 19d to 30d in Councils of Knights K. H. 31d
and 32d in
Consistories of M. R. S. and 33d Supreme Council, of which there are
but two in
the United States.
This Rite came to us from Europe between the
and 1801, as the origin of the Rite is a subject of much controversy.
We will "nick
it at that" as a good old Brother used to say when he wanted an
in the Lodge. The word "Scottish" the name of this Rite is a misnomer,
as none of the degrees ever originated in the "Land O Bibles Kirks and
It is claimed, however, that amongst its founders were Scotch exiles in
followers of the Pretender, who introduced the word Scottish in order
to make the
degrees more attractive and acceptable to the Jacobite party resident
Our aspiring Brother will take notice that the
of the various Rites are not interchangeable, when he has taken all the
of the American Rite he is no further on his way to the 33d; if he
elected to take
the degrees of the A. & A. S. R. first, he would still have to
come back to
the American Rite to reach the Commandery.
The Rite of Memphis
"The Egyptian Masonic Rite of Memphis" or
the "Ancient Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry" is to be found working in
States. It claims to be international, educational, and practical, its
exerted on behalf of Freedom, Equality, and Brotherhood. It was revived
as the Rite of Memphis in 1814, and introduced into this country by M.
in 1856. It consists of ninety-six degrees, the 96d being called the
Magi. In 1852 its Lodges were closed in France, in 1862 they were
the Grand Orient and revived. Most of its Lodges, however, abandoned it
the Modern French Rite. It gets its name from the Legend that an
Egyptian Sage Ormus,
converted in A.D. 46, introduced the secrets of the Egyptian Mysteries
claiming that these secrets are incorporated in the degrees of the Rite.
The Rite of Mizram
This Rite has a grand body of its own in
was founded in Milan 1805, and introduced into France in 1814. Its
are divided into Seventeen classes. It once had, and may yet have, a
in America with a small following; its teachings and Masonry cannot be
appreciated. Over one hundred years ago this rite was popular in Great
particularly in Ireland, but it is unknown there now.
The Ancient and Primitive
Was brought to France by S. Honis in 1814.
into America 1856, and to England from America 1873. Its degrees were
ninety-five to thirty three in 1865, when an effort was made to
popularize it. It
was practically a revival of the Rite of Memphis, and has a small
following in England
and Scotland where the late Brother John Yarker was the head and
The French Rite
or Modern French Rite founded in 1786 by the
of France, has seven degrees, 4d Elect, 5d Scotch Master, 6d Knight of
7d Rose Croix. It is largely practiced in France and Brazil. It was
in the state of Louisiana more or less extensively.
The Ancient Reformed Rite
Established in 1783 is still practiced by the
Lodge of Holland, and the Grand Orient of Sweden.
The Rite of Perfection
had twenty-five degrees and was established by
in 1754. It was also known as the "Chapter of Clermont," so named after
a Jesuit College in France where a lot of political scheming was
carried on in the
Stuart Cause – this rite was pretty closely identified with the Ancient
Scottish Rite in its earliest days.
The Rite of Ramsey
or the Rite de Bullion consists of six degrees
founded about 1728 or later, by Chevalier Michael Andrew Ramsey, a
of great ability, culture and travel. With other wearers of the "White
he was exiled in France, and if all said of him be true, and as Paddy
half of the lies told of him were not true," the word "Scottish"
in most of the higher grades might be laid at his footstool, as well as
half a dozen
Rites and half a hundred degrees.
Time -- [A Poem]
Arthur B. Rugg, Minn.
old clock stands
on the mantle shelf
Clicking the seconds with measured stroke
And as we listen it sounds to oneself
As clear as if another one spoke,
Pointing the hours with steady hands
And a forward move at every beat,
It measures this changing life of man's
As that one refrain we hear it repeat,
Through all the days of our sorrow and mirth
Time swings along with its measuring tread
And though we live long on the face of the earth
Why ever wish back the years that have fled.
Time weakens our form and lays it aside
Regardless of what we have or desire;
There's nothing in time that will ever abide,
But this we have left to make us aspire,
The Early Days – History
By Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
G. M., Massachusetts
The article by Brother Mazyck of South Carolina
March Builder calls for reply mainly because of the prominence which
gave it. He avers that there is naught but tradition to rely upon that
any Grand Lodge in Massachusetts prior to 1750 when our contemporaneous
begin. He asserts "unhesitatingly … that Solomon's Lodge No. 1, of
S.C., is the oldest Masonic body in the Western Hemisphere, the Record
establishment is absolutely unassailable." He rests this
an article in the South Carolina Gazette, Number 144, published October
containing an account of a Lodge meeting the night before.
I do not intend to weary your readers with an
as to the position of Massachusetts. Those who are interested will
the printed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for 1914,
to 288 inclusive, where may be found citations of authority for every
made in my series of articles last year in The Builder upon The
Early Days of Masonry in America.
Now to demolish Bro. Mazyck's "unassailable"
position with one shot. For the present purpose let us grant (though it
is not the
case) that a newspaper article is the best evidence; better than
original documents, contemporaneous letters, or inscriptions upon
If Bro. Mazyck wants a newspaper article here it is for him.
The Boston Gazette, No. 743, published April 1,
(copies of which may be found in the Boston Public Library, and in the
Library), contains the following item, viz:
"On Friday evening
last at Mr, Lutwytche's long Room in King Street was held a Grand Lodge
of the Ancient
and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons, where His Excellency
Belcher and a Considerable Number of the Fraternity were present."
This is two years and nearly six months earlier
the article quoted from the South Carolina Gazette. Bro. Mazyck's reply
awaited with interest.
Having given publicity to certain gross charges
you cannot in fairness fail to allow a brief further comment. To the
in Bro. Mazyck's article that the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts has
the tombstone of Henry Price, now in the Boston Temple, we respectfully
opposite page 285 in the Proceedings of our Grand Lodge for 1871, will
a photograph of that tombstone as it formerly stood on the Price lot in
in Townsend, Mass. On page 53 of our Proceedings for 1857, you will
find the statement
of the then Grand Master M. W. John T. Heard, that on September 29,
1857, he visited
the graveyard, saw the gravestone with its familiar epitaph, and
that a monument be erected to take its place. A full account of this
a copy of the inscription upon the gravestone, will be found in volume
XVII of Moore's
Freemason's Magazine, page 11, published in 1857. Then by turning to
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for June 21, 1888, (pages 82 to
101), will be
found an account of the dedication of the new monument. In those
in the Commemorative Service of June 26, 1888, (pages 102 to 179
be found all the details covering the removal of the old gravestone to
in Boston. Then will be seen, to use our Brother's own language, "just
or when it was removed from the cemetery."
To the innuendoes that Grand Secretary Pelham
the copy of the Henry Price Commission of 1733 which opens the volume
of our Grand
Lodge records; that Provincial Grand Master Price deliberately
falsified when he
made, over his own signature, the statement that he had been appointed
Grand Master in 1733 and had founded his Grand Lodge on July 30th of
that the Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Secretary, and
Warden, and Junior Warden of the First Lodge in Boston, also told what
false when on September 1, 1736, they wrote the Lodge Glasgow
Kilwinning that the
First Lodge in Boston had been Constituted by Right Worshipful Brother
Provincial Grand Master, in 1733; and that all other similar things are
guesswork, and tradition, we beg to reply that if Bro. Mazyck will
kindly come to
the Grand Master's office in the Temple in Boston, we will show him a
copy of Henry
Price's Commission, made in the handwriting of Francis Beteilhe who was
of the First Lodge in Boston at least as early as 1736, and who was the
partner of Henry Price. We shall be glad also to show him, in the
Bro. Beteilhe, hitherto unpublished memoranda, among them being a
record of the
"By-Laws or Regulations," dated "O'ber 24th, 1733," and amendments
thereto dated March 12, 1734, et seq. These came into the possession of
Lodge on March 8, 1916.
We shall also be glad to show an entry in the
of Brother Berteilhe, Grand Secretary, following his account of the
of the Festival of St. John the Evangelist, Dec. 27th, 1735, reading as
– "About this time sundry Brethren going to South Carolina met with
in Charlestown who thereupon went to work, from which sprung Masonry in
This may, to say the least, explain how it was that there happened to
be a Lodge
in Charleston, S.C., to form a public procession in the Fall of 1736.
It is about time that slanderous and scandalous
by way of insinuation and innuendo should cease, particularly in a
No one should complain of fair and square arguments straight from the
whether given or taken. Any member of the Fraternity should be ready to
error. No Masonic historian should make use of unfounded insinuations
In my articles in The Builder, the statement
that on Saint John the Baptist's Day in 1737, in Boston, occurred the
procession of the Fraternity in America, Governor Belcher being in the
statement was made upon authority of the Boston Gazette, No. 911,
27, 1737. The entire article reads as follows:
"Friday last being
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, the annual Meeting of the Free and
they accordingly met. The right worshipful Mr. Robert Thomlinson, G.
and appointed his grand Officers for the Year ensuing, viz: Mr. Hugh
Mr. Thomas Moffatt (Doctor of Medicines) S.G.W., Mr. John Osborne,
J.G.W., Mr. Benjamin
Hallowell, G.T., Mr. Francis Beteillie, G.S., after which the Society
G.M. in Procession to his Excellency Governor Belcher, & from
thence the Governor
was attended by the G.M. and the Brotherhood to the Royal Exchange
Tavern in King-Street,
where they had an elegant Entertainment. It being the first Procession
they appeared in the proper Badges of their Order, some Gold, the rest
Procession was closed by the Grand Wardens."
Practically the same statement was made by the
James Evening Post, published in London, August 20, 1737.
Bro. Mazyck quotes a paragraph from the South
Gazette published May 28, 1737, to the effect that on the Thursday
the Fraternity "came to the Play House about 7 o'clock, in the usual
and made a very decent and solemn Appearance."
