Masonic Research Society
Masonic Social Service:
An Investment in Babies
By Bro. T. W. Hugo, 33░,
(Hear now a story of the Infant Welfare Work of
Scottish Rite Bodies of Duluth, written at our request, and telling of
the growth, the methods, and organization of the work, together with
its results. We present it as the first of a number of examples of
service, not only because the work of the Duluth Masons deserves to be
but also, and chiefly, that others may go and do likewise – if not in
field, then in some other that lies ready at hand. The following letter
Commissioner of Public Safety explains itself: – "Dear Mr. Hugo: I am
of your report of the Infant Welfare work being done by the Scottish
of this city. They are most certainly to be congratulated on the
made, and the City Government, and I believe our citizens generally,
the good work you are doing and the responsibility you have assumed.
yours, B. Silberstein.")
A YELLOW pup! But wait a minute; I am a
fairies, and I like to begin a story with "Once upon a time." Although,
to tell the truth, I am scared to death to get down to my vernacular
and such common
subjects as I shall have to touch upon in my story when I think of what
on "isms and aints," the fourth dimension, the occult, and so forth,
think, and the strain the muscles of their noses will have to stand to
down to the normal level again. But "orders is orders," and Ye Editor
gets what he asked for, and I'll bet the whole bunch will back me up.
If I use the
personal pronoun it is not egotistically, but to avoid the feeling of
if I did not, because the personal element comes into the beginning of
So now, "once upon a time" I was the presiding
officer of the four bodies of the Scottish Rite of the Valley of
Duluth, and had
been in that position for twenty-two years. I had seen the Rite built
up from the
nine Charter members to about nine hundred; I realized that our
strength did not
increase in proportion to our increase in membership; that our sympathy
another did not extend any farther than when we had less than half that
that if we tried to be brotherly to more than about so many we were
by wondering if "that really was his name, and who is he anyhow"; that
our attendance did not increase in proportion, nor was our ceremonial
any better; that we seemed to be about at a standstill in most
everything but increase
in membership. We had some money, were never parsimonious, met in a
was entirely paid for before we held a meeting in it; but there was
and I wondered if it might be myself – so I began to fuss. Having held
so long, I had become the Masonic father confessor, general consulting
probate Judge, and Masonic Probation Policeman of our town. Now we have
scene set, and in comes a poor mother late one afternoon about six
years ago with
a sick child; she had been to see some doctors, all of whom told her
she must place
the baby in a hospital right away; but having no money or friends they
well have told her she ought to feed the baby on champagne, but some
her to me. The baby was fixed up for overnight and everybody made as
as possible – except me. I was mad all through, my red hair stood
straight up on
end, my nerves stuck out through my skin, and even my funny bone
couldn't see a
joke in it.
I played Booth in Macbeth, fumed and stamped,
tragedy kept the stage until I made up my mind that if I wanted to get
I would have to find an antidote, when the thought struck me that if
make a fellow forget his other troubles it would be a smoke of one of
Buck's cigars, and I made him a pleasant call, lit one of the stogies,
and was about ready to go home entirely straightened up when – Bang,
and a youngster rushed in with a dirty, mongrel, yellow pup in his
arms. The pup
had been run over by a motorcycle and the feelings both of the boy and
the pup had
been hurt, in addition to the hind leg of the pup; my friend of the
said, "Well, take that howling brute down to the dog hospital," and the
incident closed and the pup disappears from scene. I soon took my
home, went to bed, and everything seemed settled – until in my sleep
the pup began
to eat the baby, and before I could reach for a stick I fell out of the
barked my shins. After that I couldn't go to sleep again for some time,
off when I had made a combination of nine hundred men, a baby hospital,
a work of
interest for these men to be engaged in, and the bigger idea of trying
to give the
most helpless portion of animate nature a better chance for their white
together with the development of the helpful spirit latent in Masonry.
By the next meeting I had mapped out a fine
be delivered to the assembled Brethren, I gathered up the usual Masonic
dwelling on "spreading the cement of brotherly love" over everything,
was obliged to deal in generalities because I did not know exactly what
or what would best suit, as I foolishly consulted with several Doctors
one told me a different specific to use. But I was game, and after the
I got up and stated that I had asked them to be present on this
occasion for the
purpose of; – and then I was off, but soon forgot what I had mapped out
them with, fell from grace into the yellow pup story, and made the
a very apologetic manner that we ought to undertake such work, and –
then one brother
broke up the meeting by growling, "Well, why don't you?" That ended it.
There were no resolutions, no whereases, not a motion that a committee
appointed, to look into the matter"; it was taken for granted, and
time the funds have been forthcoming without comment. We have given up
of the hospital for the present, that is not the first essential, but
it will come
Although we have settled it, I believe, that in
future a sick baby shall have as good a show to treatment as a yellow
we have quarters in St. Luke's Hospital, the ultimate will be a regular
because babies are no more welcome in the ordinary Hospital than they
are in some
well regulated families. But we soon learned by experience that there
features of the Infant Welfare work which would bring quicker and more
results than the Hospital. Visiting Nursing, for instance, is the first
important portion; it is immediate in its effects, is educational, a
feature, because you have to gradually bring those who may profit by
up to the point where they will be willing first, and then anxious for
it. Our experience
leads us to believe that the visiting nurse, a proper one, not over
the theory, but bubbling over with the natural, womanly, sympathetic
and good nature of the strong, healthy, female crusader who would be a
Suffragette riding on a horse all straddled out if her tendencies had
not run into
more elevating and useful channels, is indispensable. It is really
those women can do; I can have myself placed in the Ananias class at
any time by
telling the truth and sticking to the facts concerning what I know
about this matter,
so I have to go light in deference to my standing as a Deacon.
After we had tried out many things, and failed
we found that the next step was to provide means for obtaining medical
it is remarkable how little, comparatively, the doctor is needed, but
he is needed
at times; and the next was to provide Milk Stations where guaranteed
could be obtained at reasonable prices. These were the next steps, but
all based on the work of the visiting nurse. In our case the milk
comparatively easy, as there are only three months during which the hot
demands any special consideration, but this is a latitudinal detail
which each locality
must determine for itself. In our case we paid ten cents a quart for
milk and sold it for seven cents, the same price as the ordinary milk
sold for. About one-fourth we had to give free, but wherever possible
some consideration, in order to prevent the development of the idea of
its cold, paralyzing effect on the moral consciousness. Our Clinics are
by a practicing physician and a Nurse; one is held each day, except
during the middle of the season we have two physicians employed and
In the working out of our plans we found that a
amount of our work was undone by the lack of appreciation of the
importance of the
job confided to them on the part of the young children to whose care
were entrusted. Then we called them Little Mothers, and educated them
in such matters as they could bring into use in their work of caring
for their little
brothers and sisters. We gave them real grown up receptions, cake and
with three colors in it, and practical instruction, and took them out
for auto rides,
as well as the real Mothers, but at different times; for the Little
the trip a picnic which would surely waken the baby, if within a block.
no trouble in securing the autos, and each is driven by its owner, no
permitted in the procession. It is the Society event in Dead Cat Alley
Lane when the shining machine makes its way to the residence of Mrs.
and takes the Duchess and her family out for an airing. But I could use
typewriter – it used to belong to a woman – for hours, and still be on
side, but I shall have to complete this story by enclosing some
the same subject and summarize the results.
Summing up, our experience has been very
we have reduced the indigestion and insomnia amongst our Brethren,
because we have
cut out the mankilling late suppers and spent the money on the babies;
we have given
our members the idea and the certain knowledge that they are doing
they are helping somebody; we have placed Masonry much closer to the
than it ever was or would have been in any length of time under the old
regime; it means something to them now besides a selfish, cloister-cell
which although possessed of great potential strength was too much
hampered by old
traditions, old customs, Grand Master's decisions, Obsolete Landmarks,
and the endeavor
to live under ancient, instead of modern, conditions, and permitted
real civilization to drag it along, instead of being one of the highest
motors in the van.
Properly organized, such a work is not an
which should dismay any group of Masons under ordinary conditions. The
expenses are nothing; the only expenses being for Nurses and
physicians, and such
other charges as hospital bills, and attention to the sick. One brother
and the Autocrat of all the Russias is not in it with his reign; there
is no female
on the list, except the nurses, and every dollar is one hundred cents.
who the Director is and no person is strutting around borrowing glory
nothing. The Scottish Rite Bodies furnish the entire funds and are glad
to do so.
Our Masonic Institution, not alone the Scottish
stands in our City of over 95,000 people as one of its municipal assets
the letter of the Director of Public Safety in the Christmas Calendar
his opinion. The City Health Department still looks after the pre-natal
different subject, but we attend to everything in the shape of infants.
If I have
not covered your requirements ask me questions and I will try and make
plain, or come up with your skis and see for yourself.
(From the report of the work, as submitted to
American Association for the Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality,"
headquarters are at Baltimore, Md., we learn the following details of
the work at
Duluth. The work was organized in 1911 and is carried on throughout the
number of babies cared for during the year 1913, was 200; for the year
for the year 1915, 600; the large increase for 1915 being due to the
fact that the
City of Duluth's interest in this department was assumed by the
Scottish Rite Masons.
The nationalities represented in the babies cared for are Swedish
French, German, Italian, Austrian, English, Irish, and three colored –
that the work is neutral. The infant death rate in Duluth for the year
223; for 1914, 187. Free clinics were held in three districts of the
the months of June, July, August, and September, 1915. Total number of
from June 28th to October 15th 1915, 1,334; total number of infants on
– The Editor.
When Old Age Comes -- [A Poem]
Burges Johnson, in Harper's
God grant me old
I would see some things finished; some outworn;
Some stone prepared for builders yet unborn.
Nor would I be the sated, weary sage
Who sees no strange new wonder in each morn.
And with me there on what men call the shelf
Crowd memories from which I cull the best, –
And live old strifes, old kisses, some old jest;
For if I be no burden to myself
I shall be less a burden to the rest.
If God grant you old age,
I'll love the record writ in whitened hair,
I'll read each wrinkle wrought by patient care,
As oft as one would scan a treasured page,
Knowing by heart each sentence graven there.
I'd have you know life's evil and life's good,
And gaze out calmly, sweetly on it all –
Serene with hope, whatever may befall;
As though a love-strong spirit ever stood
With arm about you, waiting any call.
If God grant us old age,
I'd have us very lenient toward our kind,
Letting our waning senses first grow blind
Toward sins that youthful zealots can engage,
While we hug closer all the good we find.
I'd have us worldly foolish, heaven wise,
Each lending each frail succor to withstand,
Ungrudging, ev'ry mortal day's demand;
While fear-fed lovers gaze in our old eyes,
And go forth bold and glad and hand in hand.
Beecher on Burns
(An unknown friend who signs only his initials
to say that several years ago he read in the Brooklyn Eagle the report
of an address
on "Beecher as a Lecturer," [Lib 1913] by Dr. Hillis, in which was
quoted an extract
from a little known, unpublished lecture by Mr. Beecher on Robert
Burns. He is kind
enough to send us the excerpt, and we can only say that if the whole
of a piece with this passage, it is a great pity that it was never
full. The passage, which we believe our readers will very much
appreciate, is as
His one nature carried enough for twenty common
of force and of feeling. He never trickled drop by drop prudentially;
He never ran a slender thread of silver water; he came down booming
like one of
his own streams, which, when a shower has fallen, rushes down the
parts of his nature were subject to this same, sudden overflow. He
thought as dragons
charge, he felt love as prairies feel autumnal fires. No man can form
either of the good or bad that was in him who has not studied Burns'
tides were deep as the oceans and sometimes as tempestuous. There was
more put into
the making of Burns than any man of his age. That which he had given
forth by no
means expressed the whole of what he was. A great deal of his nature
lay like undug
treasure and like unpolished gold. His letters were as wonderful as his
his conversation richer than either. While that half idiot Boswell was
every stray acorn that fell from that rough, rugged oak, old Doctor
much better would it have been if some Ariel had hung upon the lips of
recorded the flowers of his inspired eloquence! Now his spirit walks
praises and wreathed with loving sympathies all over the habitable
globe. And if
every man within these twenty four hours the world around, who should
word of Burns with fond admiration were ranked as his subject, no king
would have such a realm; and if such an one should change a feeling
into a flower
and cast it down to memory, a mountain would rise, and he should sit
upon a throne
of blossoms, now at length without a thorn.
Just to be good: to keep life pure from
to make it constantly helpful in little ways to those who are touched
by it, to
keep one's spirit always sweet, and avoid all manner of petty anger and
– that is an ideal as noble as it is difficult.
Questions on “The Story
By The Cincinnati Masonic
(In our January issue we closed the series of
on “The Builders," compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study School. We
now present a shorter, but equally comprehensive list of questions
based on "The
Story of Freemasonry," [Lib 1913 with
corresponding page numbers] by Bro.
W.G Sibley, of Ohio. This little book may be obtained either from The
Club of Gallipolis, Ohio, or from John H. Cowles Secretary-General of
the A. A.
S. Rite, Washington, D. C. Price 50 cents.)
and by whom was Symbolic Masonry introduced into
America? Page 61-62.
and why was allegiance to English Authority severed?
is said of the Military Lodge of Freemasons in
the "Connecticut Line" of the Revolution? What distinguished Patriot
a member thereof? 62.
did the great Edwin Booth regard Freemasonry? 51-1.
do the charges contain concerning the management
of the craft? 84-1.
were the ordinances adopted by the chief lodge
of Strassburg in 1563? 78-1.
is required of Masters? For what cause were fellows
of old cast out from the craft forever? 77-1.
statutes of Masonry were re-enacted in Montpelier,
France, in 1586? 78-2.
what six general heads are the Ancient Charges
to Master Masons arranged? 79-2.
a Mason to do under the first specification of the Ancient Charges?
a Mason a good citizen of the Nation in which he resides as defined
under the 2d
head of the ancient charges? 80.
the status of a Mason who is a Rebel against the state? 80-1.
supposed to be the conversation in the Lodge Room or Ante-Room? Page
Masons conduct themselves during the session of the Lodge? How at Home?
you know of Masonic Charity throughout the world? Page 112-2.
do Masons give Charity? When? 112-1.
in Sweden, Hungary and America dispense Charity? 113.
John Coustos? 20-1.
why was he tortured? 20-4.
his release? 22-9.
the attitude of the French Lodges toward the higher degrees in August,
caused the Grand Lodge of France to recognize them? 67-2, 68-1.
authority are all the individual organizations of Free Masons? How are
and in what relation do they work together? Page 67.
degrees did the original historical Masonry have and to what purpose
did they put
them? Page 56.
said of the York Rite? 60-2.
degrees and what are their names in the Chapter? What are its chief
what do they represent? Page 61.
orders have the Commandery and what are its principal officers called?
the York Rite derive its name and what does it include? Page 60.
the three Degrees seem to come into existence? Page 57.
the two separate series of degrees in Masonry called? 60.
said of the dignity of the Fraternity of Freemasons during the latter
part of the
eighteenth century? 16-1.
said of the historical record of the Royal Arch degree? Page 62-63.
where were the Council Degrees introduced into America and what is said
said of the origin of the Knights Templar? What progress had they made
by the end
of the twelfth century? 64-1.
the historical record of the York Rite? 62-6.
known of the council degrees? 63-3.
is given of Knights Templar? 64-4.
authority does each individual organization of Masons work and with
said of the Esoteric Work of Freemasonry? 88-1.
effort been made to exterminate Freemasonry? Page 13.
was Freemasonry fought in France? Page 13.
ever been attacked? Where? 13 20. Why? 13 2.
is said to be the most inveterate enemy of Freemasonry? Page 14.
year did Queen Elizabeth of England order the Grand Lodge to be broken
account of the various attacks on Freemasonry from 1429 to the year
the nature of the attacks upon Freemasonry in the latter part of the
century? By whom made and why? 16-12-17-1
Arthur Edward Waite - An
By Joseph Fort Newton
ONE of the greatest masters of the field of
lore and method of culture, by far the greatest now living, is Arthur
to whom it is an honor to pay tribute. In response to a number of
as prelude to a lecture on the deeper aspects of Masonry, soon to
appear in these
pages, we offer a brief sketch of Brother Waite, with a statement of
of Masonry and its service to man in his quest of God. If these lines
of our readers to study his works, they will thank us for having put
them in the
way of so wise and skillful a guide, who is at once a poet and a
mystic, the sum
of whose insight, set forth on his latest page, is that
all passions, all delights, Whatever stirs this mortal frame,
Are but the ministers of love, And feed his sacred flame."
By rare good fortune, as we think, our friend
was born in America – in Brooklyn, New York – and on his father's side
descent back to the earliest settlers in Connecticut. His mother was
to the old family of Lovell. The family name, originally spelled
was attached to the document authorizing the execution of Charles I.,
and it was
probably the fact that the family found England a rather uncomfortable
which to live after the Restoration that sent his ancestors across the
the poet was still in his infancy his father died, and he was taken to
the age of two. He has never returned to America – a fact to be held
but for which we hope he will atone in a time not far away.
Educated privately, he began writing while
his early teens, poetry being his first love. His first book, a volume
was published in 1886. For ten years or more he pursued an active
as secretary and director of public companies, at the same time
engaging in elaborate
researches in the fields of magic, occultism, and the esoteric side of
and philosophy. How he found time to do both is not easy to know. He
took the whole
realm of mysticism for his province, for the study of which he was
fitted by temperament, training, and genius – and, we may add, by
certain deep experiences
in his own life, of which he rarely speaks, the glow of which one
detects in all
his work, and nowhere more vividly than in his latest book on "The Way
Union." In later years, as the result of long study, he has come to
with the higher mysticism, as totally separated from the magical, the
and the occult.
Exploring a hidden world, he has brought to his
a religious nature, the accuracy and skill of a scholar, a sureness and
of insight at once sympathetic and critical, the eye of a symbolist and
of a poet – qualities rarely found in union. Brother Waite does not
our American fashion – "hot off the bat," as Casey put it – but in a
manner, seeking not only to state the results of his research, but to
of the atmosphere of the themes with which he deals. Prolific but
he writes with such lucidity as his subject admits of, albeit in a
style often touched
with strange lights and remote and haunting echoes. Much learning and
of wisdom are in his pages; and if he is of those who turn down another
wonders are wrought in the neighborhood, it is because, having found
the inner truth,
he does not ask for a sign.
Always our Brother writes in the conviction
great subjects bring us back to the one subject that is alone great –
of that Living Truth which is about us everywhere. He conceives of our
as one eternal Quest of that Living Truth, taking many forms, yet ever
the same aspiration, to trace which he has made it his labor and
all his pages he is following the tradition of this Quest, in its
finding in it the secret meaning of the life of man from his birth to
– or reunion – with God who is his Goal. And the result is a series of
in form! United in aim, unique in wealth of revealing beauty, of
and of unequalled worth.
As far back as 1886, Brother Waite issued his
of the "Mysteries [History] of Magic," [Lib 1922] a digest of the writings of
Eliphas Levi, to whom
Albert Pike was more indebted than he let us know. Then followed the
History of the Rosicrucians," [Lib 1887] which traces, as far as such
a thing can be done,
the thread of fact in that fascinating romance. Of the Quest in its
Christian aspect, he has written in "The Hidden Church of the Holy
[Lib 1909]; a work of rare beauty,
of bewildering richness, its style partaking of the story told, and not
at all after
the fashion of these days. But the Graal Legend is only one aspect of
sacred Quest of the truth most worth finding, uniting the symbols of
the forms of Christian faith.
Masonry is another aspect of that same age-long
and just as Brother Pound has shown us the place of Masonry among the
of humanity, and its meaning as such, so Brother Waite shows us the
place of Masonry
in the mystical tradition and aspiration of mankind. No one may ever
hope to write
of "The Secret Tradition in Masonry" [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2] with more insight
and charm, or a touch more sure and revealing, than this gracious
scholar to whom
Masonry perpetuates the Instituted Mysteries of antiquity, with much
from innumerable store-houses of treasure. What then are the marks of
Quest, whether its legend be woven about a Lost Word, a design left
a Master Builder, or, in its Christian form, about the Cup of Christ?
They are as follows: first, the sense of a
which has befallen humanity, making us a race of pilgrims ever in
search of that
which is lost; second, the intimation that what was lost still exists
in time and the world, although deeply buried; third, the faith that it
be found and the vanished glory restored; fourth, the substitution of
temporary and less than the best, but never in a way to adjourn the
quest; and fifth,
the felt presence of that which is lost under veils and symbols close
at hand. What
though it take many forms, it is always the same quest, and from this
of it surely we ought to see that Masonry has a place in the greatest
man has pursued in the midst of time. Our Order is thus linked with the
tradition of the race, having a place and a service in the culture of
the life of
the soul, leading men in the search for God, if haply they might feel
and find Him, though He is not far from any one of us.
But this is a long and difficult quest, and we
walk carefully, lest we trip and fall into the pits that beset the
Waite warns us against the dark alleys that lead nowhere, and the false
lure to ruin, and he protests against those who would open the
Pandora's Box of
the Occult on the altar of Masonry. After a long study of occultism,
talismans, and the like, he has come to draw a sharp line between the
the mystical, and therein he is wise. From a recent interview with him
to these matters in an English paper, we may read:
"There is nothing
more completely set apart from mysticism than that set of interests and
occultism. Occultism is concerned with the idea that there were a
number of secret
sciences handed down from the past, and which, roughly speaking,
steps toward the attainment of abnormal power by man, corresponding to
of Magic. Magic, of course, meant many things: it meant the power
obtained by man
as a result of dealing with spirits, raising the spirits of the dead,
that we understand by the supposed efficacy of talismans, and all that
in the word Astrology. My interest in these things has been purely
Occult and psychical
research does help, of course, to show that the purely materialistic
of things does not cover the whole field. It shows a residue of
points to the existent of powers beyond the ken of man, some of them
others innocent in themselves, of which the student may take account.
I have known too many who follow these things as the be-all and end-all
interests. I know others also, and many, to whom the exaggerated
pursuit has spelt
not less than ruin. I mean, morally and spiritually. I know, for the
they reach no real term; very soon they come up against a dead wall."
Here are grave and wise words, spoken out of
of history and fact, and he is wise who heeds them. It is no
theological bias of
any sort, but the profound fallacy of the occult, and its danger to the
life and character, that has moved us more than once in these pages to
utter a like
warning to those who would turn aside from the historic highway of the
soul to follow
a will-of-the-wisp into the bog. If Masonry forsakes its Great Light to
wandering tapers, it too will fall into the ditch. But to listen to
sacramental. To me all visible things are emblems. When you come to
think of it,
is it not true that all the workings of the human mind are in the form
These symbols are truly representative and not mere figments of the
mind, and to
get at the reality behind the symbol is the aim of the mystic. The
theory of mysticism
is that the voice of God is within, and that the soul has to enter into
that God is within. The question is whether that realization can be
in this life. All, or nearly all, the great mystics, held that they
it. The absolute vision and union lie very far away – so the quest of
the Lost Word
goes on, ever on.
Mysticism is not a
way of escape either from one's self or the world. It is by the
realization of the
indwelling of God in all around, and within, in things animate and
most of all in the soul of man, that we attain to knowledge of God – in
so far as
we attain it in this life. Thus, it is not a path of escape from the
world, as the
old ascetics imagine, but by finding God in the world, the ideal in the
with the ideal within ourselves, that we attain to union with God. We
to ourselves. A man building a house would perhaps be surprised if you
that he is not merely building bricks and stones, but that he is trying
into being something of the idealism in his own nature, but if he could
to understand that, would it not give a new glory to his work? "
Thus mysticism, as here presented, is practical
sense – bringing to the humblest task the highest truth to lighten and
our labor. Time does not permit us to speak of the poetry of Brother
some think his best work has been done in that field. He himself thinks
of his poetry
as "light tongued rumors and hints alone of the songs I had hoped to
We must, however, mention his drama of "The Morality of the Lost Word,"
which may be found in his poems, recently collected in two noble
volumes [Lib 1914;
1, Vol 2], and we bespeak for
it a long study. At another time we shall speak of the poetry of our
friend to whom
the world is ever an infinite parable, giving at present only the
as a hint of his poetic purpose and power:
In the midst of a world
full of omen and sign, impell'd by the seeing gift on auspice and
in part I conjecture their drift; I catch faint words of the language
world speaks far and wide. And the soul withdrawn in the deeps of man
from the birth
of each man has cried. I know that a sense is beyond the sense of the
and Word, That the tones in the chant which we strain to seize are the
are scarcely heard; While life pulsating with secret things has many
too deep to
speak, And that which evades, with a quailing heart, we feel is the
sense we seek:
Scant were the skill to discern a few where the countless symbols
crowd, To render
the easiest reading, catch the cry that is trite and loud.
For the rest, we confess a great debt to our
and Brother across the great waters, divided by distance but very near
and sympathy and regard; a man of pure and lofty spirit, tolerant of
of nature, in all ways a true Master Mason – and one who does not
best portion of a good man's life, the little, nameless, unremembered
acts of kindness
and of love."
The Foundation Stone
Thus saith the Lord God: – Behold, I lay in
a Foundation Stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure
that believeth shall not make haste. Judgment also will I lay to the
line, and righteousness
to the plummet. – Isaiah.
Some Deeper Aspects of Masonic
By Bro. Arthur Edward Waite,
The subject which I am about to approach is one
certain obvious difficulties, because it is outside the usual horizon
literature, and requires, therefore, to be put with considerable care,
as well as
with reasonable prudence. Moreover, it is not easy to do it full
the limits of a single lecture. I must ask my Brethren to make
for the fact that I am speaking in good faith, and where the evidence
for what I
shall affirm does not appear in its fullness, and sometimes scarcely at
must believe that I can produce it at need, should the opportunity
occur. As a matter
of fact, some part of it has appeared in my published writings.
I will introduce the question in hand by a
which is familiar to us all, as it so happens that it forms a good
point of departure:
– "But as we are not all operative Masons, but rather Free and Accepted
speculative, we apply these tools to our morals." With certain
these words occur in each of the Craft Degrees, and their analogies are
to be found
in a few subsidiary Degrees which may be said to arise out of the Craft
– as, for
example, the Honorable Degree of Mark Master Mason. That which is
applied more specially
to the working implements of Masonry belongs to our entire building
it is concerned with the erection by the Candidate in his own
personality of an
edifice or "superstructure perfect in its parts and honorable to the
or, in the Mark Degree, with a house not made with hands, eternal in
or again with Solomon's Temple spiritualized in the Legend of the
A System of Morality
It comes about in this manner that Masonry is
elsewhere as "a peculiar system of morality, enveiled in allegory and
by symbols." I want to tell you, among other things which call for
something about the nature of the building, as this is presented to my
about the way in which allegory, symbols and drama all hang together
and make for
one meaning. It is my design also to show that Craft Masonry-
less or more distinct elements which have been curiously interlinked
under the device
of symbolical architecture. That interlinking is to some extent
yet it arises logically, so far as the relation of ideas is concerned.
There is, firstly, the Candidate's own work,
he is taught how he should build himself. The method of instruction is
within its own measures, but as it is so familiar and open, it is not,
speaking, the subject-matter of a Secret Order. There is, secondly, a
and the manner in which it is put forward involves the Candidate taking
a dramatic scene, wherein he represents the master-builder of Masonry.
thirdly, a Masonic quest, connected with the notion of a Secret Word
as an essential part of the Master Degree in building. This is perhaps
important and strangest of the three elements; but the quest after the
Word is not
finished in the Third Degree.
The First Degree
Let us look for a moment at the Degree of
and how things stand with the Candidate when he first comes within the
of the Lodge. He comes as one who is "worthy and well recommended," as
if he contained within himself certain elements or materials which are
to a specific purpose. He is described by his conductor as a person who
prepared." The fitness implied by the recommendation has reference to
which is within him, but not of necessity obvious or visible on his
It is not that he is merely a deserving member of society at large. He
of course, by the fact that he is admitted; but he is very much more,
has an object in view respecting his personality – something that can
in him as a result of his fellowship in the Brotherhood, and by
himself. As a matter
of truth, it is by both. The "prepared" state is, however, only
and all of us know in what precisely it consists.
Now the manner of his preparation for entrance
Lodge typifies a state which is peculiar to his ward position as a
person who has
not been initiated. There are other particulars into which I need not
it should be remarked that in respect of his preparation he learns only
of the state of darkness, namely, that he has not yet received the
in Masonry. The significance of those hindrances which place him at a
impede his movements, and render him in fact helpless, is much deeper
They constitute together an image coming out from some old condition by
therefrom – partially at least – and thereafter of entering into a
is new and different, in which another kind of light is communicated,
vesture is to be assumed, and, ultimately, another life entered.
The Meaning of Initiation
In the first Degree the Candidate's eyes are
into the representation of a new world, for you must know, of course,
that the Lodge
itself is a symbol of the world, extending to the four corners, having
heaven above and the great depth beneath. The Candidate may think
light has been taken away from him for the purpose of his initiation,
has been thereafter
restored automatically, when he has gone through a part of the
ceremony, and that
hence he is only returned to his previous position. Not so. In reality,
is restored to him in another place; he has put aside old things, has
things that are new; and he will never pass out of the Lodge as quite
the same man
that he entered. There is a very true sense in which the particulars of
are in analogy with the process of birth into the physical world. The
of his previous existence, amidst the life of the uninitiated world,
and the yoke
which is placed about him is unquestionably in correspondence with the
cord. You will remember the point at which he is released therefrom –
in our English
ritual, I mean. I do not wish to press this view, because it belongs of
the main, to another region of symbolism, and the procedure in the
confuses an issue which might be called clear otherwise in the Degree
Apprentice. It is preferable to say that a new light – being that of
Masonry – illuminates
the world of the Lodge in the midst of which the Candidate is placed;
he is penetrated
by a fresh experience; and he sees things as they have never been
presented to him
before. When he retires subsequently for a period, this is like his
to light; in the literal sense he resumes that which he set aside, as
he is restored
to the old light; but in the symbolism it is another environment, a new
motive, experience, and sphere of duty attached thereto. He assumes a
in the world.
The question of certain things of a metallic
absence of which plays an important part, is a little difficult from
any point of
view, though several explanations have been given. The better way
toward their understanding
is to put aside what is conventional and arbitrary – as, for example,
of spirit and the denuded state of those who have not yet been enriched
by the secret
knowledge of the Royal and Holy Art. It goes deeper than this and
ordinary status of the world, when separated from any higher motive –
the extrinsic titles of recognition, the material standards. The
Candidate is now
to learn that there is another standard of values, and when he comes
possession of the old tokens, he is to realize that their most
important use is
in the cause of others. You know under what striking circumstances this
brought home to him.