This was a month earlier than the procession in
I have no doubt that his quotation is correct and is true. I gladly
admit that there
was a procession of Masons (though not of a Lodge or Grand Lodge, as
such) in Charleston,
South Carolina, earlier than any other known procession of Masons in
Saint James Evening Post and the Boston Gazette to the contrary
It, however, is by no means clear that the Masons in South Carolina
went to the
theatre clothed in aprons or badges or other regalia. There is nothing
in the South
Carolina Gazette from which we are authorized definitely to conclude,
or even justifiably
to infer, that regalia was worn. Had it been worn, the regalia would,
at that day, have caused comment as it did in the Boston and London
it is natural that the Fraternity should appear in full regalia when
the Grand Lodge
turned out to escort their Brother, the Governor, to the celebration of
of St. John the Baptist. It is not expected, nowadays at least, to see
march through the public streets in full regalia to attend the theatre.
rather seem that "the usual manner" meant no more than in procession,
perhaps left in front, as many of our Lodges attend divine service, in
not in regalia. While, therefore we may gladly accord the earliest
procession of Masons to South Carolina, it is open to us still to
suggest that they
went to a theatre merely as members, in a procession, and not
officially as an open
Lodge. That being true, the Boston Gazette and the London Post of 1737
recorded the first procession in America of Masons congregated as a
Brother Mazyck, before giving us his newspaper
says that I "thresh the old straw with great energy." Unfortunately
has to be done for the sake of truth, when Brethren now and then
present such "absolutely unimpeachable," "incontestable,"
arguments "far removed from any possibility of doubt and utterly beyond
We have to dispose of such claims one by one as
Up to date many have been heralded as equally
and all have proven equally fallible. Under the light of examination
they have all
lost their solidity like ice under the sun of a Spring noon.
We have had to meet the Rhode Island
document" of 1656 or 1658, which the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island
father and which, in fact, never existed.
We have had to meet the "John Moore letter"
of 1715 which, likewise, never existed.
We have had to meet the Daniel Coxe claim of
it is now universally admitted that he never exercised his deputation.
We have had to meet the apocryphal "Liber A"
claim from Pennsylvania; although if there ever was a "Liber A," no one
pretends it will if found prove anything which Massachusetts does not
more than does "Liber B.")
We have had to meet the "Henry Bell letter"
claim of 1730; although that claim was simply a fraud as Pennsylvania
And now we had to put a quietus upon a 1736 claim from South Carolina,
good evidence, but which, ostrich-like, buries its head in its own
it may not see the Boston Gazette of 1734.
We are not infallible in Massachusetts. We
to use superlative adjectives in describing our claims. From some attic
or other depositary may come forth definite evidence, hitherto unknown,
light for or against our present position. But until it does, (if ever,
and we believe
never) Massachusetts will remain secure in its position as the Premier
of the Western Hemisphere, and all the unbiased Masonic world will
continue to acclaim
Henry Price to be, as he said himself, the Founder of Duly Constituted
The Victors -- [A Poem]
Chas. Hanson Towne
who have died;
They have passed the porches wide,
Leading from the Home of Night
To the splendid lawns of Light.
They have gone on that far road
Leading to their new abode,
And from the curtained casements we
Watch their going wistfully.
Ah! that turn, that glimpse! That last
Wondering where their feet have passed!
They have read new meanings, they
Who have found the open way.
Now they know that hill and glen
Far beyond our mortal ken;
And they know why winter turns
To April; why Youth burns
With all its dreams that go to rust;
Why men falter, and yet trust;
Why the Autumn grieves and sighs
Underneath the brooding skies;
Why the grass, with punctual feet,
Comes in Spring our eyes to greet,
And white dawn succeeds white dawn,
And the moon shines on and on.
They have left our House of Night,
Faring to the bournes of Light.
Grieve not for them; rather say,
"They are victors on the way;
They have won, for they have read
The bright secrets of the dead;
And they gained the deep unknown,
Hearing life's strange undertone.
In the race across the days
They are victors; their's the praise;
Their's the glory and the pride;
They have triumphed – having died."
Laborare Est Orare -- [A Poem]
solely on our Sabbath
We render service fair;
For duties done go up like praise,
And kindly thought is prayer.
Forward! -- [A Poem]
By Alfred Noyes.
thousand creeds and
A thousand warring social schemes,
A thousand new moralities,
And twenty thousand thousand dreams!
Each on his own anarchic way,
From the old order breaking free –
Our ruined world desires, you say,
License, once more, not Liberty.
But ah, beneath the struggling foam,
When storm and change are on the deep,
How quietly the tides come home,
And how the depths of sea-shine sleep;
And we who march toward a goal,
Destroying only to fulfil
The law, the law of that great soul
Which moves beneath your alien will;
We, that like foemen meet the past
Because we bring the future, know
We only fight to achieve at last
A great reunion with our foe;
Reunion in the truths that stand
When all our wars are rolled away;
Reunion of the heart and hand
And of the prayers wherewith we pray;
Reunion in the common needs,
The common strivings of mankind;
Reunion of our warring creeds
In the one God that dwells behind.
Forward! – what use in idle words?
Forward, O warriors of the soul!
There will be breaking up of swords
When the new morning makes us whole.
In radium there is said to be a virtue which
it to affect adjacent objects with its own properties, and to turn
them, for a time,
and for certain purposes, into things of the same nature as itself.
personalities have a similar virtue.
Ordeal by Battle,
F. S. Oliver.
Washington In His Own Time
By Bro. Samuel Bullard,
(By the kindness of Brother C.M. Schenck, of
Colorado, we present herewith a contemporary estimate of Washington,
being an excerpt
from "An Almanack, for the Year of the Christian Aera 1790, by Samuel
Boston. Printed and Sold by John W. Folsom, No. 30 Union street; sold
also by most
of the Town and Country Booksellers." Added thereto is a poem F.
citizen of the World," from the same edition of the Almanack, albeit
in 1782. It is more interesting than important, written in a high-flown
with many allusions to mythology – after the style affected in that day
– but it
recalls the spirit of the time. A copy of this Almanack is now in
Mrs. C.M. Schenck, of Denver. The extract takes us back for a brief
the age in which Washington lived, and shows that the estimate of his
was then very much what it is today. As the editor of the Almanack
cannot entertain a doubt of its being agreeable to all of our kind of
– The Editor.)
(rhm – I could not find Mr. Bullard’s Almanack,
discovered two Almanacks by N. Strong, printed for Nathaniel Patten and
them here for their curiosity value [Lib 1790; 1791] not searchable)
As the following is a Sketch of the Life and
of our American Fabius, we cannot entertain a doubt of its being
agreeable to all
our kind Readers. As this Gentleman always refused to accept of any
for his public services, no salary was annexed by Congress to his
and he only drew weekly for the expenses of his public table, and other
General Washington, having never been in
not possibly have seen much military service when the armies of Britain
to subdue the Americans; yet still, for a variety of reasons he was by
most proper man on the continent, and probably anywhere else, to be
placed at the
head of an American army. The very high estimation he stood in for
honor, his engaging in the cause of his country from sentiment and
her wrongs, his moderation in politics, his extensive property, and his
abilities as a Commander, were motives which necessarily obliged the
choice of America,
to fall upon him.
That nature had given General Washington
talents, will hardly be controverted by his most bitter enemies. Having
actuated with a warm passion to serve his country in the military line,
he has greatly
improved his talents, by unwearied industry, a close application to the
upon tactics, and by more than common method and exactness. In reality,
comes to be considered, that at first he only headed a body of men
with military discipline or operations, somewhat ungovernable in
temper, and who
at best could only be styled an alert and good militia, acting under
enlistments, unclothed, unaccoutred, and at all times very ill supplied
and artillery; and that with such an army he withstood the ravages and
of near 40,000 veteran troops plentifully provided with every necessary
commanded by the bravest officers in Europe, supported by a very
which effectually prevented all movements by water; when all this comes
to be impartially
considered, we can venture to pronounce, that General Washington may be
as one of the greatest military ornaments of the present age.
General Washington is now in the 58th year of
having completed his fifty-seventh on the 11th of February last, as it
the "Federal Calendar," that truly worthy and brave Veteran was born in
the year 1732. He is a tall, well-made man, rather large boned, and has
genteel address; his features are manly and bold; his eyes of a bluish
very lively; his hair a deep brown; his face rather long, and marked
his complexion sun-burnt, and without much color, and his countenance
composed and thoughtful. There is a remarkable air of dignity about
him, with a
striking degree of gracefulness; he has an excellent understanding,
quickness; is strictly just, vigilant and generous; an affectionate
husband, a faithful
friend, a father to the deserving soldier; gentle in his manner, in
reserved; a total stranger to religious prejudices, which have so often
Christians of one denomination to cut the throats of those of another;
in his morals
he is irreproachable, and was never known to exceed the bounds of the
temperance. In a word, all his friends and acquaintances universally
no man ever united in his own person a more perfect alliance of the
virtues of the
Philosopher with the talents of a General; candor, sincerity,
affability, and simplicity,
seem to be the striking features of his character, until an occasion
offers of displaying
the most determined Bravery and Independence of spirit.
* * *
A Poem, On Geo. Washington -- [A Poem]
By F. Plumer
in 1782, but
never before published. – By F. Plumer, a citizen of the World; also
Almanack," by Samuel Bullard, 1791. [Lib*]
all ye powers
that e'er sent by Jove,
Did the great fancy of an Homer move.
To chant the praises of Ulysses great,
The Hero of the times of ancient date:
Come all ye powers that e'er did Virgil aid,
To sing of Aeneas and the wars he made;
To paint the Hero in the noblest lays,
To chant his honor and advance his praise;
Attend me while in feeble strains I try
To lisp of one whose fam'd above the sky;
A greater than the conquering Grecian King,
Great Washington's the Man, whose fame I'd sing.