Entered, Passed, Raised
The Candidate is, however, subjected to like
experience in each of the Craft Degrees, and it calls to be understood
the Entered Apprentice Degree it is because of a new life which he is
to lead henceforth.
In the Fellowcraft, it is as if the mind were to be renewed, for the
of research into the hidden mysteries of nature, science, and art. But
in the sublime
Degree of Master Mason it is in order that he may enter fully into the
death and of that which follows thereafter, being the great mystery of
The three technical and official words corresponding to the successive
are Entered, Passed, and Raised, their Craft-equivalents being
and Master – or he who has undertaken to acquire the symbolical and
art of building the house of another life; he who has passed therein to
point of proficiency, and in fine, he who has attained the whole
mystery. If I may
use for a moment the imagery of Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, he has
to effectuate in his own personality "a new birth in time," to wear a
new body of desire, intention and purpose; he has fitted to that body a
and other objects of research. In fine, he has been taught how to lay
and yet again he has been taught how to take it up after a different
the midst of a very strange symbolism.
Now, it may be observed that in delineating
of our symbolism, I seem already to have departed from the mystery of
which I opened the conference; but I have been actually considering
thereon. It may be understood, further, that I am not claiming to deal
with a symbolism
that is perfect in all its parts, however honorable it may be otherwise
to the builder.
In the course of such researches as I have been enabled to make into
Mysteries of different ages and countries, I have never met with one
which was in
entire harmony with itself. We must be content with what we have, just
as it is
necessary to tolerate the peculiar conventions of language under which
Degrees have passed into expression, artificial and sometimes
commonplace as they
are. Will you observe once again at this stage how it is only in the
that the Candidate is instructed to build upon his own part a
is somehow himself? This symbolism is lost completely in the ceremony
of the Fellowcraft
Degree, which, roughly speaking, is something of a Degree of Life; the
more especially those of conduct and purpose, while in the Third
Degree, they speak
of direct relations between man and his Creator, giving intimation of
The Third Degree
I have said, and you know, that the Master
one of death and resurrection of a certain kind, and among its
there is a return to building symbolism, but this time in the form of a
It is no longer an erection of the Candidate's own house – house of the
of the mind, and house of the moral law. We are taken to the Temple of
are told how the Master-Builder suffered martyrdom rather than betray
which had been placed in his keeping. Manifestly the lesson which is
drawn in the
Degree is a veil of something much deeper, and about which there is no
It is assuredly an instruction for the Candidates that they must keep
of the Masonic Order secretly, but such a covenant has reference only
to the official
and external side. The bare recitation of the legend would have been
to enforce this; but observe that the Candidate assumes the part of the
and suffers within or in him – as a testimony of personal faith and
honor in respect
to his engagements. But thereafter he rises, and it is this which gives
characteristic to the descriptive title of the Degree. It is one of
of reunion with companions – almost as if he had been released from
and had entered into the true Land of the Living. The keynote is
therefore not one
of dying but one of resurrection; and yet it is not said in the legend
Master rose. The point seems to me one of considerable importance, and
yet I know
not of a single place in our literature wherein it has received
will leave it, however, for the moment, but with the intention of
returning to it.
Sectarianism and Freemasonry
By Bro. Geo. W. Warvelle,
BEING myself a Greek pagan of the New Academy,
not without a strong leaning toward the Stoics, I have always indulged
in the utmost
eclecticism in matters of religion. And because I am unbiased in this
have not only been tolerant of all men's religious opinions, but am
enabled to see
beauty and truth in many places where my more circumspect brethren see
superstition and falsehood. In my writings I have always felt free to
roam at my
own sweet will through whatever pastures presented themselves and to
cull the flowers
that therein grew, without a thought as to their botanical
significance. It is enough
for me that they are beautiful. Therefore, whether uttered by Jesus,
Buda or Mohamed,
the message of truth is to me the same. But, I am digressing. However,
that is a
fault of my composition that, I doubt not, you have long since
Now, what is Freemasonry? Is it something apart
the world, or is it of it? By becoming Freemasons do we cease to
A serious consideration of these cogent questions may not be
unprofitable to us
all. Again, is Freemasonry religious or is it only ethical? If the
former, is it
cast in any mold or does each one make his own creed? If the latter, is
subjective or objective? And if objective, then from what sources do we
our morality? A few more questions worthy of a little serious thought.
I have many times heard it stated, that
the legend of the Royal Arch is Semitic, therefore the Old Testament
alone furnish the basis of our religious thought as Royal Arch Masons.
seems to be a generally accepted principle by Grand High Priests, as is
by the pious oratorical introductions and fervent conclusions of their
in the terms of Old Testament theology. But, while it is true that the
Semitic it is not true that it is Scriptural. On the contrary, it is
unscriptural. Not only is there not a line in the Old Testament that
legend, but it is opposed by all the known facts of history. The
legend, then, is
only a symbol and as such is compatible with all religions. Hence,
there is, and
can be, no sectarianism in Freemasonry, for each may interpret the
symbol for himself
and all will be right however much they may seem to disagree.
The Masonic fraternity of the United States is
of many races, with their differing views of morals and religion. It
theory at least, to reconcile these diverse and oftentimes antagonistic
reducing them to a common formula which the old charges call, "The
in which all men agree." It assumes to provide a common meeting ground
men of different races and religions, and thus to promote the harmony
among those who otherwise "must have remained at a perpetual distance."
But what is the religion "in which all men agree"? Does such a thing
outside of the fertile imaginations of ritual compilers? Who can define
or state its principles? As a matter of fact is it not a Utopian dream,
did and never will become a reality? Notwithstanding that they are all
the Christian remains a Christian, the Jew a Jew, the Moslem a Moslem.
adore an abstraction which they call God, but each has his own concept,
concept utterly excludes that of the others. So has it ever been, so
will it be
while frail humanity retains its present mold.
There is, then, no religion "in which all men
but each of us who would truly and reverently worship the Deity "in
and in truth," must be left to form his own conceptions of that Deity,
of His essence and attributes. This, as I understand it, is what is
meant by the
Masonic doctrine of toleration. Not that we must all reduce ourselves
to the dull
level of an undefined world-extensive creed.
If this be true then what shall be classed as
in Freemasonry? If the Jew prays to Yahweh shall he then give offense
to the Moslem
who says there is no God but Allah, or if the Christian seeks his God
mediation of Jesus, or perchance the intercession of the Saints, will
become a stumbling block to the Jew? And how about the pagans, like
who look through nature up to nature's God? Must not our prayers, if
they are sincere,
be made through the channels of our own faith not those of another?
I think it may be safely asserted that the
universal church, without denomination, sect or cult, will never
the tendency of the times is in the opposite direction. Nor do I know
a church is a consummation at all to be wished. In fact, it seems as
religious nature of man requires this diversity; that creeds, sects and
necessary, and that even those which appear narrow, bigoted or even
yet afford outlet for the spiritual life of undeveloped souls.
And so, "let every man be persuaded in his own
mind," we may still be brothers, or, at all events, we can be cousins.
much we may disagree in articles of faith we may yet be in unison
import of the symbols.
There is an old legend of the good St. Ambrose,
by Mr. Lowell in his melodious verse but which I in the ruder dialect
of my simple
prose. Its application to the matter just discussed is so apparent that
no apology for its introduction.
St. Ambrose, it would seem, was a most holy man
by castigation of the body, by fasting and by prayer, had made his
heart as soft
to God's hand as though it was wax. Ever he sought to know the true and
false; often he wrestled with the blessed Word, to make it yield the
the Lord; all that he might form a creed that naught could assail and
contain the essence of eternal truth. And finally his work was
had built the formula of perfect faith; and to all around he said "Thus
the Lord." And he knew, by that inward but ever sure sign, that his
a divine inspiration. And then, so the story runs, Ambrose said, "All
shall die the eternal death who believe not as I." And so, it came to
in his pious zeal, that there were some who were boiled, and some
burned in fire,
and others sawn in twain, in order that his great desire for the good
of men's souls
might be satisfied. But one day as Ambrose was taking a lonely walk he
youth of most graceful mien and beaming countenance resting himself
under the shade
of a tree. Then Ambrose drew near and inquired of the stranger how it
his soul. It required but little time, however, to ascertain that the
heart of the
stranger was hardened and that it had not received the stamp of the one
This is what the young man said:
"As each beholds
in cloud and fire
The shape that answers his own desire,
So each in the Law shall find
The figure and features of his mind;
And to each in his mercy hath God allowed
His several pillar of fire and cloud."
Then the soul of Ambrose burned with holy
then, most wretched youth
A dividual essence in Truth?
I fear me thy heart is too cramped with sin
To take the Lord in his glory in."
Now, so the story runs, there bubbled beside
they stood a fountain of water, and the youth advancing to the stream
thou maker of creeds, look here." And then he took six crystal vases
them along the edge of the brook, after which he turned to Ambrose
"As into these
vessels the water I pour,
There shall one hold less, another more,
And the water unchanged, in every case,
Shall put on the figure of the vase;
O thou, who wouldst unity make through strife,
Canst thou fit this sign to the Water of Life?"
And Ambrose stood abashed, but when he looked
he stood alone; the youth, the stream, and the vases, all were gone;
and then he
knew, by a sense of humbled grace, that he had talked with an angel,
and he felt
his heart change as with meekness and humility he fell upon his knees
the great sin of his life.
The Trial of the Knights
By Bro. Henry D. Funk, Minnesota
The trial of the Knights Templars in the early
century was one of the most brutal travesties of justice known to
mankind and the
dissolution of the order was one of the saddest tragedies chronicled in
of civilization. The trial began suddenly and was conducted with
until the ruin of the Templars was achieved. Owing to the real or
of that Medieval order with the Knights Templars of today an
examination of the
historic trial may be of interest to the readers of "The Builder."
I – Historical Sketch of
the Templars To 1307
Shortly after the end of the first crusade, in
1119, eight knights under the leadership of Hugo de Payens assumed the
task of forming
themselves into guards for the safe-conduct of pilgrims from Europe
the Eastern Mediterranean sea coast and Jerusalem. The associates of De
Godfrey de St. Omar, Roval, Godfrey Bisol, Payens de Montidiel,
Archembald de St.
Amand, Andrew de Montbarry, and Gundemar who took the regular monastic
vows of obedience,
chastity, and poverty, and lived together according to the rules of the
friars said to have been made by Bernard of Clairvaux. So eminently
useful was the
service of these eight knights that Baldwin II, king of Jerusalem,
upon them and provided them with headquarters in a part of his-palace
the spot where the Temple of Solomon is said to have stood. The
association of the
incipient order with this historic site gave to the knights the name of
of the Temple. Their number increased normally at first, the most
being count Hugo of Champagne who became a Templar in 1125. In 1128 the
of Troyes witnessed the papal confirmation of these knights as a
and then their numbers increased rapidly. (1)
The insignia of the Templars were: a white
purity, and a red cross signifying their readiness to endure martyrdom.
their meals in common, were permitted to keep horses, but not more than
each knight, and were entitled to have one servant per knight. They
to hunt lions but were forbidden to go on the chase with falcons.
with relatives was prohibited and every form of communication with
mothers and sisters, was denied. Any infraction of the rules was
punished by expulsion
from the order.
From its inception the order proper was
knights of noble descent, born in honorable wedlock, innocent of grave
and sound in body and mind. New members of this class were admitted
through a novitiate; but at an early date two other classes became
this order: the clergy, or priests, and the servientes, or servants.
Accessions from secular knights by scions of
tended to change the monastic character of the Templars and make them
not only secular
but worldly. Then we find at their head a Grandmaster, ranked as a
prince, and other
ministeriales such as a seneschal, a marshal, a president of the war
office, a Grand-Preceptor,
a treasurer of the order, a drapier, and a commander of the light
organization spelled efficiency and won for them the good will of the
III in 1148 remitted one-tenth of the penance to all who made bequests
to this order.
Alexander III in 1163 allowed them their own clergy, and Innocent III
in 1209 prohibited
the use of the interdict against them except by papal consent. Such
obligations by the recipients which the popes were not slow in
demanding of their
beneficiaries: aid for the papal agents in breaking down the
independence of local
churches. This service being performed the papacy compensated the
in 1266 by decreeing that gifts to this order entitled the donors to
of indulgences in the Holy Land. Consequently many gifts were bestowed
such as manors, villages, and towns, and their possessions were
multiplied in Jerusalem,
Tripoli, Antioch, Cyprus, and Morea in the East, while in the West they
in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany and England. In all these
built their temple courts and engaged in financial enterprises.
They were the leading bankers of Paris and
Templars of Paris acted as bankers for Blanche of Castile, Alphonso de
Robert of Artois, and many other nobles. The order also furnished
ministers of finance
to James I of Aragon and Charles I of Naples. The Templar Thierre of
the chief adviser of Louis VII of France, and the order's treasury at
the financial center for the French kingdom. (2)
But the material prosperity of the Templars was
undoing. From the days of Phillip Augustus to the reign of Philip IV
prelates as also the Knights of St. John were jealous of the power
wielded by the
Templars, and it was to be expected that at the first opportunity the
harm them. Unfortunately the Templars were not sufficiently alert to
order above reproach. They committed a grave blunder when they
permitted an unreasonable
increase in the lowest ranks, that of the servientes, which had been
one for each knight. By and by so many churls of every degree,
stablehands, and swineherders joined this class that they eventually
nine-tenths of the entire order. (3) Among these were naturally enough
many of coarse
habits and those who had "the vices of monks." The popular mind did not
distinguish between these "hewers of wood and carriers of water" and
knights proper. In France it became customary to describe an
intemperate man by
saying: "boire comme un templier," i.e. he drinks like a Templar; and
in Germany the old word "Tempelhaus" was equivalent to a house of
Their immense possessions had made all Templars conscious of their
wealth and power,
a fact not especially conducive to the cultivation of the Christian
humility. Hence it became customary to characterize a man of great
pride by saying:
he is as proud as a Templar. Toward the end of the thirteenth century
held that the Templars and the Knights of St. John were not needed in
the West but
that they ought to sell their possessions in Western Europe and after
a union of the two orders locate in the East and direct all their
the enemies of Christ. Phillip IV of France was especially anxious to
them from his kingdom in order to carry out his centralizing policy.
They had resisted
the same aim on the part of Louis VII in 1149 and blocked Phillip's
in 1190. The failure of the crusade led by Louis IX was laid at their
they had opposed Charles of Anjou in the conquest of Naples sanctioned
by the pope; moreover they had taken part in the Sicilian vespers
against the French,
and had united in expelling the French regent and aided in inviting the
to the throne of Sicily. In 1295 they refused to pay a tenth to Phillip
in 1296 during the bitter struggle between Boniface VIII and the same
the right to tax the clergy they exported the precious metals to the
pope in violation
of the royal edict. When Phillip IV demanded their aid against the pope
they refused obedience, and in 1306 when the king urged an amalgamation
and Templars they declined to consider his suggestion. (4) Such
resistance to the
royal will on the part of a strong king was more than he would
circumstances had arisen to make possible the destruction of this hated
his realm, and Phillip was not slow to see the opportunity.
The year 1305 marks the beginning of the
Captivity of the papacy, a phrase which signifies the residence of the
Avignon in France for almost seventy years, i.e. until 1378. This
transfer of the
papal See from Rome to French soil came about as the result of the
Phillip IV and Boniface VIII. Eleven months after the death of Boniface
cardinals elected the archbishop of Bordeaux to be head of the church.
The new pope
took the name of Clement V and started for Rome; but at Lyons Phillip
IV met him
and persuaded him to take up his residence at Avignon, He created
twenty four new
cardinals, mostly Frenchmen and relatives of the pope. During the
the French king and Boniface VIII the former had charged the pope with
and simony. He had accused him of obtaining the papacy by fraud and
he should be removed from the Holy See. The reason for this charge is
that the predecessor
of Boniface, Celestine V, a former hermit, had been elected to the
much against his own will July 7, 1294. After a few months he issued a
the right of any pope to abdicate. He was encouraged to issue this
decree and to
abdicate by Beneditino Gaetani, one of the leading cardinals, who
elected his successor and assumed the papal name of Boniface VIII,
Now after the election of Clement V in 1305 when the king had the new
on French soil he used this threat of calling a council to inquire into
of the election of Boniface VIII and his successor, and the question of
and orthodoxy of Boniface, as the means of compelling Clement V to obey
of the king.
When Clement received the papal tiara at Lyons
had a conference with him and submitted a plan for the dissolution of
Another meeting about the same subject occurred by these parties in the
1307. Phillip prepared to strike the fatal blow. On the twelfth of
the head of the Templars in France, Grandmaster Jacques de Molai, was
functionary at the burial of the king's sister, Catherine; the next day
he was arrested
by order of the inquisitor general of France, William Imbelt, the
chaplain to the
king, and thrown into prison.
II – The Charges against
The sudden arrest of the Grandmaster startled
In order to appease the enraged public which felt kindly disposed
toward the head
of the order, and to secure a favorable opinion for his action in
France and abroad,
Phillip issued an explanation setting forth the reasons for his
the Templars. In short, he charged them with immorality and heresy,
being received into the order every neophyte must spit on the cross and
preceptor and the novice exchanged indecent kisses, i.e. on the navel
and the posteriors,
pledged themselves to practice sodomy.
priests of the order did not pronounce the words of consecration when
cord which the Templars wore over their shirt day and night as a symbol
had been consecrated by wrapping it around an idol they worshipped in
III – The Form of the Trial
After being arrested the Templars were placed
confinement for periods varying from a few days to years. One by one
they were brought
before the inquisition without the benefit of legal counsellors. The
accusations were then read to them and amplified until they covered one
and twenty statements or questions. (7) They were then informed that a
of the points on which they were accused and a promise to return to the
secure pardon and liberty, but refusal to do this would be followed by
penalty. The church, it is true, forbade the use of torture to secure
but in order to obtain the damaging testimony necessary to establish a
list of crimes
and errors on which to convict the accused the inquisitor general
resorted to torture.
When the desired evidence had been secured by this procedure the
witness was asked
to state that his testimony had been given voluntarily and without
it was written down by two clerks. If he refused to perjure himself by
false statements as were demanded he was handed over to the tormentors
declared no force had been employed in obtaining his testimony, or he
to death. Some witnesses were exposed to the sufferings of the rack
three and four
times before the inquisition could extract the answer wanted.
When Clement V heard of the drastic measures
Phillip IV he appears to have repented of the concession he had made to
and wrote a reproachful letter to him. But the threat of calling a
council to inquire
into the legality of the last two papal elections and to investigate
of Boniface VIII quickly forced Clement to surrender to Phillip. On
1308, the pope issued a Bull, "Faciens Misericordiam," directing an
of the Templars in all countries where they had chapters by a
Commission of Inquiry
composed of the archbishops of Canterbury, Mayence, Cologne and Treves.
Commission Molai was tried November 22, 1309. After stoutly maintaining
of the order he at last was overcome in his enfeebled and emaciated
the wiles and torture of his foes. Committed to prison again he was
once more in the spring of 1314 and burned at the stake. Meanwhile
in various countries found verdicts in favor of the Templars. The
Magdeburg in May, 1308, arrested a number of Knights but released them
of the same year owing to the protests of the lay and ecclesiastical
king of Portugal boldly defended the order; Edward I of England
the Templars in a half-hearted way; James of Aragon and Ferdinand of
a few Knights, but the council of Salamanca pronounced the order
1310. (8) The same judgment was rendered by the council of Ravenna in
and at Mayence, July 1, of the same year. The first council of
Canterbury did not
convict them, and the second council pronounced them guilty only after
to torture, October, 1310.
If the investigations in the countries outside
resulted generally in favor of the Templars, King Phillip prevented
such an issue
for the order in France. On August 20, 1308, he obtained from the pope
Bull, "Justum et laudabile," which authorized him to watch over the
and to hold them in disposition to the church. (9) Thus the great
pastor at Avignon
had appointed a wolf to guard his sheep. What he would do was a
In October, 1310, fifty Knights were burned at the stake in Paris, and
of Senlis the same year pronounced the order guilty. The council at
Vienne in France
was tampered with by both king and pope to compel them to pronounce
order, October, 1311, and March, 1312. Thus in France the Templars
mercy nor justice.
IV – The Character of the
The Grandmaster Molai when first arrested
as well he might, that certain disorders existed in the chapters. He
well knew that
the order had drifted away from the lofty ideals of its founders. But
incriminated his fellow knights with the offenses the inquisitors were
to fasten on the order. To the very last, even at the stake, he denied
His enemies, however, seized upon the admissions of his first trial,
testimony to suit their purpose and then sent this doctored confession
to the Templars
of France, representing it as a communication from the head of their
them to join him in admitting guilt. (10) To the evidence obtained by
by fraud we will now direct our attention.
accusation that they had renounced Christ thrice and had spit on the
that Molai's altered confession and the forged order to admit the
charges were genuine,
obediently declared themselves guilty.
admission of the charge only after threatenings and false promises.
these outrages only when they could endure the torture no longer, while
those refusing to admit the charge were martyred unto death.
who admitted the accusations belonged to the class of servientes.
were contradictory; some said that upon entering the order they were
deny Christ; others declared they were asked to deny God; again some
said they were
compelled to renounce the Saints, and still others avowed they had to
the Virgin Mary and our Lord.
he had urinated on the cross.
done: in full view of the assembled brethren; in a dark room; in a
field; in a grange;
in a coopershop; in a room for the manufacture of shoes. Sometimes the
he himself had done this, others again asserted they had not been
guilty of such
misconduct but had witnessed it in their brethren. Some said these
things were done
as a joke; others averred these acts were required as a test of their
and that they had denied Christ "ore non corde," i.e. with the mouth
not with the heart. Some said they had spit near the cross, others that
over it, and still others declared they adored the cross on Good
Friday. One who
had endured the rack and torture declared that if he would be obliged
the ordeal again he was prepared to confess that he had "murdered the
of God." (11)
about the indecent kisses. Respect for general decency will prevent us
into details; but here again we must note that the witnesses did not
professed absolute ignorance of such a practice, others admitted they
the receptor, while still others asserted such osculation was mutual. A
in England confessed there were two receptors, the one was good but the
a wicked man. (12)
unnatural lust. This charge was the subject for a searching
examination. Again torture
was used to secure evidence. Some vowed they had never heard of such a
admitted they were told it was permissible but they had never indulged
in it; others
asserted they had been commanded to practice sodomy but had not obeyed
The stablehand of the Grandmaster Molai accused his master of
practicing this sin
with him, but he recanted when freed from the torture and witnessing
papal commission, saying he could not remember ever having made such a
omission of the consecrating words in saying mass. At the trials in
Spain and in
Cyprus numerous priests testified that they witnessed many celebrations
of the mass
by the order but that they had always been in proper form. Some
testified they had
observed a slight deviation from the general practice, but said that
when the Templars
received their rules it was not customary to elevate the cup or the
host, this form
having been directed as late as the Lateran Council in 1215. (14) In
torture secured the testimony that the mass had not been celebrated by
according to the proper ritual.
about the idol. On this subject all sorts of admissions were obtained.
the Templars worshipped it and that it was produced whenever a neophyte
others said it was worshipped in secrecy in the chapters. Its form was
imaginable character. It was a "quoddam caput," i.e. a sort of head of
reddish color; it resembled a human being; it was black and had a human
had sparkling eyes that lighted up a dark room; it was made of gold and
had a long
gray beard; it had a double face; it had three faces; it looked like a
woman; it was garbed like a Templar in a priestly robe. An English
it as a calf; some said it was the statue of a boy about three feet
tall and had
two or four legs joined to the face. A few persisted they had never
heard of the
idol while some admitted they had heard about it but had never seen it.
positive it looked like a tom-cat; a raven; a painting; a drawing. The
of a few reads that the idol would answer any questions put to it by
of the chapter; and some swore that the devil himself or demons in the
form of pretty
women came to them with whom they had sexual intercourse.
In summing up the main points brought out by
we must consider the following facts:
majority of the witnesses belonged to the class of servientes whose
were obtained chiefly by torture and that the same witnesses at
contradicted their statements. In 1307 there were from fifteen thousand
thousand Knights Templars in France, and of that number only fourteen
were tried as compared with one hundred and twenty-four servientes. In
of five hundred and forty-six called before the inquisition only
eighteen were knights,
all the others belonged to the servientes. (16)
Rheims, and Sens one hundred and thirty-three died from torture because
not perjure themselves and incriminate their order.
Grand Preceptors of Apulia, Provence, Normandy, England, Upper and
Aragon and Castile, all persisted in maintaining the innocence of the
while only three preceptors, those of France, Guienne and Cyprus
admitted the charges,
and then only after severe torture.
number of those who confessed under constraint recanted after they were
and others stated before the tortures began that any confession wrung
by violence would be untrue.
of the crimes admitted was conditioned by the severity of the torture.
church councils declared the order innocent of the charges.
in England refused to leave the order despite threats and flattering
they have remained loyal to the Templars had they been subjected to
ordeals upon entrance?
of the idol was said to have been service to a new religion established
by the Templars.
And yet no Templar was willing to profess his supposed faith and endure
for this cause. Is it likely that thousands who had been unwillingly
forced to abjure
the Christian faith and to worship an idol would - have refused the
to return to mother church when that was possible?
of all the searching investigations made in the different chapters in
all the countries
only one image or idol was found, and that was in the form of a small
a Templar had obtained in the orient as a trinket.
Bishop of Beirut who had administered communion
to the Templars for forty years had found no fault with them. And the
whom they had gone for confession swore they had never heard about the
against the order.
crimes of which they were accused were the same
as were laid up against all heretics in the Middle Ages, such as the
the Albigenses, the Knights of St. John, and were the same as the king
Phillip IV, had not hesitated to charge against Boniface VIII.
we are to believe the testimony of the Templars with
respect to sacrilege and immorality then we must believe their
intercourse with the devil or demons in the form of voluptuous women.
That is utterly
we must not forget that the prime movers in
the process against the Templars were the two most unscrupulous men in
IV and – his subservient minister, William Nogaret.
There can be no doubt that the servientes were
of certain irregularities, and it is quite possible that even among the
proper gross offenses were committed occasionally. They had become
conscious of their power, and sometimes arrogant. But what human
even had a perfect membership? The Christian ministry on the whole is
men of high ideals and noble character, and yet, if any man were to
make a searching
examination of crimes perpetrated by a small number of professed
preachers of the
Gospel he could, without much difficulty, at the beginning of the
establish a catalog of sins which would make the ministry appear one of
corrupt organizations in modern society. But no one thinks of blaming
on the entire
church the moral errors of a few hypocrites or degenerates.
The fact is that Phillip IV had determined to
the Templars. The trial served only as an excuse for his action; no
to the order was admitted in the evidence obtained by the persecutors;
was absolutely one-sided, the one object constantly pursued being
may be that the Knights Templars had outlived the time of their
from beginning to end in France the trial was a farce, nay it was worse
it was a travesty of justice without parallel in history, and the
the order was a tragedy.
The following works may be recommended for
of this subject and have been used in preparing this paper.
Finke, Papsttum und Untergang des Tempelordens. [Lib
2. Gmelin, Die
3. Lea, H.C.,
History of the Inquisition of the Middle
Ages, Vol. III. [Lib 1901, Vol
4. Langlois, in
Deux Mondes, Vol. 103. [Lib*]
5. Langlois, in
Revue Historique, Vol. 40, 177-8. [Lib*]
6. History of
Masonry and Concordant Orders, [Lib 1891]
Henry L. Stillson,
7. Perkins, in
English Historical Review, Vol. 24. 8. [Lib*]
Schottmueller, Untergang des Templerordens. [Lib
9. Le Roulx, J.
D., in Revue des Questions Historique,
Vol. 48. [Lib*]
Prutz, Tempelherren Orden. [Lib 1879
11. Wilcke, Geschichte des Ordens der
[Lib 1860/1879; Vol 1,
Important documentary evidence may be found in
A. Processus Poiteriensis.
B. Excerpta Processus Anglici.
C. Inquesta faca et habita Brundisio.
D. Processus Cypricus.
E. Processus in Patrimonio.
In Finke, Papsttum und Untergang des
are letters, addresses and opinions on the history of the fall of the
Templars, reports of the Aragonese ambassador relative to the General
Vienne, and the answers of the king.
(1) Langlois, in Deux
103, p. 384
(2) Langlois, in Deux Mondes, Vol. 103, p. 386.
Lea, History of the Middle Ages, Vol. 3, p. 243.
(4) Finke Papsttum and Untergang des Tempelordens, P. 6.
(5) Schottmueller, Untergang des Tempelordens, p
(6) Lea, Vol. 3, p. 263.
(7) Finke, p. 330.
(8) Schottmueller, 191.
(9) Le Roulx, Revue Quest. Historique, Vol. 48, 43-45.
(10) Finke, 341.
(11) Lea, 270-273, Schottmueller, 141, 200.
(12) Perkins, English Historical Review, Vol. 24, p. 441.
(13) Schottmueller 630; Fink 335.
(14) Schottmueller, 632.
(15) Schottmueller, 633; Lea, 270.
(16) Finke, 335; Schottmueller, 237.
The Knight Templar -- [A
made them lay their
hands in mine and swear
To win the heathen and uphold the Christ.
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,
To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it;
To lead sweet lives in purest chastity.
Masonic Homes – Part 2
By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd.
MONTANA has a home eight miles from Helena
established in 1909 at a cost of $83,526.45. There is at present an
of $15,500, but $5,500 is in sight to pay the first of January, 1916.
There is a
family of 12. The cost per capita for maintenance the past year was
future of the home is bright.
Nebraska has a home at Plattsmouth which was
in 1903. It has assets of $211,653.29. This home is controlled by a
of which the Grand Lodge holds 516 shares, the Grand Chapter R.A.M. 110
the Grand Commandery K.T. 56 shares, the Grand Council R. and S. M. 16
the other shares by individuals, subordinate lodges and other Masonic
O.E.S. has always assisted in every way possible. The family consists
of 22 men,
20 women, 6 boys and 9 girls. The cost per capita for maintenance is
New Hampshire has a home at Manchester which
in 1903 at a cost of $28,000. It is an imposing three story and
with large colonial porch and is surrounded by beautiful lawns. There
is a family
of 16 adults although it was originally intended for orphans, but no
has ever been made for orphans. The cost per capita for maintenance is
is supported by a 50 cent per capita tax.
New Jersey has a Masonic Home and Orphanage at
which was established in 1898 at a cost of $125,000, and which has a
of $140,000. It has other resources of $127,000. There is a
well-stocked and prosperous
farm in connection with it. The present family consists of 45 men, 24
women, 8 boys
and 10 girls. The cost per capita for maintenance is $277.76. It is
a 30 cent per capita tax and a fee of $5.50 for each initiate.