Rejoice ye Dryades, O Collinna plance!
Exult ye forests, and ye mountains dance,
The time, the great, the glorious time is near,
When ye shall cease the noise of war to hear;
When barb'rous Britons shall their butchering cease,
When war and discord shall give way to Peace;
When Washington shall be completely found,
With victory and with conqueror's laurels crown'd.
Ceres be glad, our verdant fields shall be
From all destroyers, from arm'd Britons free;
Men's guns and pistols shall be turn'd to hoes,
And swords instead of men shall clip the rose;
Our Nymphs and Swains beneath the cooling shade,
Shall on the springing grass and herbs be laid,
And feast on fruit, while of no foes afraid.
Sons of Columbia give your hours to play,
No more we are the subjects of dismay;
No more the Sons of Justice in the earth,
Can doubt our prized Freedom's birth:
For thro' the world the tidings have been spread,
How Columbia's Sons have fought, and how been led;
Our General's spirit spreading wide and far,
Hath rous'd the nations in the East to war;
Hath given spirit to Hibernia's Sons,
And almost 'mongst the Dutch rais'd Washingtons.
Inspir'd by Washington, great Hyder rose,
And hurl'd destruction all around his foes;
Shew'd them the power of an Hero's arm,
When rous'd by Justice to loud war's alarm.
Sons of Nemesis thro' the world rejoice,
And sing your joy in clear and manly voice,
Columbia's numerous Race are free,
No more oppress'd by British Tyranny.
Our Hero's fame shall thro' the world be rung,
His deeds shall in heroic verse be sung,
And loud be chanted by both old and young.
The mortals of this age shall loudly sing,
And make his fame thro' all our regions ring;
Ten hundred thousand millions yet to come,
Shall on this Shore the pleasing theme resume;
Fathers to children shall with joy declare,
The glory that he's gain'd in deeds of war.
Nor shall ye cease to hear the cheerful sound,
While suns and other shining worlds are found.
Much sooner shall great Phoebus cease the skies
To illuminate, the gay Minerva cries,
Than Bards or Muses cease to chant aloud,
Washington's glory to th' astonished crowd;
Apollo and the Muses thus agree.
And thus the great, th' immortal Gods decree.
Wind puffs up empty bladders; opinions, fools.
We can be more clever than one, but not more
A man who is proud of small things shows that
things are great to him.
The rose does not bloom without thorns. True;
that the thorns did not outlive the rose!
A man will be what his most cherished feelings
If he encourage a noble generosity, every feeling will be enriched by
it; if he
nurse bitter thoughts his own spirit will absorb the poison.
Washington and Lincoln
Unlike in certain qualities, our two supreme
were not unlike in their supreme achievements. There was no structural
in the work they did; it was all of a piece. By the scale of a
hemisphere they shaped
their designs; but their work was larger than a hemisphere. Look upon
it now as
it lies spread out before you in the white light of world-wide
criticism; it is
of as noble dimensions as civilization itself. It matches the
achievements of Alexander
and Caesar, Charlemagne and Alfred, Simon de Montfort and Cromwell.
Nay, it is greater
by as much as America, in prospect certainly, is greater than Greece or
or England. Europe herself admits the fact. The Iron Duke, speaking for
World, says: "I esteem Washington as perhaps the noblest character of
times – possibly of all time." And an Italian scholar, spokesman for a
old before England was born, offers this stirring panegyric: "Lincoln
higher in my estimation and love than all the Alexanders and Caesars
who have reddened
the pages of history with their brilliant exploits."
Review of Reviews.
The Builder -- [A Poem]
H. W. Ticknor, Florida
Here he stands erect,
By many labors perfected. By trial,
And sacrifice, he's won, beyond denial,
The place he merits. Grave and circumspect,
He labors now to plan and to perfect,
Before the shadows cover up the dial,
His edifice, awaiting all the while
The coming of the Master to inspect.
Thus future ages and that Wisdom bright,
That finds the lost, that brings to light the true,
Shall vindicate the soul that strives for right
Whate'er may be the obstacle.
To do That faithfully is all that God requires;
To see His Face fulfils all man desires.
The Lamb-Skin, Or White Leather
A. F. Van Bibber, Maryland
honest toil the
humble garment thou,
Yet by the Ancient Craft to uses high
And splendid raised! No gorgeous panoply
Of knight or monarch, bright on breast or brow, –
Star, Cross or Garter, – can like thee endow
The wearer with pure honor! Emblem white
Of Innocence, – thou Lamb-skin Apron! Light
Breaks on the darkened eyes, and teaches how
Thou must be worthily worn, when thou'rt bestowed.
True to thy glorious precepts may I stand,
Upright and just, however life may test!
For, if I wear thee spotless on the road,
When next I have thee at the Master's hand,
I may deserve thee, spotless, o'er my breast.
Questions on the Story of
By The Cincinnati Masonic
see: The Story of Freemasonry by W. G. Sibley [Lib 1913]
- Who placed
Masonic principles in our cradle of Liberty? 111-2.
- Where can
Masonry be traced? When did it come to our shores and by whom was it
- What has
always been required of anyone who seeks admission into a lodge? Page
- In what
year did the Grand Master of Knights Templar go to Paris at the bidding
of the Pope
with lots of wealth and by whom and why was he and his party put to
death? Page 65.
- Who was
Wm. Morgan? 41.
- What degrees
of Masonry is it known he received and what was his character? Page 41.
- What led
to Wm. Morgan's attempted exposure of Freemasonry and what object did
he have in
view? Whom did he consult and who was his partner? 42-1.
- What was
the nature of Wm. Morgan's so-called exposure? 42-2.
- Was an attempt
made to discover the missing man Morgan and apprehend his captors? If
so by whom?
- What is said of Wm. Morgan's
- In what State was an Anti-Masonic political
and what was the cause and result? Page 46.
- Where and when were Masons
excluded from Churches and
their children from the schools? Page 46.
- What action did Ex-President of
the United States John
Quincy Adams take in the political persecution of Freemasonry during
Morgan affair? 47-1.
- What claim was made during the Anti-Masonic
campaign, more than a year after the Wm. Morgan disappearance, relative
to the finding
of the body of a drowned man? 44-1. What was the result of the second
- What mysteries existed in the
times of antiquity, and
what is said of Freemasonry in reference to them? 9-2.
- When and by whom were the Dionysian Mysteries
in Greece? 104.
- When did the Ionic migration occur? What
- Who were the Dionysiacs of Ionia? In what did
the Fraternity of Freemasons? 105.
- What is the present status of Masonry? What is
condition in the United States? 111-1 111-2.
- What is Masonry as an
Institution, where does it exist
and what are its claims? 111-2.
- Does history furnish a parallel
to Masonry? 111-2.
- What is said of the Negro Chapters of Royal
Commanderies of Knights Templar, and Negro Scottish Rite Masonry? 73-1.
- Have the colored Grand Lodges been recognized?
stand did the Grand Lodge of Ohio take against the Colored Grand Lodge
of Ohio in
- What is said of the first Negroes to be made
and the record of their lodges and grand lodges? 72-1.
- What is said of Liberia and
Negro Masonry? 74-1.
- What is Freemasonry? 52-1. Has
the Origin, purpose and
history of this most ancient, famous, enduring and cosmopolitan of all
secret organizations, been investigated, discussed and speculated upon?
what results? 52-53.
- In what year in England did we lay aside our
character and become purely a moral and benevolent organization? 108.
- What is claimed to be the true origin of
- Who were the Phoenicians? 102-1.
- Originally who only were admitted into
- How were the questions "Where
did Masonry begin"
and "Who did bring it Westerly" answered in the beginning of the 15th
century in England? How were these answers predicated? 101-1.
- How does the intelligent Mason value
- How can Masonry be rightly estimated and by
- Upon what basis should Masters and Wardens be
- How should the officers of a lodge be obeyed in
respective stations? 83-2.
- What is said of the Masonic Manuscript of 1388?
- Of what does Freemasonry consist? And what is
of same? 60-1.
- What is said of the Origin, Purpose and History
- When was the first crude constitution and
- What do other learned authors believe of the
of Freemasonry? And upon what do they base their claim? 53-1.
- What discovery gives evidence to prove Masonry
100 years before Christ and where now in the U. S. is such evidence?
- Why is it reasonable that Masonry should be
through organized bodies of intelligent and reverend men from the time
(The Builder is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.)
WITH deep sorrow and a keen sense of personal
we must now make record of the death of Brother Chetwode Crawley, Grand
of Ireland, one of the noblest men, as he was one of the finest Masonic
of his generation. Ripe in years, rich in honors, radiant in faith, he
at his home in Dublin at the age of seventy-two, to receive the reward
of an honorable
character and a well-spent life. He held that the Landmarks of Masonry
are the Fatherhood
of God, the Brotherhood of Man and the Golden Rule, and these were also
of his life and character.
Brother Crawley was born November 15th, 1843,
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, from which he was graduated with
Honors. Initiated into the mysteries of Freemasonry in 1873, in the
Dublin, he early devoted his talents to the service of the Order. He
was the founder
of the Chetwode Crawley Lodge, No. 395, Dublin, named in his honor.