New York has a home at Utica which was
1902 at a cost of $638,965.24. Its present membership of 428 consists
of 177 men,
125 women and 126 children. The cost per capita for maintenance is
$208. It is supported
by a 50 cent per capita tax. A high state of efficiency is maintained
and the children
are educated in a most satisfactory manner; many of them are qualified
important positions as teachers, musicians, clerks, stenographers and
Some of the children play as many as four instruments. At present the
are erecting a children's building, the lower part of which will be
devoted to manual
North Carolina has two homes. The Masonic
at Oxford is now in the 42nd year of its usefulness and is an example
precepts made practical. This home cares for 370 children only a small
of whom are the children of Masons. (In 1914 it was 45). There is a
office, manual training school, and the children do many things to help
expenses. The cost per capita for maintenance is $113.98. The Masonic
Star Home was completed and opened January 12, 1914. The building,
is a three-story fire proof structure and will accommodate 65 guests.
It is located
just beyond the city limits of Greensboro on a 30 acre tract. The
property is valued
at $48,000. There are at present 27 guests. The cost per capita for
is about $218. The secretary of the Home board says: "We are more than
with our Home. We are caring for our unfortunate members in a
and we know that Masonry is stimulated by our results."
New Mexico has no home but is accumulating a
Ohio has a home near Springfield, on an estate
acres, which was established in 1897. The principal buildings are a
a boys' cottage, a girls' cottage and a hospital; these with the power
farm buildings are estimated at a valuation of $365,000. There is an
of $153,964 which with other funds make total assets of nearly
$600,000. The family
consists of 89 men, 63 women, 31 boys and 22 girls. The cost per capita
is $183.84. A per capita tax of 30 cents is levied to support the home.
Oklahoma has a home at Darlington, which was
the Indian School Reservation, and consists of 674 acres of land valued
and buildings valued at $106,000, which with other assets total
was opened as a Masonic Home in 1910. The family consists of 29 adults
and 105 children.
The cost per capita for maintenance is $202.56. It is supported by a
tax of 75 cents and a fee of $5.00 on each E.A. initiated. A new boys'
at a cost of $36,000, and several minor improvements, have been made
the past year.
Pennsylvania has three homes. The Broad Street
and the William Elkins Orphanage are under the control of a corporation
of various Masonic bodies and individual Masons and Lodges, under the
title of The
Masonic Home of Pennsylvania. It is now in the 31st year of its
Broad Street Home shelters 88 residents. The cost per capita for
1912 was $171.13. The William Elkins Orphanage has a family of 41 girls
and 47 women.
The cost per capita for maintenance in 1912 was $197.48. These homes
assets of $981,636.84. The home at Elizabethtown which was opened in
1913 is the
Grand Lodge Home and was built at a cost of $1,188,023.93. It is really
city as the many buildings, streets, etc., defy a brief description.
There is an
estate of 982 acres and farm industries are carried on in a manner
with Pennsylvania methods in everything Masonic, which means on the
plan possible. This home is the largest, costliest and most extensive
of any Masonic
Home in the world and will accommodate 700 people. Although the
was large the building goes on and each section of the state seems to
vie with the
others in who best can work to improve this magnificent home. The
15, 1914, were 78 men, 79 women and 20 children. The cost per capita
has not been given as yet.
Rhode Island has no home but has a "Home fund"
which is being enlarged by a 10 cent per capita tax. The start of this
a Grand Lodge appropriation in 1912.
South Carolina decided some years ago to build
home and created a fund for that purpose which has now reached
$100,000, which the
Grand Lodge decided the minimum for starting a home. They have,
not to enter at once into an enterprise of which they do not feel a
success and are at present caring for the needy with the income or
surplus of the
Tennessee has a Masonic Widows' and Orphans'
Nashville which was established in 1892. It has property valued at
are at present t79 residents. The cost per capita for maintenance is
home is supported by a per capita tax of 75 cents. The Old Masons' Home
is now in
the course of construction and will be opened in the near future.
Texas has two homes. The home at Fort Worth is
the control of the Grand Lodge and represents an investment of $226,325
an endowment fund and cash on hand of $200,000. The family consists of
101 girls and 112 boys. The cost per capita for maintenance last year
The home for Aged Masons at Arlington was established in 1911 at a cost
In 1914 there was a family of 62. The cost per capita for maintenance
It is supported by the Royal Arch Masons.
Virginia has a Home for Orphans two miles from
which was established in 1890. They have an estate of 63 acres valued
and an endowment fund of $30,000. There are at present 68 children in
The cost per capita for maintenance is $223.32. It is supported by a 75
capita tax. Virginia has not done anything definite in regard to the
home for aged
Masons, their wives and widows, which they were contemplating.
Washington has a Masonic and Eastern Star home
which was completed in January, 1914. It is located on high ground
a beautiful view. In addition to the home property they have $65,000 in
The family in June, 1915, consisted of 37. The cost per capita for
$228.95. A bequest of $150,000 has been made to the home but it is not
for present use.
Wisconsin has a home at Dousman which is under
of Wisconsin Consistory, A. A. S. R. The home will, however, soon.be
to the Grand Lodge and a per capita tax of 50 cents levied for its
support. It has
a family of 12 adults. When the Grand Lodge assumes control it will
enlarged both in building and in the sphere of its usefulness.
To recapitulate there are 29 jurisdictions
Masonic Homes, seven of which have more than one. They represent an
nearly ten million dollars and provide shelter for 4129 brothers or
those near and
dear to them.
We have endeavored to describe the more
features of the Masonic Homes of the United States. Words are
inadequate to describe
the good they are doing. None but the active workers in this field of
comprehend what real homes they are. Bro. Bumpus says in describing
Nashville: "It is a harmonious family, and we dare say that nowhere is
a place where love and contentment reign more supreme than in the
and Orphans' Home of Tennessee. Lives are being shaped; character is
distress is being relieved; hunger is being appeased; sorrow is being
what higher, what nobler work, could we do, Brethren, so far as this
world is concerned?"
P. G. M. Elrick C. Cole of Kansas, said:
my pride in these children of the Grand Lodge of Kansas is much greater
at the close
of this year than at any other time. Having had occasion to visit other
where no Home has been provided, either for the orphans of deceased
Masons or for
the aged and infirm who are entitled to our protection, I have found
the greatest thankfulness to those who in the years gone by fought the
gave to the Grand Jurisdiction of Kansas this magnificent monument to
for those who need our care."
Hundreds of expressions of this kind might be
from those who have had a personal observation of the Homes while the
invariably doing so from a distance. "Figures don't lie," but Brotherly
Love, Relief and Truth contain elements not demonstrable by a
The cost of maintenance may sometimes appear excessive but the
require and should receive more than mere financial aid. The aged
require a care
and kindness not afforded by simply supplying their physical
necessities, and the
orphan should not be intrusted to any but those in whom we can place
A Masonic Home furnishes these requirements.
Rules of Action -- [A Poem]
Shakespeare. All's Well That
Do wrong to none; be able for thine enemy
Rather in power than use; and keep thy friend
Under thy own life's key; be checked for silence,
But never tasked for speech."
– Poet of Brotherhood
By Joseph Fort Newton
AMONG the poets of America now living there is
greater, alike in personal character and wealth of genius, than Edwin
is the noblest Masonic singer since Robert Burns. Sweet of heart, with
a mind full
of benign light, he sings of the old simplicities and sanctities which
at the basis of individual worth and social welfare, the while he
teaches us to
see and to follow "that thread of all-sustaining Beauty that runs
and doth all unite." He is, indeed, the supreme poet, since Whitman, of
goodly, gracious gospel of Brotherly Love so much needed in the world
now and always.
Here follows a brief sketch of the man, with an appreciation of his
genius as a
singer and a seer.
There is nothing for surprise that such a man
from a sturdy ancestry, both intellectual and moral. On his paternal
side his lineage
runs back to Colonel Markham, the first cousin and secretary of William
later acting governor of Pennsylvania. His maternal line, through the
runs back into the best stock of New and Old England and Holland. Our
poet was born
in Oregon, in 1852, whither his pioneer parents had moved from
Michigan. His father
dying when the boy was little more than four years of age, we find him
his mother and brother in one of the remote romantic valleys of
mother was a woman of rather silent nature – his brother was deaf and
dumb – and
the lad was left much alone with nature and his own inner life. Years
of quiet brooding,
while he followed the cattle or folded the sheep, developed depth and
of mind, evoking the poet-soul within him. Memories of those days when
he was a
shepherd boy find echo in his poems, as, for example, in "The Heart's
Partly, at least, his gift of song was an
for his mother, albeit so quiet and reserved, was a lover of poetry and
of verse on her own account. Some of her lines were frequently to be
found in the
papers of the time. The first money that Edwin earned was twenty-five
ploughing a neighbor's field, which his mother told him was his, and
that he might
have whatever he wished to buy with it. He bought books – Webster's
and the poems of Tennyson, Bryant and Moore. It is not difficult to
use to which he put those precious volumes in the leisure that was his
in the peaceful
valley of Suisun, where he tended the flocks and herds. His chance for
training was slight – about three months in the year, and not always
that – but
he studied diligently, making the best use of whatever books came his
he worked and dreamed and laid plans, in such various ways as ambitious
devise, until at eighteen he entered the State Normal School at San
Jose, and later
finished his school work at Christian College, Santa Rosa. Believing in
of handicraft, he mastered the secrets of blacksmithing, and wrought at
for a time. But a man of his genius was not allowed to remain at the
he was soon called to other and higher service.
Markham was made a Mason in Acacia Lodge No.
Coloma, California, in the early eighties, and he has an abiding
interest in the
Order. From the first the Spirit of Masonry moved him deeply, as was
a man to whom Brotherhood is not only "the crest and crowning of all
but religion in its deeper name, and who sees that
"The fine audacities
of honest deed,
The homely old integrities of soul,"
must be the foundation alike of personal
social beauty. He reckons Masonry among the deep, quiet, beautiful
to soften the hard winter of the world into a great summertime of
goodwill. Of one who is so chaste of soul, so aglow with the joy of
life and the
wonder of the world, and so brotherly withal, it may be said that he
has found the
Master's Word. His friend Joaquin Miller said of him years ago:
"Markham has always
seemed to me the purest of the pure; the cleanest minded man of all the
and good of his high calling I have known, and it has been my high
know nearly all of the great authors of Saxon lands this last third of
With Markham poetry is not a byplay, nor a soft
sentimentality, but a high and heavenly vocation, the fit vehicle for
of the truths that make us men. There is something of the urge of
in all his song, and a sense of consecration. It is the prophetic
element that one
feels in his music, as of a man who has heard unutterable things and
One cannot read "The Whirlwind Road," for instance, without being
of St. Paul and the company of those who live the dedicated life. For
him the home
of the poet is on the heights, and his mission is one of leadership –
singer of an empty day," but a pilot voice foretelling a new day:
"Life is a mission
stern as fate,
And song a dread apostolate.
The toils of prophecy are his,
To hail the coming centuries –
To ease the steps and lift the load
Of souls that falter on the road.
He presses on before the race,
And sings out of a silent place,
And the dim path he breaks today
Will sometime be a trodden way."
Resolutely he has held himself true to this
of his art, refining his gold and bringing to it every test, and few
men of our
day have more to tell us. Back of all the poetry of Markham lies a
which sees that the great Soul of the World is just, and loving too.
For him the
import of life is deep, deeper than time and the grave, and an awful
Spirit moves behind our human scene, weighing the stars, weighing the
deeds of men.
He is a hushed worshipper before that high benignant Spirit that goes
to the reckoning hour, defeating the injustices of men. As we may read
in the poem
"O men that forge
the fetter, it is vain;
There is a Still Hand stronger than you chain.
'Tis no avail to bargain, sneer and nod,
And shrug the shoulder for reply to God.
From the mighty hand of God – so still, yet so
– these is no escape, here or hereafter or anywhere. How compellingly,
yet how compassionately,
he teaches this truth in many a golden song. Since George Eliot there
no more strenuous apostle of the human deed than Markham. Insistently,
eloquently, he teaches the absolute justice that lies at the root of
the righteousness to which men must bow at last. Take, for example, his
"The Suicide." How few the words, how vast the significance! It is a
philosophy with one dip of the pen:
trusting Zeno's mad belief,
A soul went wailing from the world of grief;
A wild hope led the way,
Then suddenly – dismay!
So the old load was there –
The duty, the despair!
Nothing had changed; still only one escape
From its old self into the angel shape."
No escape in life or death, save in obedience
just and loving will of God. What is the will of God? What, indeed, as
our own hearts
tell us, but that we must be pure of heart and brotherly of spirit,
making our daily
bread "brother-bread," and living to serve our fellow souls? Markham
written of Religion as the Art of Life, and of poetry as the Soul of
-as witness his exquisite study of "The Poetry of Jesus." But,
religious as he is, religion means for him personal chastity and human
– -brotherliness of spirit and deed. Therefore he bids us pray in
words, but also,
and still more, in works, for purity of soul, for loving fidelity to
for freedom and fellowship among men.
Like all the wise ones of old, our poet holds
know as much as we do. Frair Hilary, in "The Hindered Quest," inured in
his cell, sought peace in vain till, hearing a cry of human need, he
to do a kindly deed; then, as the Master told him:
"You turned at
last your rusty key
And left the door ajar for Me," –
which states in a thumbnail space enough for a
and a dozen commentaries. So also in "The Angelus," that collect for
day in the week, and for every month in the year; and also in "The
Business," to name two of many poems. To the old, brutal question of
Am I my brother's keeper? Markham makes reply that we are born for the
of the Golden Rule, and our destiny is to learn to live and let live,
to think and
let think, building a social order that is wise and just and pure.
"There is a destiny
that makes us Brothers;
None goes his way alone;
All we send into the lives of others
Comes back into our own."
Indeed, our poet holds that the need of man may
up in Bread, Beauty, and Brotherhood – Bread, the symbol of physical
which must be met ere man can rise to the higher human life; Beauty,
from heaven to feed the hungry soul on its pilgrimage; and Brotherhood,
prophetic word which describes the translation of the ideal into the
we learn to be brotherly, men will not be used to make money, but money
used to make men. Aye, when we have mastered the fine art of freedom,
kindly living, the weary tragedy of human history will become a chant
And until we learn the brotherly life "we men are slaves and travel
to the dust of graves." Here is our material; here our tools and our
"We men of earth
have here the stuff
Of Paradise – we have enough!
We need no other thing to build
The stairs into the Unfulfilled –
No other ivory for the doors –
No other marble for the floors –
No other cedar for the beam
And dome of man's immortal dream
Here on the paths of every day –
Here on the common human way –
Is all the busy gods would take
To build a heaven, to mould and make
New Edens. Ours the stuff sublime
To build Eternity in time."
America, in the vision of Markham, is the last
hope of man, because it offers an opportunity for the practice of
is its imperious errand among the nations, and "The Need of the Hour,"
and all hours, is for fearless, faithful leadership of honest and true
to build the world again" – such leadership as we had when Lincoln
Markham has written the noblest of all poems in praise of Lincoln.
There is not
another like it anywhere. If he had written nothing else, he would be
our lasting and grateful remembrance. In a wild and fateful hour, when
was in dire plight, the Norn-Mother bent the heavens and came down to
make a man
to match the mortal need:
"She took the
tried clay from the common road –
Clay warm yet with the genial heat of earth –
Dashed through it all a strain of prophecy;
Then mixed laughter with the serious stuff.
It was a stuff to wear for centuries,
A man that matched the mountains and compelled
The stars to look our way and honor us."
Truly he is a "good gray poet" – blessings
on his head! – so gracious to know, so glorious to hear, simple,
athrob with faith and hope and love. His last book, "The Shoes of
is in some ways his best. His message is the same as of yore, but it
deeper and more varied in its exposition – sun-bright sonnets,
coming to the aid of stories, parables and quatrains – and Longfellow
the exquisite grace of "The Jugglers of Touraine." The group of songs
under "The Hero of the Cross," notable alike in insight and art, are
austere, beautiful, and worthy of high rank in the Christian Melody. He
is of those
who know the way to Emmaus, and the White Comrade who journeys with us
when we walk
that sunset path. The first lines of this last book are familiar to our
but they are too characteristic of the inclusive fellowship of the man
and the wise
strategy of his love to omit:
"He drew a circle
that shut me out –
Heretic, rebel, a thing to flout,
But love and I had the wit to win:
We drew a circle that took him in."
Apollo has been kind to our poet-friend and
granting him in its fullness the prayer of Horace: a sane and healthy
old age consoled
by sweet song. His idealism has not waned with the years. Time has
taught him a
deeper faith that forereaches the greater tomorrow that he so surely
sees is on
the way. It may not come in perfectness in his day, or in ours, but
come it will,
as morning follows night:
"Come, clear the
way, then, clear the way;
Blind creeds and kings have had their day.
Break the dead branches from the path;
Our hope is in the aftermath –
Our hope is in heroic men,
Star-led to build the world again.
To this event the ages ran:
Make way for Brotherhood – make way for Man!"
"America for Me" -- [A Poem]
By Henry Van Dyke; June, 1 909
fine to see the
Old World, and travel up and down
Among the famous palaces and cities of renown,
To admire the crumbly castles and the statues of the kings –
But now I think I've had enough of antiquated things.
So it's home again, and home again, America for me!
My heart is turning home again, and there I long to be,
In the land of youth and freedom beyond the ocean bars,
Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars.
Oh, London is a man's town, there's power in the air;
And Paris is a woman's town, with flowers in her hair,
And it's sweet to dream in Venice, and it's great to study Rome;
But when it comes to living there is no place like home.
I like the German fir-woods, in green battalions drilled;
I like the gardens of Versailles, with flashing fountains filled;
But, oh, to take your hand, my dear, and ramble for a day
In the friendly Western woodland, where Nature has her way!
I know that Europe's wonderful, yet something seems to lack;
The Past is too much with her, and the people looking back.
But the glory of the Present is to make the Future free –
We love our land for what she is and what she is to be.
Oh, it's home again, and home again, America for me!
I want a ship that's westward bound to plough the rolling sea,
To the blessed Land of Room Enough beyond the ocean bars,
Where the air is full of sunlight and the flag is full of stars,
If A Man Die
ONCE again the white death of Winter gives way
wonder of Spring, and the heart of man feels the thrill and stir of
that flood of
life which returns to renew the world. Soon the bare earth and the
gaunt, gray hills
will be clad in the living green of rustling woods and the glint of
as ever it has been in all the ages agone. Time out of mind man has
seen in this
ancient ritual of Nature a symbol of the life of the Soul, of a dim
on before, of a victory ever about to be realized – a ray of light
shadow that keeps the key to all the creeds."
If a man die – aye, there is the rub, since no
that any man dies, save only in appearance. Of death as we use the word
meaning we give to it, Nature knows nothing: there is simply no such
is not to minify the grave, to which all things mortal decline, as if
it were a
matter of light import. In nowise. There is something appalling in the
negation and collapse of the body, and when Tolstoy describes it we
as if it had fallen upon us. It is pathetic. It is profound. Yet we may
be too easily
overawed by its material aspect, and mistake a physical fact for a
What avails it what any man may have to say about death? The real
question is, what
shall we say to it, or shall we let it have the last word?
After all, the chief fact about man is not his
but his mind with its thoughts that wander through eternity, his soul
with its many-winged
splendor of aspiration and of hope. Reason, Love, and the Moral Sense –
are of more than time and sense, for, unless we who think of time stand
way above and apart from it, there could be no such idea. That is to
say, if man
lives by the law of his higher nature, he must live for things which
source and satisfaction beyond the bourne of Time and Place. In short,
man is a
being who, if he be not immortal is called by the law of his being to
live and act
as if he were immortal – and he is wise, whatever else may be his
folly, in that
he dares to trust the prophetic promptings of his nature against the
the senses and the shadow of the grave.
But the real proof of faith lies not in logic,
the balancing of probabilities, but in a certain deep and daring kind
wherein life reveals its own eternal quality. The real answer to all
questionings is to be found in the way of Divine union, being a fact of
in the inward life, and it were better to be absorbed in the quest of
than to be ever canvassing the shadowy field of conjecture, tormented,
and weary of heart. As the soul ascends the Mountain of the Lord its
vesture of decay" becomes less opaque, until at last, by the witness of
who have made the venture and won the victory, assurance is made doubly
a fellowship ineffable with Him whom to know aright is Life Eternal. It
so. Life is unbeginning, and so unending, because life is from God. Let
us be content
with what is already our own, equally by virtue of Divine heredity and
of spiritual valor and conquest, "even life forever more" – life rich,
abundant, radiant, eternal!
* * *
Three hundred years ago, April 23rd, 1616, the
soul of Shakespeare took its flight from the winding Avon, whose scenes
all his days, to that land where man awakens from his lofty dreams and
dreams still there, "and that nothing has gone save his sleep."
himself reckoned Julius Caesar "the foremost man of all the world," but
Caesar with his legions and his laws did not create an empire as
lasting as that
which rises out of the mind of the great dramatist, who was not of an
age, but of
all time, until time shall be no more and days and works are done.
Shakespeare! To read him is like dipping into
of Youth and rising new born, with the flutter of happy wings in our
rich and spacious he is, how large and free his utterance, how
elemental; yet how
elfin withal, the spirit of him. He had such joy of life, despite its
abundance of fancy flowering into poetry and into deeds heroic even in
What if we cannot tell anything new about Shakespeare, he is new with a
youth, and in company with him we can hear the murmur of the sea and
learn to look
up at the stars.
How well we remember when first we listened to
rhythmic lines read by a voice now hushed, and what vistas opened
before us! Riper
years, bringing a less rosy outlook, have only deepened the miracle of
and valleys, the lights and shadows of that marvelous eloquence. Today
we try to
think of Shakespeare, and we can only think of life and death and the
to recite to ourselves the names of his plays, to call the roll of our
characters, to let the music and the picture of the verse steal over
is like holding up jewel after jewel from an Oriental casket and
watching the flash
and sparkle and play of color. It is like walking in the garden of
apple falls on apple and blossom and fruit hang together on the tree.
Our thought of Shakespeare is a richly complex
As in the great painting of Raphael the cloud in the background, when
we look closely,
is seen to be made up of innumerable faces, so about Shakespeare are
cloud of shining minds. He has, so to speak, robbed generation after
of their store to add to his Treasury of Merit, and yet he gives more
than he takes;
a star, as Milton said, to whom other stars repair and fill their
golden urns with
light. Think of the critics who have come from the ends of the earth,
gifts of praise to lay at his feet! Think of the artists whose
embodiments of his
scenes come to mind at the mention of his name! Think of the actors who
their names immortal in his roles, whose melody of voice, whose
stateliness or charm
of person, are blended with our memory of the poetry itself! To think
is to see once more the gracious figure of Edwin Booth, hear his rich
feel his lonely sadness as of a dweller in a world all beautiful even
in its sorrows.
What a pageant of beauty, power and genius, all radiant in one light,
All of us, in the days that come not back,
the golden stairway into the great main entrance of the Shakespeare
by our honored and dear teachers – some oil whom have fallen asleep. We
in the principal plays by Charles and Mary Lamb, those first kind
porters of the
House Beautiful, who told us the tragic tales in perfect English. Then
we were ready
to listen to Jameson, Lady Martin, Coleridge, and Hazlitt, or to such
used in schools, as Gervinus and Ulrici. Perhaps at twenty we felt that
Shakespeare, but the years have taught us that we do not know him, and
live to measure the height and depth of his vast genius.
One turns it about and turns it about, said
Coleridge, and it is all there; everything in Shakespeare except the
Bible. Of course
that is exaggeration, but it is true that he is lord of more domains
than any other
poet that ever lived. Supreme religious experience is almost the only
his genius is not assured, and he wanders around that realm in constant
and almost seems to have entered it in that miracle of insight and art
– the Tempest.
No wonder Goethe said of his plays:
"These are no
fictions! You would think, while reading them, you stood before the
Book of Fate. The strength and tenderness, the power and peacefulness
of this man
astonishes me. All the anticipations I have ever had regarding man and
I find developed and fulfilled in the writings of Shakespeare. It seems
as if he
cleared up every one of our enigmas for me, though we cannot say, Here
is the word of the solution. The few glimpses I have cast over his
me to quicken my foot-steps forward into the actual worlds to mingle in
of destinies suspended over it; and at length to draw a few cups from
ocean of true nature."
To know Shakespeare, and the dream-men and
his stage, and the large simplicity, sanity, and sweetness of his
spirit, is the
privilege, and should be the duty of ustall, particularly of the young
the touch upon their hearts of great and wise minds. His clear waters,
let us pray,
will make us long forget the draughts we have drawn thus far down the
ways of time,
from the stream befouled by wallowings of the swine of unclean art and
For he has the purity of Nature, its vastness and serenity, and the
depth of a sky
full of stars.
* * *
The Lone Star
The hearty endorsement of the Research Society
journal, and of its text-book The Builders, by the Grand Lodge of Texas
highly appreciated, the more so because it came entirely unsought and
as a complete
surprise, as did a like endorsement by the Grand Lodge of Indiana. Ye
be allowed to express his personal joy at these words of confidence and
from the Grand Lodge of his native state, under whose flag his mother
was born when
it was a republic, before it had been annexed to the Union. Thus the
tug of times,
the pull of family ties and historic associations, join with Masonic
love and interest,
making such an unqualified endorsement doubly grateful. From the report
"A copy of The
Builders is presented to every newly raised Mason in every Lodge in
Iowa. We have
recently read this little volume and can commend it, without reserve,
to every Mason
in Texas. It is authentic, written in charming style, and the author's
to authorities comprise the whole range of the standard Masonic books,
the reader to extend his course of reading into wider fields.... The
of Iowa, under the leadership of its able Committee on Masonic
Research, found out
what to do and they are doing it. The membership of the Research
Society is increasing
rapidly, and The Builder, its monthly magazine, devoted exclusively to
is coming up to a high standard, and the work of the Society as laid
promises to move the boundaries of Masonic Research in this country up
ground. Every Mason, wherever he resides, is welcome to become a member
of the Society
at a nominal cost for annual dues and the magazine is sent free. The
also issuing a number of lectures and papers of great merit and sold at
cost. It is not operated for profit, but all revenues are used in
improving the work of the Society. It has the full sanction of the
Grand Lodge of
Iowa, one of the most conservative and yet one of the most progressive
of our affiliated
Grand Bodies. Its great Masonic-Library, at Cedar Rapids, is the
admiration of the
* * *
It occurred to us to send a proof of the
of Edwin Markham, which appears in this issue, to the good gray poet
he might have due and timely warning and be the better able to ward of
danger. Whereupon we received the following letter which we venture to
not so much for its kind words in response, but to show that we did not
the spirit and message of our dear poet-friend and Brother, the very
whom is like music.
My Dear Newton:
You quite overpower me with the words in your
written article on, "Edwin Markham, Poet of Brotherhood." Your highly
commendatory words will perhaps do no harm to my habits of thought,
only makes me humble.
I observe that you get the spirit of my poems,
into the heart of my life's purpose. I do believe in Chastity and
do believe that we must come to look on bridal love with a deep
reverence, and also
must begin to labor for the realization of fraternity. Brotherhood is
the hope of
the world and it is the business of all earnest men to endeavor to find
basis for brotherhood. The State must become the organ of Fraternity.
I thank you for the brotherly kindness that
you to write the article. It will help to make my truth – your truth –
thousands of serious men. Again I wish to tell you of the delight and
am finding in your three volumes of "Sermons and Lectures."
Yours in the great hope
EVER so often the question comes up, why is it
we have so little really great Masonic poetry? Several Brethren have
raised it of
late in their letters to us, pointing out that while we have verse a
much of it very good indeed, it very rarely rises above the level of
the Brother who wrote it dies – as in the story the verse of the little
called poetry after she had gone away. They are puzzled to know why
be so. Masonry is a Chamber of Imagery, rich in suggestion, many of its
acted poems, and they cannot understand why, with such a wealth of
emblems and sentiment we do not have more and better Masonic poetry.
The late Robert Morris, so widely known and
among us, for many years the Poet Laureate of the Order, often pondered
same question. In the preface to the last edition of his volume of "The
of Freemasonry" [Lib 1895] he returned
to it for the last time, not long before he went away
"To that far land,
far beyond storm and cloud
To that bright land, where sun doth never set
To that life land which has nor tomb nor shroud
And Brothers meet again who oft have met."
But he did not solve the mystery. He names a
of men who in his day, and earlier, had written distinctively Masonic
as Mackay, Percival, George Morris, Yates, Vinton, and he might have
and Boutelle. He praises their poems, some of which he reproduces in
– none of them, we venture to think, equal to his own melodious lines.
puzzles him most is why great poets like Scott, Lamartine, Moore,
Burns, Prentice and others, all members of the Order – he might have
Byron, Lessing – did not write Masonic poetry. Then he asks the
"And why is this?
Does not the subject of Freemasonry suggest to the noetic mind a flight
If religion constitutes so favorable a theme for poets because of its
array of imagery, does not Freemasonry abound even more in such things?
nature and purpose of our Order is to teach one thing by means of
another – to suggest
an inward truth by an outward emblem. Robert Burns found in the murmur
of a brook
and the warbling of a bird the voice of his mistress. Walter Scott saw
outlines of a rusty lancehead or a broken pair of spurs the imagery of
field. Thomas Moore drew from the twang of a rickety lute wails of
the decadence of his green old Ireland. All this in the nature of
very essence of poetry. Yet these men could look coldly upon the most
of Freemasonry; they could listen to a rehearsal of the Masonic
once considering the inexhaustible mine of poetic thought of which
these were only
the surface. As compared with any other theme, I would give the
preference to Symbolical
Masonry as the richest in poetic thought, and I can only hope that the
day is not
distant when a great poet will arise to be to Freemasonry what Scott
was to chivalry,
Moore to patriotism, Burns to rustic love."
Oddly enough he does not name Goethe, who did
distinctively Masonic poetry – and, of course, Kipling came later – but
was the Masonic poet of his own day; not a great poet, perhaps, but a
sweet singer, and one of the best interpreters of Masonry in any day.
Few have ever
used our emblems with more insight and skill, as in his poems on the
Trowel, the Level, the Apron, and many an eloquent melody. But must we
poetry to verse which weaves our symbols and emblems into its lines?
That is too narrow a conception of Masonic poetry, and when we put it
is no problem left to solve, no question to discuss. Usually, if we
make a few exceptions
– such, for example, as the Kipling poems on The Palace and the Mother
Lodge – the
finest Masonic poetry makes scant use of our familiar emblems. Instead,
the soul, the spirit, the genius, the truth of Masonry to high and
– and that is real Masonic poetry.