Indeed, he received,
as he deserved, almost every honor within the gift of any Masonic body
in recognition of his personal worth and his distinguished service to
of Masonic scholarship and research. There is hardly a question of
interest upon which he has not written, and always with the accuracy,
fine precision of a real scholar joined with a singular lucidity of
Irish Masonry, however, was his particular
witness his three stately volumes of "Caementaria Hibernica," [Lib*]
remain as an imposing monument to his memory and a treasure house for
He became a member in 1887 of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, of London, in
of which much of his best work as a Masonic student is to be found, and
there might be a collection of those essays in a volume, as was done in
of Brother Gould. Like Brother Gould, he was one of the first to greet
of this Society, sending us his blessing in a gracious letter, in these
"Let me begin
by expressing my deep satisfaction that the Grand Lodge of Iowa has
sanction to Masonic Research by the appointment of so influential and
committee. The adoption of such a plan by any Grand Lodge would have
approval from all Brethren concerned for the welfare of the Craft, but
a peculiar fitness in its adoption by the Grand Lodge of Iowa. For more
than a generation,
we have been accustomed to see the Grand Lodge of Iowa leading the van
in the cultivation
of the literature of Freemasonry."
Again and again, even during his illness, he
words of cheer across the sea, assuring us of his sympathy and
regretting that he
was not able to contribute to the pages of The Builder. Nor could he
much it meant to the young men who founded this Society to have the
and blessing of so noble a scholar, so accomplished a Mason. Old as it
is always something new about death, the more so when one so honored
vanishes into its soft and fascinating darkness. But no shadow can
obscure the light
of so pure a man, so true a Mason, so gracious a friend - a gentleman
of the old
school, exquisite in his grace of courtesy, skilled in the fine art of
and so winning in his simple dignity and beauty of soul.
"And now on tired
There softly lies
The stillest of all slumbers."
Accordingly, "on St. John's Baptist's Day, in
3d year of King George 1, A. D. 1717, the Assembly and Feast of the
Free and Accepted
Masons was held in the aforesaid Goose and Gridiron Ale-house": so runs
record of the date and organization of the Mother Grand Lodge of modern
Quickly the flying months will bring us to the two-hundredth
anniversary of that
historic event, and we may well begin to bethink ourselves as to how
date can best be celebrated. Already thoughtful Masons have it in mind
to make that
historic mile-stone the beginning, if possible, of a new era not only
in the annals,
but also in the influence and efficiency of Masonry in the world. As
words from a letter:
"Before long we
shall have two million Master Masons in the United States; in twenty
that number. Yet not one in ten of that number has any real or profound
in Masonry, if one may judge by the fact that so few read any Masonic
literature, and that scarcely one in ten attends ritualistic work once
a year, even
when banquets are used as nubbins to toll them in. Am I wrong? If so,
how much wrong?
How may we cure this condition? Next year, 1917 is the two hundredth
of the founding, or revival, of the Grand Lodge system. And yet after
years the Tyler-Keystone prays, "God, give us men," and a past Grand
of Illinois in the Illinois Freemason says that nine-tenths of the time
of the Grand
Lodge is spent on 'perfunctory bunk.' Neither of them seems to
understand what the
What could be plainer!
There is no organized Masonic purpose in the United States, no
concerted and well-planned
movement in behalf of a more efficient and influential Masonry. None,
now being interpreted to the Craft. Is it not high time that our
Masonic press started
a campaign – better still, a crusade – to develop personal interest and
Much could be done by 1917 to prepare the way for a distinctive
celebration of that
great anniversary, not by formal ceremonies which have no vitality of
by opening a new Masonic era to which Masons may look back, two hundred
now, with admiration and gratitude.
Why may not 1917 be
characterized as the birthday of An Efficient
Masonic Purpose? I am anxiously waiting to see what you have
to say about 1917.
I am sure it will not satisfy your soul to hold a banquet somewhere,
'bunkers' in attendance, applauding ourselves on membership, amount of
antiquity, and the like of that. No, the low degree of Masonic
efficiency does not
justify Masonic rhapsody in 1917. Such a day and date call for greater
a more efficient organization to carry it out!"
With all of which we fully and heartily agree,
with what is surely too high an estimate of the percentage of Masons
who have no
real or profound interest in the Order. No matter; as a token of what
is astir in
the minds of thoughtful Masons as they look forward toward the
celebration of a
great and epoch-making event in our history, this letter is as valuable
as it is
pointedly pertinent. If adversity was the trial of Masonry in days
it its chief peril today. Often one fears that the many noble and
temples now a-building, so perfect in design and appointment, may
what we should the most dread. Prestige, power, esteem, numbers – have
us better Masons than our fathers were in the days when the order was
and it required some courage to join it?
Therefore, we ask our readers to discuss the
raised by the above letter in a frank and free manner. What should that
anniversary mean to the Mason of today? How can we most truly and
celebrate it? Which is only another way of asking, what should Masonry
mean in these
new and strange times in which we live? What can it do? How can it best
its benign mission? What part should it have in the reconstruction of
after the stupendous disaster of war? Not only what, but how? Here is
food for thought,
deep and searching thought, the while we recall the days of old.
When this issue of The Builder reaches its
editor expects to be in England, as the guest of the historic City
Temple of London;
returning the middle or last of August, if the Subs do not waylay him
the Zeps do not blow him up while he is there. He hopes to meet many of
on the other side, and to come into closer touch with English
Freemasonry, of which
he will have something to say when he returns. Meantime, no member of
need hesitate to write to The Builder or its editor, sending a question
or a contribution,
as personal letters will be forwarded and the editorial work will be
left in skillful
hands. Brother Clegg, of Ohio, will write the editorials for the
by which time we hope to be back with many things to tell our Brethren
on this side.
The journey is at once a holiday and a kind of ambassadorship, in the
fraternal goodwill in behalf of closer fellowship – with whatever else
future may have and hold in its mystery.
The second article in the series of studies of
Social Service will be found most interesting, telling, as it does, of
of the Scottish Rite Home for Crippled Children, in Atlanta, Georgia.
No man can
read it without feeling a lump climb up in his throat, at sight and
thought of little
bodies twisted and awry, but he will rejoice that Masonry is finding
new and rich
fields of service to humanity. It will be followed by an article giving
and describing the working of the Masonic Employment Bureau movement,
be equally interesting in another way.
* * *
Most earnestly do we hope that the series of
dealing with the Origin of Templarism, which have been running for the
months in the Toronto Freemason, may find their way into permanent
form. They are
worthy of wide reading and long study, and we congratulate the
Freemason on the
publication of so valuable a series of papers.
* * *
There should be no need to call attention to
of "The Oldest Flag," by Brother John W. Barry of the Iowa Research
which begins in this issue. It is one of the finest, as it is surely
one of the
most interesting and important, studies which the Society has so far
A Creed for the Craft
shalt not make unto thyself any pretentious graven
image of the Masonic faith, nor bow down thereto, for Freemasonry is
more than the
blazonry of big buttons or the ballast of weighty watch charms. Yea,
the true Mason
may lose his lapel label yet cares he not; lo, is it not with him blown
glass for keeps? Therefore, my son, be thou wise and right speedily
shalt not take the name of Freemason in vain, nor
fail to live up to it.
Remember the Lodge night and
show up thereon.
thy Mother Lodge that the stranger from afar off
may envy thy Masonic home.
shalt not kill the cheery prospect ahead; therefore,
help thou the good work along and block not the game.
shalt not commit buffoonery as Steward nor lack
dignity as Master.
shalt not steal away thy brother's pleasure, neither
dilute thou his due joys.
shalt not bear falsehood nor grouch against any
of thy brethren.
shalt not covet another's lodge. Get busy.
Thou shalt not be other than brotherly
– making friends
by being one.
– R. I. Clegg, Ohio.
ONCE again the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania has put the Craft under abiding obligations by its
a stately volume, of a series of ancient Scottish Rite documents found
in the archives
of its Library. Its title is as follows: – "Ancient Documents relating
Ancient Scottish Rite, with annotations by Julius F. Sachse, Librarian,
[Lib*] It is printed by permission of Brother J. Henry Williams, Grand
Masons in Pennsylvania, who remarks in the foreword: "The Masonic
have his own individual opinion of the origin, growth and development
of the present
system guiding the Craft, but all men can meet upon the common level of
the facts upon which the opinion may be based; and it is because of the
aid the searcher for truth that the volume of Scottish Rite History has
There is no need to say that this volume is
accuracy and care, with fine judgment and taste – all the work of
is after that manner – and it is a valuable contribution to Scottish
albeit little light is thrown upon certain questions which have long
of that story. A picture of Moses Hays serves as a frontispiece, and a
account of that useful man is found further on, together with Morin,
others, who were pioneers of the Rite in this country. There is,
however, no intimation
as to whether any of these men had ever gone beyond the Rite of
Perfection. So that,
speaking of the fact, it is a documented story of the introduction of
the Rite of
Perfection into America – the Scottish Rite, if by that we mean – as we
thirty-three degrees, came later. Ye editor was taken to task, somewhat
as he thought, a month or so ago for stating the fact which these
No matter; the outstanding fact in these old
here reproduced in fac-simile, text, and translation, is that the Rite
was brought to this land by men of the Hebrew race and faith. Hays,
were all of that ancient people, and to the men of that faith is due
of having planted on these shores a Rite to which they have been so
all the years. The oldest document here preserved – believed to be "the
ancient authenticated Scottish Rite document known" – is a certificate
to Ossonde Verriere, a planter in St. Domingo, date October 26th, 1764,
Morin. It was found, as if by chance, among a lot of old, musty, yellow
forgotten papers in the archives of the Library of the Grand Lodge of
Incidentally, of course, Brother Sachse finds
to remark that "Philadelphia has been acknowledged to be the mother
Symbolic Free-Masonry in the Western World"; and he now puts in a claim
the City of Brotherly Love as the actual center where “Perfect and
Masonry was revived on these shores, as witness a Patent issued to one
dated April 4th, 1781, at Philadelphia, signed by Moses Hays. It is
to note that this document did not profess to give any authority over
degrees of Blue Masonry, but confined itself to the Royal Arch and the
as alone being within its jurisdiction. This is the more significant
when we remember
the subsequent misunderstanding, to name it mildly, in regard to this
and the resignation by the Scottish Rite of the first three degrees of
The next document is of peculiar interest,
"Minute Book for the Lodge of Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Masons,
city of Philadelphia, 25th June, 1789," which ends abruptly with the
of Feb. 21st, 1789. Of this body we read: "Next to the Grand Lodges of
and Massachusetts, this Lodge was the most important Masonic
organization in America,
as it was through its membership that the Sublime Rite was introduced
into the different
States, and which now know as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite,
over the whole United States." Here again the names are all Hebrew, at
until the abrupt ending of the minutes in 1789: that it continued in
that date is known from other records. How firmly its members believed
of Prussia was the Grand Commander of the Order, is shown by the fact
wrote a letter to him in November, 1785. No reply was received, the
King at that
time being ill and soon to die. Nothing daunted, two years later
Solomon Bush was
appointed to visit Frederick in Berlin.
As has been said, this old minute book comes to
close, and thereby hangs a mystery. At the next to the last meeting the
Duplessis, stated that Brother Prevost had requested from him and taken
Book containing to Sublime Degrees and the Seal. Further there is no
show that Prevost authorized Duplessis to make this demand, nor by what
he acted. The request of the Lodge that the Book and the Seal be
returned was unheeded.
By what right such a demand was made on the secretary and complied with
if true, is an unsolved problem, as is the reason and authority for not
the Book and Seal. One would give much to know what lay back of this
Space does not permit us to go into further
much as we are tempted to do so. Taken as a whole, the volume is a
to the store of Scottish Rite lore, and the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania
is to be
congratulated upon giving it to the Craft in so sumptuous a style.
* * *
A new edition of the "Master Mason's Handbook,"
[Lib 1890] by Brother F. J.
W. Crowe, is most welcome, and we are glad to see that the original
by the late Brother Hughan is retained, as it should be. First
years ago, this little volume has served, and will still serve, a
as is shown by the demand for it which requires a fifth edition. The
march of time
brings many changes in the Means and methods of Masonry, even though
remain intact, and this little book, so carefully prepared and simple
still answers many questions for the beginner in Masonic affairs. Those
absorbed only in matters of ceremonial will find that it makes many
understood, intelligible, and perchance a reading of it will lure them
the meanings of Masonry. Commendation of such a book is superfluous.
* * *
Articles of Interest
Masonry and World Reconstruction. Masonic
Freemasonry in South America, by R.W. Hornsby. American Freemason.
The Golden Age of Masonry, by W. R. Hervey. Tyler-Keystone.
The Proper Uses of Titles, by G. M. Moulton. Tyler-Keystone.
James Buchanan, by G. P. Brown. Masonic Monthly.
Antiquity of Masonry, by C. M. Perkins. Masonic Herald.
How Frederick the Great Became a Mason, by O. Lang. New England
The Hope of the Scottish Rite, by B. S. Grosscup. The New Age.
The Means and the End, by J. G. Gibson. London Freemason.
* * *
Address, by L. A. Watres, Grand Master
The Lincoln Life-mask, by H. B. Rankin.
The College of the Pioneers, by Thomas H. Macbride.
* * *
of the Scottish Rite, [Lib 1815]
edited by J. F. Sachse,
Recollections of Lincoln, [Lib 1916]
by H. B. Rankin,
Introduction by Ye Editor. Putnam's Sons, New York. $2.00
The Meaning of
Personal Life, [Lib 1916] by Newman Smyth.
Scribner's Sons. $2.00.
Ordeal by Battle,
[Lib 1915] by F. S. Oliver.
Macmillan Co. $1.50.
Things a Mason
Should Know, [Lib*] by F. J. W. Crowe.
G. Kenning, London. $1.00
Handbook, [Lib 1890] by F. J. W. Crowe.
G. Kenning, London. $1.00.
The Gospel of
Goodwill, [Lib*] by W. D. Hyde. Macmillan
Public Health Protection, [Lib 1916]
by H. B. Hemenway.
Bobbs Merrill Co., Indianapolis. $1.25.
The Question Box
"The Valley Of Shadows"
Brother Newton: – As a student of the Civil War
will you tell me what in your opinion is the greatest book which that
produced – I mean as interpreting its spiritual meaning?
Well, it would be hard for any book to stand
"The Valley of the Shadows," [Lib 1913] by Francis Grierson – a most
by a most remarkable man, who is a poet, a musician, an essayist whose
a singular blend of sagacity and prophecy. It is the nearest approach
to an epic
we have yet had of our Civil War, displaying the oncoming of that
wonderful vividness, intensity and solemnity; painting with a large
brush on a large
canvas, and dealing with the unseen but seemingly almighty influences
events at that time.
* * *
Seems to me that your discussion of the
in The Builders [Lib 1914] is rather
hazy, and that the chain is rather weak at that point. Perhaps I am
wrong, but so
I felt while reading the book, which I very much enjoyed.
R. G. C.
The first part of The Builders, as was
has to do with the hints and prophecies of Masonry, and in the nature
of the case
is less definite than other sections. But the Dionysiacs are not a
myth; they are
the first order of architects, of which we have record, who were a
practicing the rites of the Mysteries. For example, Professor Robinson
know that the Dionysiacs of Ionia were a great corporation of
architects and engineers,
who undertook, and even monopolized, the building of temples and
as the fraternity of Freemasons monopolized the building of cathedrals
churches in the Middle Ages. Indeed, the Dionysiacs resembled in many
mystic fraternity now called Freemasons. They allowed no strangers to
in their employment; they recognized each other by signs and tokens;
certain mysterious doctrines under the tutelage of Bacchus, (Bacchus
the sun, which is the outward symbol of the One God, so that the
worship of the
Dionysiacs resolved itself into the worship of the One God) to whom
they built a
magnificent temple as Teos, where they celebrated his mysteries at
and they called all other men profanes, because not admitted to these
Article on the Arch in "Brewster's Edinburgh Encyclopedia."
* * *
Lectures on Masonry
Some years ago I found in the library of an old
Mason a book entitled "Ancient Craft Masonry Revealed in Religion,
Lectures," [Lib 1850] by Charles
Scott. I obtained this old book and read it. Thinking it might be of
to you, I write to ask if you would like to see it. No book, except the
gave me more light on religion.
Miss L. K.
We are familiar with the work of Brother Scott,
was Grand Master, we believe, of the Grand Lodge of Mississippi in
1850, and his
work, so deeply spiritual, deserves all the kind words here said about
have found in Masonry more light on religion than they have been able
to find anywhere
else perhaps because Masonry puts aside the non-essentials about which
been so many debates, and goes at once and always to the vital and
that underlie and transfigure our human life. Also, the book to which
refers makes it plain that Masonry meant very much to the Masons of the
and it surely should not mean less to us.
* * *
Christ and Masonry
Will you please give me some light in regard to
a Master Mason must believe in the Divinity of Jesus Christ, and the
of every part of the Protestant Bible, in order to continue in good
Most certainly not. To make such dogmas tests
fellowship and standing would be to violate the fundamental law and
Freemasonry, and turn it into a sect. Those who suggest such a thing
know not what
they do. They would destroy Masonry, by making it only one more factor
in a world
of factional feud, one more atom in the agglomeration of sectarian
fact that the Bible lies open upon our altar does not commit the Order,
or any member
of it, to any dogma of inspiration, much less to the dogma suggested in
question. Masonry is content to open the Bible – and an open Bible
means much –
and leave each man free to interpret it as his own heart dictates, and
him to allow all his Brethren to do the same without question and
Many Masons are Christians, but Masonry is not distinctively Christian
its teaching or in its basis of fellowship – though a Christian man has
to interpret its symbols from his point of view, as a Hebrew or a Hindu
them from other points of view. It stands for Freedom, Friendship and
* * *
The Oblong Square
Dear Brother: – When the candidate is told that
makes an oblong square, what he is really forming is the ark cross. We
the ark cross is symbolic of the Supreme Being as a self-created,
combining in His person a triune being at once Father, Mother, and Son.
I take the
view that he is so placed when making his declaration, signifying his
and that that was the ancient intention. When he takes three steps he
asserting that belief. Shortly put I take the view that he takes his
stand on that
belief. I should like to hear other Brethren more learned on the
of the Craft discuss this question
Ernest E. Murray,
* * *
The Temple Of Melekartha
Some days ago I bought from an old book store
book published in London in 1831, entitled "The Temple of Melekartha."
[Lib 1831, Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3] The name of the author
is not given, and I would like to know who wrote it and why. I found it
The book was written by Isaac Taylor, Jr., a
writer of that day, son of another Isaac Taylor, a line engraver of
of his volumes were very highly esteemed at that period and nearly all
British Reviews published articles of importance about his work. At the
time his thought is antiquated, and his books have gone glimmering down
of things that were – lost in that vast limbo of books which aimed high
the sure, authentic note that sings forever.
* * *
Will you tell me whether the Jewish people at
of Jesus practiced polygamy? I have had quite a discussion of this
question of late,
and opinion seems divided. Perhaps you can settle it.
Unfortunately the authorities are also divided.
example, Gallichan, in his work on "Women Under Polygamy," [Lib 1914] (pp. 292-3) says:
"There is no doubt that the earlier Christian teachers were much
by the errant desires of their converts and disciples. Polygamy had a
upon the Jewish inhabitants of Palestine and the Eastern alien
proselytes. It was
impossible to extirpate so ancient a practice in a few years." So also
Shailer Mathews in his "History of the New Testament Times in
[Lib 1908] (p. 163)
in which he says that polygamy was practiced to some extent at the time
but chiefly by the very wealthy. On the other side, Abrahams in his
Life in the Middle Ages," [Lib 1896] thinks that monogamy had
become a settled custom
among the Jews at the time when Jesus lived and taught.