When was Robert Burns most truly a Masonic
he wrote of the Apron, or when he sang in notes almost divine of the
rights of man,
the dignity of the soul, the kinship of all living things, and the
coming of love
and pity? Markham seldom, if ever, makes use of Masonic emblems, but
who else in
our day has set the soul of Masonry to more authentic music? Of those
who have sung
of the deeper meanings of Masonry, and its place in the mystical quest
of the soul
for God, there is no one like Edward Waite, no one near him. Susan
not a Mason, but her lines called Soul Builders are truly Masonic, and
so is that
unforgettable poem by Margaret Wood, The Builders – a vision of the
grey old Abbey
of England, of "ye builders of old" who lifted it heavenward, and of
mighty dead who sleep there.
Let us always remember that Poetry is as free
as a "sweet
bird of dawn singing the long epic of the world," and is not tied to
system of symbolism. To its vivid soul all nature is an infinite
parable, and life
the very breath of the Eternal. It is a priest to us all of the strange
wonder of the world, the daughter of the Voice of God telling us, in
tales and golden
histories, that the race must become partner with the mighty
Father-Soul in His
labors of love and beauty, "if its heart of rhythm and soul of fire are
stand fully revealed."
* * *
Responding to many requests, we have it in mind
a series of brief reading courses for both Rites of Masonry and each of
in the hope that they may serve as guides to Brethren who wish to
study of Masonry either individually or in groups or clubs. From the
number of such
requests that reach us from all over the country, we believe that the
work of this
Society is beginning to tell in behalf of a more systematic study of
and meaning of Masonry. By way of introduction, we offer the following
First of all,
let a man make himself familiar with the ritual of the Order as
exemplified in the
Jurisdiction in which he lives – not necessarily memorizing it, but
having it well
in mind. If his Grand Lodge has no authorized Monitor, he may select
generally accepted as standard – either by Shaver, Mackey, Sickel, or
he reads what is written, or recalls what is unwritten, let him keep
always in mind
the little word Why? – why is the Lodge so arranged? Why are things
done so and
so? Perhaps he will someday ask why a ritual at all? If so, he will
enter a most
fascinating field, tracing the idea, the necessity, the use and
ritual, not only in Masonry, but in the church, the state, and in all
Second, a man
ought to know the history of his Lodge and of the Grand Lodge under
it is holden, their laws, constitutions, organization, and genealogy –
on the great family-tree of Masonry. This will introduce him to the
study of organized
Masonry as in institution, in this country and throughout the world,
its Rites – including not only the "York" and Scottish Rites, but other
Rites as well, such as the Swedenborgian. From such a study will come a
of the vastness of Masonry as a world-wide fraternity, the existence of
Third, he will
naturally ask whence came this great Order which seeks to organize
make it operative, and so he will be led to look into the history of
it back through modern times to the founding of the Grand Lodge of
England – the
story of which every Mason should know in detail. Here his study will
fanwise: he will want to know the conditions of the age, the state of
before and at the time the mother Grand Lodge was formed, the causes
that led to
its formation, how far it was a "revival," how much, if anything, was
added to Masonry at that time – added from whence, by whom, and why –
how far the
Masonry of today is simply a development from and an elaboration of old
Fourth, and this
will bring him to the interesting study of ancient Craft Masonry, in
Mason should be well-grounded by a study of its earliest documents,
which were a
part of its ritual, known to us as the Old Charges and Constitutions –
deeds of our Masonic inheritance and estate. Here again a throng of
up for study: what is the place of architecture in human life, and why
does it dominate
the other arts, binding them into one, harmonizing, controlling,
in answer to which he will see why the trade of the architect became
and took a spiritualized form, while other trades did not. The study of
Charges, in the setting of the times from which they date, will take
him back into
the foundations of modern life and thought; and he can go as deep down
and as far
back as he pleases.
Fifth, and the
further he goes in his study the more natural, inevitable and eloquent
symbols of Masonry become, and he will look upon them with a new
while he seeks to interpret,
meant in olden time,
tradition which gathered and grew about them, and
mean, or should mean, to him now as teachers of the truth that makes
right conduct, and a valid faith and hope.
It is some such scheme as this that we have in
and we propose to suggest books throwing light upon it, giving
preference, as far
as possible, to books that are accessible, inexpensive, authentic and
– such as Brethren may wish to own or Lodges place in their libraries.
* * *
"Songs for the New
Someone has said that if we know the image in
of the poets of today, we know the shape which the future will take. If
so, there is no mistaking the prophetic quality of the poems of James
[Lib 1915] whose short stories
have so stirred and thrilled thousands. They are songs of high daring
of soul, fulfilled of a beauty of their own, like psalms of a new
faith, like bugle
calls to a beautiful conflict, rousing us against "the armies of the
living and the complacently dead." One reads the song of "We Unborn"
and remembers the Whitman "Song of Myself," so sure is its insight and
accent of power, all aflame with rich humanity and passionate faith in
that ought to be true, and are true if we had eyes to see and ears to
a voice so deep and true and earnest will not go unheeded, even amid
the wild welter
Articles of Interest
A Masonic Puzzle, by C. N. Mikels. Illinois
The Sacred Symbol, by Sir John Cockburn. American Freemason.
The Cable-Tow, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard
Angles, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard.
The Cathedral at Seville, by G. W. Baird. The New Age.
The Doctrine of the Scottish Rite, by David Marx. Masonic Monthly.
Dibdin's Masonic Pantomime, by R. Northcott. London Freemason.
Shakespeare [LIB 1901], by Sir Sidney Lee.
Macmillan Co. New York, $2.00.
Hapsburg Misrule [LIB 1915], by T. Capek. Revell
Co. New York, $1.00.
The Man With the
Hoe and Other Poems [LIB 1899],
by Edwin Markham.
Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, $1.00.
Lincoln and Other
Poems [LIB 1913], by Edwin Markham.
Doubleday Page Co., $1.00.
The Shoes of
Happiness [LIB 1915], by Edwin Markham.
Doubleday Page Co., $1.25.
The Assurance of
Immortality [LIB 1916], by H. E. Fosdick.
Macmillan Co., $1.25.
Masonry and Democracy [LIB*], by
Governor Arthur Capper,
The Question Box
Shakespeare A Mason?
In an article in a Masonic journal which I read
the name of Shakespeare appears in a list of men of letters who were
proof is there that he was a member of the Order?
None at all. Shakespeare, so far as we recall
no reference to any secret society, though a few of his lines might be
– as, for example, a line in the play-scene in Hamlet, to which a
called our attention the other day. He speaks of "the singing masons
roofs of gold," (Henry V, act 1, scene 2) and compares them to a swarm
– as any poet might have done. It reminds one of a passage in the
Angler," by Isaak Walton, in which the gentle fisherman talks of the
of pillars in language very like that used in a Masonic Lodge. But
Hawkins, in his
edition of the Angler recalls that Walton was a friend of Elias
Ashmole, who was
admitted as an Accepted Mason, and he may have learned of Masonry from
History of Masonry, by F. Armitage, vol. II, chap. 3 [Lib*]).
Shakespeare was indeed
many-minded, and had an insatiable interest in all things human, but
there is no
proof that he was a Mason. It has been claimed that one of the
pall-bearers at the
funeral of Shakespeare was a Mason, and that he was named Edward
Helton. The story
further tells us that Helton came to this country and was buried at
Va., in 1618. But as the town of Fredericksburg was not settled until
no trace of him has been found, the story must be regarded as a myth.
Latomorum, Vol. I, pp. 67, 103. New Series [Lib*]).
* * *
Brother Newton: – I notice in the February
The Builder a statement that the book, "Washington, The Man and the
could be had by addressing me and sending me the price. That is an
I wish you would correct. Our Association has nothing whatever to do
with the book.
It is the property of the local Association in Alexandria, and all
moneys and letters
regarding the book should be addressed to Charles H. Callahan,
John H. Cowles, Washington, D. C.
* * *
"A Tale of the Trail"
Brother Editor: – In the September number of
was published a poem entitled "A Tale of the Trail ," marked
and the writer has wondered if the authorship of the lines was unknown
to you. The
poem was written by Brother James W. Foley, Past Grand Master of North
Poet Laureate of this Jurisdiction. Brother Foley has written many good
of the best of which I am sending herewith, hoping to see it published
in The Builder
sometime. It is entitled "What Did You Do," and is in tune with the
of the Society and its effort to arouse interest, not only in the
history of the
Fraternity, but also in true Masonic living – everyday Masonry, if you
best wishes, always, I am
Ralph L. Miller, North Dakota.
* * *
Dear Brother: – I believe that Masonry is more
"a peculiar system of morality." It is really a part of one's religious
experience. I believe also in militant Masonry. The time is even now at
American Lodges must bestir themselves in order that they may make
felt more widely. By "militant" I do not mean tawdry argument and
but intelligent effort to spread the universal principles which Masonry
It seems to me that the Research Society will greatly aid in this work.
a spiritual side of Masonry that needs to be emphasized; and to be
must be brought to the attention of the Brethren. If Masonry means
means that Masons must so live that people will say, "Yes, he is a
That is the ideal I hold before myself, and when I fail, as I often do,
fact that I am a Mason nerves me to new effort.
Fraternally and sincerely,
J. A. Robertson. Ohio.
* * *
The Golden Fleece
What is the Golden Fleece often referred to in
the Apron to an Entered Apprentice? Does it still exist? I shall
It was a famous order of knighthood dating from
when Philip, Duke of Burgundy established, on the occasion of his
the Infanta Isabella of Portugal, what he called the Golden Fleece. It
in several countries of Europe. None but the richest and purest born –
only in limited numbers – were admitted to its honors. The badge of the
a golden ram, which hung from a jewel of elaborate design bearing the
in Latin, "Wealth, not servile labor." (See The Builder. Vol. I. p.
* * *
"An Upright Mason"
I was somewhat disappointed in your reply to J.
in the January Builder when he asked if an Entered Apprentice is not a
think you should have said, "Yes." I have heard it declared on Masonic
authority several times that "you now stand as a just and upright
and I believe he would be qualified to work as such for a limited time
T. D. Gayle,
An Entered Apprentice is in training to be a
he has received the first lessons in that fundamental morality which
must lie at
the basis of his moral and Masonic edifice. Of course he is, in so far,
but by no analogy known to us is he entitled to travel and work as such
* * *
Buddhism and Masonry
Will you kindly answer the following: –
Chinaman, who is a follower of Buddha, be classed as a worshiper of the
for a Buddhist, on joining a Masonic Lodge, to accept the Christian
idea of God?
fact that he is a worshiper of idols interfere with his eligibility?
broadly, yes; though there are many sects in the Buddhist faith, some
of which seem
to be atheistic – yet this may be only seeming, and due to the fact
that their conception
of God is so unlike our own. Perhaps, in the real sense, there is no
as an atheist. ( See Morals and Dogma, by Pike, p. 643. [Lib 1871])
not, since that would violate one of the first principles of the Order.
Yet it is
a fact that few, if any, Buddhists have sought Masonic fellowship. (See
on Masonry, by Lawrence, Chaps. 8, 10, 12. [Lib*])
call idols must be, for thinking men, only symbols, and as such they
are an answer
to the craving of the human mind for a visible emblem of the Great
doubt there are millions who do not see beyond the symbol, but such
would hardly find their way to our temple gate
* * *
Making Masons at Sight
Now that you have gotten your feet wet, perhaps
will take up the question of the right of a Grand Master to make Masons
I should like to have you discuss it.
Of course, we cannot take up the question in
here but several things may be said: First, in ancient Craft Masonry
there was obviously
no such thing as making a Mason at sight. Each Apprentice had to serve
master his art, and by examination be approved as a Master – the reward
of his masterpiece.
Second, when the order began to admit Accepted Masons – perhaps as
early as 1600,
if not earlier – the ceremonies of initiation were not elaborate, and
often a man
was made a Mason in a single evening, as seems to have been true in the
Elias Ashmole, albeit, that was a different thing from what is now
a Mason at sight. Third, we shall not go into the question of the
of a Grand Master to make a Mason at sight, except to say that it seems
to be an
American invention, an American "pretension," Brother Hughan called it
which he said has no basis in the ancient history and usage of the
Sketches and Reprints, p. 139.) Several Brethren propose to discuss
of the prerogative in these pages, and so we withhold opinion for the
not wishing to anticipate their arguments.
* * *
The York Rite
I have been a Mason for years and yet I do not
just what is meant by the York Rite, and I find that there are others
in the same
fix. Please put me to rights in this matter.
The York Rite, as it is popularly called,
Blue Lodge, the Chapter of the Royal Arch, the Council, and the Knight
as distinguished from the Scottish Rite. Right you are when you say
that many Masons
have this matter muddled, and The Builder will soon publish an article
Rites, by Brother J. L. Carson, of Virginia, which will be instructive.
name "York Rite” is only a popular name, derived from the old city of
England, so long a center of Masonry. There was a Grand Lodge of York,
Rite of that name, but no one now knows what that Rite was, and all our
have failed to find out. So that the name York Rite indicates, not the
Rite as practiced
at York, but simply the historic city. (See Masonic Sketches, by
Hughan, p. 148.
* * *
The Iowa Plan
In the report of the Committee on Proceedings
Grand Lodges I learn that Iowa has no Masonic home, and I am anxious to
plan or plans the Iowa Masons have for providing for the Widows and
Orphans of their
deceased Brothers, that would be cared for in a Home.
In general, the Iowa plan is to assist those in
by keeping them, so far as possible, in their old environment, among
and associates – assisting them secretly, so that no one save the
the matter in charge, and a few local Masons, know anything that is
Iowa, however, is a young state, and does not yet feel the pressure of
confronting older Jurisdictions; but it is beginning to feel them. So
far we have
cared for those needing a home in various institutions in the state for
but it is probably only a question of time until the Grand Lodge of
Iowa will need
a home of some kind, albeit with its present system it will not require
an institution as other Jurisdictions maintain.
* * *
The Great Initiates
I have lately been much absorbed in a book
"The Great Initiates," [Lib 1961] by M. Schure, and would like
to know your opinion
of it. I find it very interesting, but I am often perplexed.
The book referred to, like his studies of
[Lib 1919], Pythagoras
[Lib 1906] and others,
is both fascinating and irritating, as our Brother has confessed. We
the feeling that this writer, and others of his school, have the
slightest and most
superficial knowledge of the systems of thought which they so
aside as external, if not childish. What is more important, the
which they propose to substitute for those systems is neither
nor in any sense esoteric. When they come to tell us the meat of the
is only a series of commonplaces presented with breathless awe as new
and claimed as the specific fruit of the esoteric spirit. When those
are admitted – and Noah must have been familiar with them – the body of
wisdom" which remains is little more than a cloud of speculation,
and perhaps valuable, but apparently unsubstantial. Howbeit, this is
only one opinion,
for what it is worth, and should be regarded as such.
* * *
The Third Degree
I am convinced from my experience in conferring
that few men get from the third Degree of Masonry anything more than a
fidelity. I have in mind a brief talk on this subject, pointing out the
of immortality therein taught, and wish you would give me your
Frankly, this letter amazes us. We had never
it possible for any man to receive the degree of Master Mason and miss
point of its teaching. Oddly enough we have two other letters of late
the observation of Brother Hickman, and increasing our amazement. And
we come to think of it, the candidate cannot be altogether to blame.
this Degree in several Jurisdictions, we do not recall that the
historical or explanatory
lecture even mentions the sublime truth set forth. It simply reminds
that Masonry cherishes the glorious hope of a blessed immortality –
that is all.