* * *
Queen of Sheba
According to the Bible account the visit of the
of Sheba to King Solomon occurred some thirteen years after the
dedication of the
Temple, and I am a little puzzled by the fact that in the ceremonial of
Excellent Master's degree she is associated with Solomon at the time of
Our Brother has an erroneous view of the nature
degrees, if he thinks that they are supposed to follow chronologically
of history in the order given in the Bible. Not so. Nor were they
intended to do
so. They are but a memorial subsequently established, for purposes of
teaching, of events in connection with the temple, its building and its
as well as its destruction and its rebuilding. It is by no means
the purpose intended, to make the visit of the Queen of Sheba
the dedication. (See "The Book of the Chapter," [Lib 1870] by Mackey, p. 78;
also essay on "King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba," by F.J.W. Crowe,
Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Vol 19, p. 112. [Lib 1906])
* * *
By the kindness of Brother Hutchings, of
have received a picture reproduced from an old print of a Masonic
Parade of some
sort, on which is written "St John’s Lodge, Clerkenwell, London, April
1742." The print is owned by Brother Herbert Chatterton, but neither he
Brother Hutchings has been able to make out just what kind of a
procession it is.
Fortunately a larger and completer print of the same parade is to be
found in the
Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, showing the whole procession,
whereas that of
the print owned by Brother Chatterton shows only a part – the part in
which a Donkey
is seen acting as Grand Master, riding in a carriage attended by much
Apprentices, Fellowcrafts, Master Masons, all are made utterly
ridiculous in this
old-time procession. It is an interesting and valuable print, a
the Mock Masonry which had quite a vogue in the early days shortly
after the organization
of the Grand Lodge of England, and this was no doubt one reason why the
gave up public processions. We should be glad to have some Member of
– why not Brother Hutchings or Brother Chatterton? – make a little
study of that
movement, giving the facts and also the causes back of the ridicule of
They will find a clue, and much more than a clue, in the essays of
entitled "Mock Masonry in the Eighteenth Century," Transactions of the
Quatuor Coronati Lodge, Vol. 18, [Lib 1905] p. 129, also p. 217.
* * *
Ritual and Color
Brother Editor: – I am interested in two
would like to make a study of them, if you will refer me to materials.
One is the
growth of the ritual, and the other is the place and meaning of colors
Can you put me on track of something to read along these lines?
These are interesting questions, but rather
We are shortly to publish articles dealing with both of the topics you
have in mind,
but (1) if you have access to the transactions of the Coronati Lodge,
you will find
a very fine essay on “Colors in Freemasonry," by Brother F.J.W. Crowe,
(Vol. 19, [Lib 1906] p. 112),
and another on "Masonic Blue," by Brother Crawley, (Vol. 23, [Lib*] p.
309). (2) And in the same set of volumes, so valuable to the student,
may be found
a delightful study of "The Evolution of the Masonic Ritual," by the
Brother E.L. Hawkins. (Vol. 26, [Lib*] pp. 6-21). The earlier volumes
of the Transactions
are hardly to be had at any price, but those here referred to belong to
and are not so difficult to obtain.
* * *
Three Brethren have asked for information about
the Masonic historian. Not much is known about him. He was born in
Germany in 1828,
and was initiated into Freemasonry in 1856 at Bayreuth. He published
of Freemasonry,” in German [Lib 1861, Vol
2 German], in 1861.
An English translation was made in 1865, [Lib 1866] but no one seems to know who
did it. The preface
by Charles van Dalen, dated November, 1865, refers to the translator as
of two dignitaries of the Grand Lodge of England, now residing in
In the Freemason's Magazine, May 16th, 1863, appeared "The
the Masons of Strasburg, from Findel’s History of Masonry, translated,
of the author, by C.M. The "Constitutions," as printed, contained
not to be found in the Findel History published in London in 1869. In
an American edition of Findel appeared, but no one now seems to know by
was translated. There ought to be some way to clear these questions up.
At any rate,
the Findel history was one of the earliest, if not the very first,
attempt to write
Masonic history as the history of other institutions is written –
accurately, separating legend from fact, and producing documents; and
as such it
was a great step forward toward real Masonic research. Moreover, as
died on Nov. 23rd, 1905, there ought to be someone who could give us
more of the
details of his life, together with an appreciation of his services to
This Society will welcome such a contribution at any time, from any
* * *
Jachin and Boaz
Can you advise me from what source, by what
the following statement, or quotation, is taken: "In strength will I
this mine (or my) house and kingdom forever." In our jurisdiction
the above statement is used in the lecture given by the Senior Deacon
in the second
section of the Second Degree, in connection with the explanation of the
Pillars. I have made considerable research to ascertain the source of
but have been unable to find it, and shall be very glad to have any
light on the
There is no such sentence in the Bible, so far
are able to discover. We take it to be a statement made after the
manner of Bible
speech, using the meanings of the words Jachin and Boaz, the first
shall establish," and the second "In it is strength." As such it
is true to the meaning of the Bible, (1 Kings 7:21) a legitimate
to all intents a quotation.
* * *
Royal Arch History
Brother Editor: – Now you "have done gone and
it.” You got us to take up the study of Arch Masonry, and here we are
balled up," unable to tell when, where, or by whom the Royal Arch
It is "up to you" to pull us out of the hole.
This has long been a vexed question, and still
obscure. We think the late Brother Woodford, author of "Kenning's
hit the truth when he said that, originally the Royal Arch degree was a
the Master's Degree, and that Lawrence Dermott, Grand Secretary of the
of Ancients, conceived the idea of elaborating it into a separate
degree the better
to attract members to his Grand Lodge, and so cripple the Grand Lodge
– this being at the time of their bitter schism, before 1813. Which
thing he also
did and it worked to the disadvantage of the Moderns; so much so that
appointed Thomas Dunckerley – called "the Father of Masonic Knight
– to do the same thing in that jurisdiction. In doing so he took the
it is held, originally belonged to the Master Degree and transferred it
to the Royal
Arch Degree. As to date, Brother Hughan thought "that in view of all
it is not unsafe to venture to ascribe the introduction of Royal Arch
1737-1740." (The English Rite.) Oliver and Mackey both concur,
in this conclusion both as to date and as to the "mutilation" of the
Degree. The earliest known mention of the degree in a contemporary
record is found
in an account of a meeting of a Lodge (No. 21) at Youghal, in Ireland,
when the members walked in procession, and the Master was preceded by
Royal Arch carried by two Excellent Masons." The next mention is in
"Serious Enquiry," published in 1744, [see Lib 1913 p. 111]
in which we are told that in York "is held an assembly of Masons, under
title of Royal Arch Masons, who, as their qualifications and
excellencies are superior
to others, receive a larger pay than working Masons." (Concise
by Hawkins). At the time of the Lodge of Reconciliation, in 1813, it
was well established,
and it was agreed that the Royal Arch degree should be accepted as a
part of "pure
ancient Masonry." ( Book of Constitutions, Art. 1.) And this was wise,
only in behalf of harmony, but also because the Degree is obviously an
of old Craft Masonry, and deserves the honor and influence which it
the discussion of the origin of the Royal Arch, by Brother Gould, in
on Freemasonry," and particularly "The English Rite, by Hughan.)
Dear Brother Newton: – In the February issue of
Builder, I note an article by Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M. District of
John Marshall, in which he states, "But for a fact, during that time
was particularly active in Freemasonry, being Deputy Grand Master in
1792, and Grand
Master in 1793 and 1794."
I do not doubt the historical accurateness of
but there is one matter which has come to my attention, which, in views
of the fact
that we, as a Craft, are seeking true Light and in absolute honesty to
and the Brethren, causes me to doubt the advisability of placing much
John Marshall as a Mason, even though "so great a man brought us great
The reason for my doubt is found on pp. 97 to
of "Political and Economic Doctrines of John Marshall," [Lib 1914] by John Edward Oster.
(The Neale Publishing Co., N. Y.) This book is composed largely of
of Marshall. That you may not be inconvenienced any more than
necessary, in answering
my question, I enclose a copy of these pages.
I should like to know what the general opinion
scholars is, concerning the authenticity of these letters, and whether
really did repudiate Masonry, as he seems to have done. If these
letters are authentic,
I think we should not confer upon Marshall the honor of being classed
as one of
our foremost Brethren, even though in return we acquire some glory and
But candor and honesty should compel us to state the regrettable truth
– that though
he may have once been a good Mason, he allowed himself to be led astray
by the stories
and charges against our institution, then so prevalent, and allowed his
capable and judicial mind to pronounce judgment, for once, without
Even though I should like to believe that that
patriot and pre-eminent jurist was an ardent enthusiastic Mason until
I do not see how to avoid these letters, and I shall appreciate a
you or Bro. Baird.
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
Wm. R. James, Arkansas
(Owing to the illness of Brother Baird, to whom
this letter and its enclosures, the reply has been delayed. Happily he
in a measure, and while not yet equal to hard work, he has sent us the
his investigations, of which we make use. It is no wonder that Brother
these alleged letters in a book, should ask to know if they are
as he says, if Marshall renounced Masonry, we do not wish to count him
leaders. We are grateful to Brother James for bringing the matter up
as it gives opportunity to show, for the benefit of our younger
Brethren, the arts
of falsification practiced by the anti-Masonic fanatics, as well as to
the facts in regard to John Marshall. This has been done many times
lies are hard to kill – like cats, they have nine lives – and we must
heads anew whenever they appear. Precisely the same kind of lies were
Washington, in the effort to show that if he was ever a Mason at all,
he threw it
aside as a worthless toy, unworthy of notice. To that end his letters
others were forged out right – or out wrong – and the pack of
falsehoods thus concocted
was industriously scattered to the four winds to poison and pervert the
Fortunately the publication of the facts, including the Masonic
Washington, settles the question once for all, leaving not even a hook
to hang the old, weather-beaten, worn-out lies of olden time.
It now remains to do the same thing in respect
Marshall. Of the two alleged letters in question, it should be said,
neither of them has ever been exhibited in manuscript or even in
if they are genuine it is high time they show themselves for
the first letter bears the legend, "A gentleman from Norfolk County,
presented the following letter," etc. What gentleman? Why not produce
A letter cited as being in the possession of a “gentleman" not named is
of notice. It is manifestly a forgery on the face of it. Moreover, it
is not written
in the style of Marshall, and has no trace of his hand. It is a lie out
cloth, like many others invented by the fertile minds of
passion-clouded men who
did not hesitate to stoop to any device to serve their infamous ends.
second letter is pronounced by Past Grand Master Eggleston, of
Virginia, a forgery
of like kind. We are disposed to think that this letter, if written by
has been doctored – as was done in the case of the letters of
Washington – until
it amounts to a forgery. Marshall was too high a man to have written
such a letter,
as it stands, even if his political life depended on a renunciation of
He was incapable of such an act.
In the second letter Marshall is made to say
had not been a member of a Masonic Lodge for forty years, whereas the
that he had been Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia during
that time! But
what did such falsifiers care about records and facts? Fanatics at
best, liars at
worst, their solitary aim was to belittle and defame the Masonic
and clergymen – Protestant clergymen, let it be added – worked hand in
hand to destroy
the order, and they are still at it. Even today there are two such
one in Chicago and the other in Boston, who circulate these old
forgeries and falsehoods,
as if they had not been exploded times without number. Now what are the
Master M.M. Johnson, of Massachusetts, in an address at the Feast of
St. John, last
December, went into the matter thoroughly, and we can do no better than
hiss findings, in which he gives his sources of information, as is his
spoke in part as follows:
"It is reported that Marshall was made a Mason
in 1777 in St. John's Regimental Lodge (a military lodge chartered by
Grand Lodge of New York in July, 1775), but that in 1783, after
removing to Richmond,
he took membership in Richmond Lodge, No. 13 (now No. 10), chartered in
the Grand Lodge of Virginia. The original records of this Lodge from
1780 to 1789
are lost, but in 1785 Marshall's name appears on its roll of members,
one hundred and six names, filed with the Grand Lodge. We also know
that he was
present at a meeting of the Lodge, August 18 1785, convened for the
purpose of laying
the Corner-stone of the State Capitol. I cannot find when, if ever, he
of a Lodge but in 1786 he was appointed by Grand Master Edmund Randolph
as his Deputy
Grand Master. He was Deputy again in 1792. At some unknown time he
ceased to be
a member of Richmond Lodge (changed to No. 10 in 1787) and in July,
1792, was one
of the unsuccessful petitioners for a new Lodge. October 19, 1792, he
elected a member of No. 10 and was chosen to represent it in Grand
Lodge. For years
he served as one of the Trustees of the Masonic Hall built by this
Lodge, the first
Masonic body in this country to build such a hall.
"He was Grand Master from October 28, 1793, to
November 23, 1795. Upon his retirement, the following resolution was
" 'Resolved, That the Grand Lodge are truly
of the great attention of our late Grand Master, John Marshall, to the
Masonry, and that they entertain a high sense of the wisdom displayed
by him in
the discharge of the duties of his office and, as a token of their
of his conduct, do direct the Grand Treasurer to procure and present
him with an
elegant Past Master's jewel.'
"On October 30, 1824, by request of the
Master, Marshall was introduced and presided as Master of Richmond
Lodge at a festival
occasion called in honor of General La Fayette who paid the Lodge a
and was sumptuously entertained.
"In 1734, the Grand Lodge of Virginia undertook
the establishment of a school for the purpose of educating the orphan
Master Masons, and Marshall was the first Trustee of the school named
by the Grand
Lodge in its petition for incorporation. He held this position as
Trustee at the
time of his death. By the records of Lodge No. 19 and from other
sources we are
informed that on July 9, 1835, our Brother Marshall's body was interred
"For facts concerning the personal and Masonic
life of John Marshall I rely particularly upon the Discourse upon the
and Services of the Hon. John Marshall, LL.D., Chief Justice of the
of America, pronounced on October 15, 1835, at the request of the
Bar (Massachusetts), by Judge Joseph Story, LL.D.; the Records of the
of Virginia, the History of Richmond Lodge, No. 10, by Rev. David K.
published in 1909; and the memorial volume published by the United
in 1884, reporting the exercises at the ceremony of the unveiling of
of John Marshall in front of the capitol, Washinglon, on May 10, 1864."
* * *
The Sword of Frederick
(From "New York and The War with Spain" [Lib
1903]; New York (State)
Historian's Report, 1903, pp. 5-9, sent by Brother Isaac H. Vrooman,
For years more or less discussion has occurred
the history of the sword in the State Library in Albany that originally
by will by General Washington, to a relative. A legend has drifted
along from source
unknown in effect that Baron Steuben brought the sword from Frederick
and presented it to George Washington with a message from the "oldest
in the world to the greatest." In the winter of 1902 when Prince Henry
brother of Emperor William, visited Albany the sword was placed on
the Executive Chamber and was handed by Governor Odell to the
Prince Henry drew the sword from the scabbard and vainly scrutinized it
for a mark
of identification to establish the place where the weapon was
manufactured. It is
needless to say that all marks had been obliterated by constant
the color of the scabbard had been changed from its original color
white to green.
Those conversant with the subject have averred that from its general
the sword was made at Solingen, but whether it was a present from the
Prussia ever produced, is open to more or less skepticism. In the
attempt to determine
the authenticity of the sword under date of March 27, 1902, a letter
was sent to
the Hon. Andrew D. White, United States Embassy, Berlin, Germany, which
"State Historian's Office, Albany, N. Y.
March 27th, 1902.
Hon. Andrew D. White, United States Embassy, Berlin, Germany:
Sir: – As you no doubt have seen, considerable
has been raised in certain of our American newspapers, over the
Frederick the Great really gave to General Washington the sword now on
in the State Library in this city. There is no direct proof to sustain
that Frederick the Great actually presented it, or that he did not. The
supposed to have been received by Washington in 1780.
At the suggestion of several persons, among
included Mr. Charles R. Miller, editor of the New York Times, I write
to ask if
it be possible to institute an investigation among either the financial
archives, in order that this discussed and uncertain question may be
all time. I am well aware of the difficulties that even the American
may encounter in the prosecution of this investigation, but I do not
know of a happier
time than the present to carry it to a fulfillment if it be possible.
Prince Henry handled the sword, which had been
from the State Library to the Executive Chamber, and looked in vain for
of the city where it was constructed.
I have the honor to forward you several
in regard to the sword.
With assurances of the highest esteem, believe
Yours very respectfully,
(Signed) HUGH HASTINGS
In reply the subjoined was received on May 3,
"Embassy of the United States of America,
April 22, 1902.
Hugh Hastings, Esq., Albany, N.Y.:
My dear Sir: – Returning to Berlin, I open your
of March 27. It would give me pleasure to be of use in the way you
with the time at my disposal and various duties pressing upon me, and
in view of
the intricacy and difficulty such an investigation as that proposed, I
feel at liberty to undertake it without special instructions from the
Should any American scholar of proper standing
accredited here for the purpose, it would give me pleasure to introduce
him in the
right quarters and to do what I can to make his quest successful.
I remain, dear Sir,
Very respectfully yours,
(Signed) AND. D. WHITE Ambassador
In the meantime the Hon. John B. Jackson, who
Secretary of the American Embassy and at that time Charge d'Affaires,
in the absence
of Mr. White, had sent the following:
"Embassy of the United States of America,
April 7, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, Capitol,
Sir: – In the absence of Ambassador White, who
Italy on leave, I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the
and to inform you that I have at once requested the German Foreign
Office to cause
an investigation to be made for the purpose of ascertaining whether or
the Great ever presented a sword to General Washington. I shall gladly
as to the nature of any reply which may be made to this request.
I am, Sir, Your obedient servant,
(Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON,
The then German Minister in Washington, Doctor
Hollenben, was interested in the subject and was presented through this
enlarged photographs of the sword and its reputed history. Up to the
nothing has been heard from Dr. von Hollenben's investigation. Under
date of June
26, 1902, Mr. Jackson, whose efforts to co-operate with this Department
the identity of the sword were worthy of all commendation, transmitted
"Embassy of the United States of America,
June 26, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, Capitol,
New York Sir:- Referring to previous correspondence I have now to
inform you of
the receipt of a note from the German Foreign Office, in which it is
with regard to the "angeregte Frage einer Schenkung Friedrichs des
an den General Washington eingehende Ermittlungen in den Königlich
Staatsarchiven angeordnet worden sind, diese indess bisher nicht zu
Ergebnis geführt haben.” Translation – ("question submitted of a
by Frederick the Great to General Washington, searching investigation
in the Royal
Prussian State-archives has been ordered, this so far to a satisfactory
Hoping that the Prussian authorities may still
to find out something positive with regard to the reported gift, I am,
Your obedient servant (Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON
Sec'y of Embassy."
Under date of September 23, 1902, Mr. Jackson
"Embassy of the United States of America,
September 23, 1902.
Hon. Hugh Hastings, State Historian, Capitol,
Sir:- Referring to my letter to you of June
M. No. 4425, I have now to inform you that, to my regret, the Foreign
that no record can be found of the matter in question, – the
presentation of a sword
to General Washington, by Frederick the Great of Prussia. Consequently,
I am afraid
that the tradition that such was the case, was not founded on fact.
I am, Sir, Your obedient servant,
(Signed) JOHN B. JACKSON,
Sec'y of Embassy.''
And in the language of diplomacy the episode
* * *
Making Masons at Sight
My dear Bro. Newton: – I wish to add my word to
"Making Masons at Sight" controversy that you seem to invite.
The Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Florida
(Art. VI, Sec. 4) that the Grand Master "can grant dispensations for
He can make a Mason at sight; but he must be made in a body of a
Lodge, and by trial of the ballot. He can grant dispensations..."
And I find in "The Masonic Text-Book of
"printed by order of the Grand Lodge 1883," p. 322, among the powers
to the Grand Master, "The right to make Masons at sight, under the
prescribed in the Landmarks," and it is said to be an inherent
The Landmark referred to is given on p. 241, "The prerogative of the
Master..... to make Masons at sight, in a regular Lodge, by the consent
. . ." This Landmark is also given in Mackey's list of twenty-five (cf.
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, sub voce).
Mackey argues in favor of the prerogative by
that a Grand Master has the power to open a lodge by dispensation, and
he may permit the accumulation of degrees, or the conferring of the
saltem, to use an ecclesiastical term for a corresponding situation.
His full argument
may be seen in the work above cited, under the word "Sight, Making
From these, and other considerations it seems
that the Grand Master, in acting for the best interests of the Craft,
and with the
testimonial of the Craft as to the worthiness and qualification of the
may dispense with whatever regulations he deems best to omit, taking
care not to
violate any other landmark, either ritual or ceremonial. But I quite
such procedure should not ordinarily be practiced.
Now, however, here is a consideration. The
are told, is dedicated to the Master, and the Compasses to the Craft.
relative positions of these in the Master's degree might argue that the
though he be Grand Master, cannot go too far in creating a member of
But this little piece of symbolism may be a separate point of argument.
I am, as ever,
H. W. Ticknor, Florida.
* * *
An Upright Mason
Dear Brother Newton: – I have read with much
the April issue of "The Builder." Among the various communications I
to confirm the view of Brother C. C. Hunt, Iowa, in his remarks on "The
Square." The phrase was current at the opening of the 19th century, in
country, to describe a rectangle with one set of parallel lines
than the other set.
Caleb Atwater, in his "Descriptions of the
of Ohio," 1820, (on pages 137-8), inserts a letter written to him by
P. Hildreth, of Marietta, Ohio, on June 8, 1819. He was writing
regarding the fortifications
of Marietta, and says: "On the outside of the parapet, near the OBLONG
l picked up a considerable number of fragments of ancient potter's
term then was current in the western country as early as 1819 and must
a term in current use eastward for considerable time prior to 1819.
to confirm the view taken by Brother Hunt.
In regard to the communication, "An Upright
I was very much in the same predicament as Brother Gayle, Iowa, over
And I regard your explanation in this April number as still more
I have always been satisfied that the system practiced in Pennsylvania
the preparation of the candidate for the several degrees is logically
more in line
with ancient Masonry than in some other jurisdictions. Having brought a
to light he is never again blinded. He has received light in Masonry
his sight may be untrained and inexperienced yet it is light. In Ohio
we take from
the novitiate that which we so gladly gave him at the altar in the
Degree. It is depriving him of that which is his of right. Also, in all
I believe, we place the candidate in the northeast corner of the room
him he is an upright Mason. Here, Pennsylvania again can instruct other
Objections can be made without reasons up to the point where the
to light as an EA but ever after can be estopped in his Masonic
progress only by
a trial after charges have been preferred.
There is no doubt that it was due to the
in the second decade of the 19th Century, at Baltimore, that work was
the EA Degree and placed in the the MM Degree. Up to that time all EAs
transactions of the lodge, though they may have been debarred from a
vote on the
same. When a candidate has once pressed the threshold of Masonry he has
his relations forever. Brother Waite in his Lecture this month has
that point. Will you not take another look at the question and grant to
our EA brethren
their Masonic right?
Charles F. Irwin, Ohio.
* * *
The Great White Plague
Dear Sir and Brother: – While I fear that I am
a little out of line of the work of the Research Society; yet there is
that I would like to bring to your attention. We all acknowledge the
we owe each other as members of the Masonic Fraternity, and most
especially do we
look after the widows and orphans of deceased brothers. So much so that
builded homes for these orphans and widows (in which I believe I am
right in saying
that Kentucky took the lead), and consider it our most sacred duty to
maintain. Now the question that I have in mind is this: Can we not
establish a Sanatorium
for Masonic Brothers who are afflicted, or at least in the first stages
Such an institution could be made a national affair, and let the
Brothers all over
the U.S.A. get the benefit of same. There are many thousand in the
who belong to our Order, and if they would just contribute the sum of
each, and many will contribute freely to such an enterprise, a large
sum could soon
be raised, and a National Masonic Tubercular Sanatorium could become a
I think I am right in saying that the Masonic Fraternity has no
institution of this
kind at the present time. As the great slogan of the present is
Conservation, would we not be doing a great work if we prepare such an
and conserve the many brethren who annually fall as victims of the
great White Plague?
Gilbert Adams, Jr., Kentucky.
The Land Is Bright -- [A Poem]
Arthur H. Clough
not, the struggle
The labor and the wounds are vain,
The enemy faints not, nor faileth,
And as things have been, they remain.
If hopes are dupes, fears may be liars;
It may be, in yon smoke concealed
Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers
And, but for you, possess the field.
For while the tired waves, vainly breaking,
Seem here no painful inch to gain,
Far back, through creeks and inlets making,
Comes silent, flooding in, the main.
And not by eastern windows only,
When daylight comes, comes in the light;
In front, the sun climbs slow, how slowly,
the land is bright.
American Public Health
Hem16 / auth. Hemenway Henry B. - Indianapolis : The Bobbs-Merrill
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 292. - 5.4 MB.
for the Year of our Lord 1790
Str90 / auth. Strong N. - Hartford : Nathaniel Patten, 1790. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 26.
- 1.9 MB.
for the Year of our Lord 1791
Str91 / auth. Strong N. - Hartford : Nathaniel Patten, 1791. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 22.
- 1.7 MB.
Relating to the A.A.S.R.
Sac151 / auth. Sachse Julius F.. - Philadelphia : [s.n.], 1915. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p.
337. - 21.7 MB.
Vol 018 - 1905
Ars05 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 15.0 MB.
Vol 019 - 1906
Ars06 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - Margate : H.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 429. - 37.0 MB.
Kip07 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 380. - 14.9 MB.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei Vol 1
Fin61 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - Leipzig : Herman Luppe, 1861. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p.
465. - German - 20.7 MB.
Geschichte der Freimaurerei Vol 2
Fin611 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - Leipzig : Herman Luppe, 1861. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p.
391. - German - 20.8 MB.
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
the American Flag Vol 1
Pre17 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 419. - 30.7 MB.
the American Flag Vol 2
Pre171 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 410. - 28.2 MB.
the New Testament Times in Palestine
Mat08 / auth. Mathews Shailer. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1908. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 236. - 12.0 MB.
in the Middle Ages
Abr96 / auth. Abrahams Israel. - New York : MacMillan & Co.,
Ltd., 1896. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 492. - 10.0 MB.
of the Masonic Union of 1818
Hug13 / auth. Hughan William J. - Leicester : Johnson, Wykes &
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 169. - 6.7 MB.
New York and
The War with Spain
NYS03 / auth. NY State Historian. - Albany : The Argus Company, 1903. -
Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 637. - 18.8 MB.
Oli15 / auth. Oliver Frederick S. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1915. -
Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 495. - 23.5 MB.
Bun85 / auth. Bunyan John. - Chicago : Belfort, Clarke & Co.,
1885. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 427. - 15.1 MB.
and Economic Doctrines of John Marshall
Ost14 / auth. Oster John E. - New York : The Neale Publishing Company,
1914. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 372. - 17.4 MB.
of Abraham Lincoln
Ran16 / auth. Rankin Henry B. - New York : Knickerbocker Press, 1916. -
Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 440. - 14.0 MB.
of Ancient Craft Masonry
Sco50 / auth. Scott Charles. - Philadelphia : Lippincot, Grambo,
& Co, 1850.
- 5th Ed. : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 413. - 30.9 MB.
The Book of
Mac70 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : Clark & Maynard,
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 31.7 MB.
The Book of
the Dead Vol 1
Bud13 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons, 1913.
- Vol. 1
: 3 : p. 417. - 22.5 MB.
The Book of
the Dead Vol 2
Bud131 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol.
2 : 3 : p. 377. - 18.4 MB.
The Book of
the Dead Vol 3
Bud132 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol.
3 : 3 : p. 44. - Vignette 2 and part of Vignette 19 missing - 4.8 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th :
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6 MB.
of the American Flag
Bal09 / auth. Balderston Lloyd and Canby George. - Philadelphia :
Ferris & Leach,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 7.8 MB.
Cro90 / auth. Crowe Frederick J W. - London : George Kenning, 1890. -
Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 105. - 2.5 MB.
of Personal Life
Smy16 / auth. Smyth Newman. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
- Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 374. - 14.5 MB.
Sib13 / auth. Sibley W G. - Gallipolis : The Lions Paw Club, 1913. -
3rd : Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 122. - 4.3 MB.
of Melekartha Vol 1
Tay31 / auth. Taylor Isaac. - London : Holdsworth and Ball, 1831. -
Vol. 1 : 3 :
p. 357. - 11.9 MB.
of Melekartha Vol 2
Tay311 / auth. Taylor Isaac. - London : Holdsworth and Ball, 1831. -
Vol. 2 : 3
: p. 314. - 10.7 MB.
of Melekartha Vol 3
Tay312 / auth. Taylor Isaac. - London : Holdsworth and Ball, 1831. -
Vol. 3 : 3
: p. 340. - 11.1 MB.
Gri13 / auth. Grierson Francis. - New York : John Lane Company, 1913. -
Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 344. - 12.7 MB - Illustrated.
Gal141 / auth. Gallichan Walter M. - London : Holden &
Hardingham, 1914. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 359. - 15.6 MB - Illustrated.