But in the Degree itself immortality is not a vague hope to be
cherished here and
realized hereafter. Far from it. It is a present reality into which the
is symbolically initiated; a fact to be realized in experience here and
if man is immortal at all, he is immortal now. Immortality does not
future alone, or chiefly, but the life that now is, where it is needed
to give amplitude
and liberty and victorious confidence amid the vicissitudes of time.
How many Masons
grasp this truth in the Master Degree? Once a man has grasped it, his
upon life is altered, and he feels not simply the obligation, but the
of living these fleeting days in a manner befitting an immortal spirit.
If our ritual
does not convey this truth, it behooves us to see that it does, first
hold of the truth ourselves the better to make it vivid to others, and
so shaping our ceremony, or at least by so explaining it, as to make
the truth unmistakable.
* * *
The Royal Arch
By the same token, if this reading of the Third
is right, we have the clue to a more practical interpretation of the
the Chapter degrees, as hinted in the February issue, and which many
asked us to expound further. Brother Mackey, as we said, held that the
degrees in the Blue Lodge are an allegory of the present life, and that
leading to and including the Royal Arch portray the progress of the
soul in the
life to come. To us that is very unsatisfactory. No, life is one here
now and forever, and our task is to learn to live the eternal life in
discovery of this truth, as taught in the Third Degree, that the soul
now – that eternity is here, and we live in it – sets the captives
free, and they
return to rebuild the fallen temple. It requires a reconstruction of
the whole life.
The old foundations of righteousness remain sure and steadfast, as
eternal as the
mountain on which the temple stood; and upon that foundation we must
build. We cannot
go further in a brief note; but we believe that if this truth be kept
in mind the
Chapter degrees will become not only more eloquent, but more profoundly
as showing the trials, struggles and bafflements which beset the man
who dares to
live the eternal life.
Immortality is one thing; eternal life is
we have whether we will or no – doomed to it, unable to escape it, and
it may become
a burden, as we see in philosophies of the East. The great experience
is when the
fact of immortality is heightened and brightened into the glow and joy
of the eternal life. Most men do not really live, they only exist,
by duration, not by depth and beauty What matters most is not length of
depth of life radiance of faith, and the fellowship of things eternal.
Such a life
is continuous, not something we get when we die, but something that
Making Masons at Sight
Dear Editor: – The paper by Brother Wildey E.
on "Making Masons at Sight" probably has started something. We hope to
hear more of this subject, and see whether the exception is to be taken
He can't do it in Nebraska. For instance in
of Grand Lodge Nebraska, 1897, a Grand Master makes his son a Mason at
Grand Lodge decides as follows:
into a discussion of the question of whether or not the prerogative of
at sight ever inhered to the office of Grand Master, we are of the
by reason of our situation and Masonic traditions, such prerogative
does not inhere
in the office of Grand Master in Nebraska. The Grand Master is the
creature of the
constitution of this Grand Lodge and his prerogatives are defined and
Again; "Your committee on Jurisprudence beg
to report that in their opinion Mr. Blank is an irregularly made Mason,
that the Grand Master, in person or by proxy, be directed to go to S___
as convenient and heal said Blank, in due Masonic manner, first
requiring the payment
of fees prescribed by the laws of the lodge within whose jurisdiction
resided for conferring of the three degrees of Massonry."
Our Grand Master attended the Taft "at sight"
affair, and this is the report of Past Grand Master Warren which was
to 144: "That there was no error in the action of this Grand Lodge in
passed in 1897, that said resolution was carefully considered in
at length on the floor of this Grand Lodge and adopted by a vote of 515
to 27. That
such resolution was not wrongful but was right, and correctly announced
Masonic law, that the so-called prerogative of the Grand Master of
at sight does not exist and has not existed since the year 1717; that
it does not
exist by virtue of any landmark or ancient regulation, and is not
conferred by the
constitution or laws of this Grand Lodge. We therefore reiterate our
that the office of Grand Master of Masons in Nebraska is a
constitutional one, and
that the prerogatives inherent therein are defined and limited thereby."
Bro. Atchison says nothing about the authority
Grand Master waiving the ballot, and electing a man to membership
H. H. Andrews, Nebraska.
* * *
Dear Brother Newton: – I have read, in the
issue of The Builder, a query by Brother F. S. Dunn as to the
correctness of the
accepted history that Frederick the Great ever sent a sword to
a message, and, incidentally, discrediting the friendship of these two
as a "myth."
The history may be verified by reference
to the American Cyclopedia Vol. VII, pp. 466-7-8, the author giving
Carlyle's History of Frederick the Great [Volumes 12 to 19 of Carlyle’s
1864 see bibliography)], and to Friederich der Grosse und Katharina II,
Von Schl÷zer [Lib 1859], (Berlin
1859) and to Geschichte Friedrich's des Grossen [Lib 1840], by F. Kugler, (7th edition,
Leipzig 1870), and to
Friedrich der Grosse [Lib*] by Droysen, (1st Vol. 1873). Appleton's
American Biography (Vol. II) says Frederick sent a portrait of himself
with a similar message. The above citations are from standard
authorities, and not
from current magazines.
But the query, Mr. Editor, in its origin at
to me as having the ear-marks of that hierarchy which has ever attacked
of Frederick the Great: that combination which protested against the
the United States accepting the memorial of Frederick the Great and
which, it is
believed, attempted its destruction with dynamite soon after its
G. W. Baird, Washington, D. C.
* * *
The Simplicity of Masonry
Dear Brother Newton: – To me it seems that one
strongest evidences of the true greatness of our ancient masters,
may have been), lies in their having been able to put into the simple
and the every-day task of an artisan craft such pregnant meanings. That
was well taught is proved by the survival of the speculative order
which has so
far outgrown its operative parent. The greatest teachers of all ages
have used the
common things around them as illustrations. The best example is found
in the words
of Him whom we all call "The Master." Would there were more Masters
great enough to point their meanings in such a way. All too many both
in and out
of our order, are content to parrot the parables of the past, thinking
their meanings, or of the circumstances under which they were first
is an old legend of the East to the effect that King Solomon's seal was
a triangle of brass combined with one of iron, with the Most Great Name
in the center,
forming the familiar six-pointed star. Through the iron triangle he
spirits of darkness and evil, and through the brass he commanded the
I have alluded to this in personifying those virtues in which love
seems a necessary
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
Walter R. Reed, North Dakota.
* * *
The Brotherhood of the Wise
Dear Brother: – About fifteen years ago it was
to assist in raising in Sagamore Lodge, New York City, a Brother by the
William Churchill. He had been Consul to Samoa under President
Cleveland. He had
an affinity for language and dialect, and while in Samoa got into touch
native tribes and was initiated into what he translated as "The
of the Wise." Some weeks after his being raised in Masonry he gave a
on the similarity between that Brotherhood and the Masonic Fraternity
most remarkable, and furnished the clearest proof I have ever known of
of the Craft. Among several things in his lecture which I remember was
their barbaric work of fire worship, in the fourth degree of their
order – which
was the final degree – they were taught to feed the fire from piles of
a manner which left the hands in precisely the position in which every
the East from the altar in the third degree. Again, the rough clothing
tied in different
degrees at different positions marked in different stages of the work
by horizontals and perpendiculars, which by the final arrangement of
for the last degree so brought the horizontals and perpendiculars
together as to
form a square. This of course was among people who for centuries had
as far as all records go, from the rest of the world. Certainly their
were not received in recent days. They have kept no records, and as
said, they have no legend of how it originated.
Whether Brother Churchill is still alive I do
He was at that time on the staff of the New York Sun. His wife was the
a book called "Samoa Uma," [Lib 1902] published by the Forest and
Stream Publishing Co.,
New York. Perhaps it would be worthwhile for you to try to locate
and get from him a more detailed account of the Brotherhood of the Wise.
Cordially and fraternally,
Charles A. Alden, Illinois.
(We have kept this letter for some time, trying
Brother Churchill, but so far have been unable to do so. Perhaps some
the Society in New York City can tell us whether he is still alive, and
can be reached. If so, we would greatly appreciate the information.)
* * *
The Oblong Square
Dear Brother Newton: – In the December Builder,
asks the definition of "an oblong square." In the February issue, Bro.
Wm. A. Montell states that it is the L-shaped Square of which one arm
than the other.
I believe this is an error. Bro. Montell quotes
Standard Dictionary as defining "oblong as something longer than it is
Also a square as an instrument to measure or lay out right angles,
of two legs or branches at right angles to each other, in L-shape."
true, but when he finds his definition of an oblong square in the
these two, and says "this L-shaped square is the oblong square of
he is combining two incongruous definitions. Suppose, in order to get
of a "saw-horse" I turn to "saw" and find it is "a cutting
instrument with pointed teeth arranged continuously," and to "horse"
and find it is "a quadruped," and by combining the two definitions say
"a saw-horse is a quadruped having pointed teeth," the fallacy of the
argument becomes apparent.
If we examine the definition of oblong more
we will find that it contains an element which cannot be applied to the
instrument. The Standard defines it as "longer than broad: applied
to rectangular objects considerably but not extremely elongated." There
other definitions given, but all indicate that the word oblong is only
symmetrical figures which are longer one way than the other. The
does not form a symmetrical figure. It lacks two sides. Therefore the
cannot be applied to it.
Bro. Montell's error is a natural one, since,
Standard Dictionary states, the L-shaped Square is used as a device in
but it does not say that the L-shaped square is the oblong square.
Now what are the facts? The L-shaped Square is
square, and its adoption as a Masonic emblem seems to be an error. It
is more commonly
used in France than in this country. The proper instrument used in
an emblem of the order is the try-square of the stonemasons, having
arms of equal
length, and is used to test the stone to see that it is square. Mackey
in this country we have correctly retained the equality of the legs,
but have fallen
into the error of marking the surface with inches, as though it were an
to measure with, instead of simply for squaring the work. As a Masonic
is rich in symbolism, but it is not the oblong square and therefore
need not be
considered further here.
What, then, is the oblong square of
Freemasonry? I believe
it is the survival in our ceremonies of a term once common but now
reading has convinced me that at one time the word "square" meant
and the term "a square" referred to a four-sided figure, having four
angles, without regard to the proportionate length of adjacent sides.
There were thus two classes of squares; those
all four sides equal, and those having two parallel sides longer than
two. The first class were called "perfect squares" and the second class
"oblong squares." In time these terms were shortened to square and
respectively, and that is the sense in which they are used at the
so that when we speak of the oblong square, we are met with the
objection that if
it is a square it cannot be oblong, and if it is oblong, it cannot be
is true in the present sense of the term, but Freemasonry still retains
Let me give one illustration of this which any
can easily verify. In Ivanhoe [Lib 1904], (about the second page of
Chapter VII) Sir Walter
Scott describes the ground enclosed for the tournament as "forming a
of a quarter of a mile in length, and about half as broad. The form of
was an oblong square, save that the corners were considerably rounded
off in order
to afford more convenience for the spectators."
Our Monitors state that the form of the lodge
oblong, but the older Monitors (at least those I have examined), say
of the lodge is an oblong square." This is substantiated by Mackey, who
an oblong square as "A parallelogram, or four-sided figure, all of
are equal, but two of whose sides are longer than the others."
This is illustrated in our ritual when we speak
"a (not the as some jurisdictions erroneously have it) right-angle of
square." Each such square has four right-angles and when we form the
instrument, we form but one of these angles with two of the sides. The
itself is not formed thereby, and we should not make the mistake of
When we look at the symbolism of the oblong
we find confirmation for the statement that it does not refer to the
The latter, by itself not being a Masonic emblem, has no meaning
attached to it
in the ritual, but the oblong square as the symbolic form of the
has a deep significance. Mackey says, "It finds its prototype in many
structures of our ancient brethren. The ark of Noah, the camp of the
the ark of the covenant, the Tabernacle, and the Temple of Solomon were
squares." This form to the ancient mind represented the world itself,
is the meaning which it has for Freemasons, representing the world in
which he is
to live and work in the uprearing of his spiritual temple, of which
Temple is a type.
We say that anciently E. A.s met on the ground
F. C.s in the Middle Chamber, and M. M.s in the S. S. of King Solomon’s
The first two were rectangular in form and were represented by the
square," but the third had all four sides equal and in preparing to
"a right angle of a perfect square" is formed.
Trusting that these suggestions may throw some
on the subject for other brethren who are struggling for the light, I am
C. C. Hunt, Iowa.
* * *
The Reverence of Masonry
The substantial attitude of reverence in all
and teachings of Masonry has deeply impressed me as I have progressed
in the order
and have learned more of its precepts. I was startled by the solemn
at the door of the lodge that there would be nothing light nor trifling
in the ceremonies
of initiation, but that all would be profoundly significant and should
attention. No thoughtful man can pass through the degrees of Masonry
his mind at some time hushed in awe, and being made to feel something
as Moses must
have felt when commanded to take his shoes off his feet for the place
on which he
stood was holy ground.
Not only is the name of God revered and the
held sacred, but human life is reverenced. Man is a Master Builder
erecting a temple
for God, the plans for the perfecting of which are drawn in the holy
God dwells. The search for light and truth is conducted as for the most
The attitude of Masonry is fittingly expressed by Mrs. Browning:
And every common bush afire with God."
He who has well learned the teachings and
Masonry is a reverent man. He does not use carelessly the name of God,
harshly or lightly aught of His creation.
In this attitude of reverence toward man and
task, toward the great mysteries of life and the universe, toward God
and the Holy
scriptures, Masonry speaks a message that our American people need to
often and forcibly. Irreverence is one of our national sins, as a
people we profane
the name of God because we are ignorant of forceful language to express
We disregard the Sacred Book that bears to mankind the revelation of
God. We jest
over the great mysteries of life and death. We treat lightly the holy
ties of home
and parental authority. We amaze the people of Europe by the lightness
we break the marriage bond.
May not Masonry render a national service by
the reverence of the lodge room into the daily life so that in all our
and bearing there may be an atmosphere that will rebuke irreverence and
all life and all social relations more sacred.
LOCKWOOD, 32d Iowa.
Easter -- [A Poem]
Arthur B. Rugg, Minn
feel the soul of
a mighty God,
As it vibrates through aeons of time,
And it spreads o'er the earth with a masterful touch
Of peace that is grand and sublime.
I feel the life of the universe,
As it throbs in each passing breeze,
I hear it and see it reflected back
From all the flowers and trees.
I feel this life in my human heart
Rebound with a joyful love,
As it leaps to the tune of a raptured thrill,
From the realms of the Father above.
I bask in its light as it wraps me around
With all its shimmer and sheen,
And the gracious earth is again adorned
With her mantle of yellow and green.
I hear the sound of the distant wave
As it blends with the ocean's roar;
So blends the music of my heart
With the God that we all adore.
And though I am merely an atom in space
That swings by the light of the sun,
I can but rejoice and be happy and free,
For the Father and I are one.
Thy Loyal Guard -- [A Poem]
Mary G. Gross
well the citadel
Of noble thoughts and high impulse
That ne'er a cov'tous foe lurking in ambuscade
Steal in upon thee.
Keep well the lofty tower
Of friendship, true and unafraid
That traitors, aye! nor sycophants
Beguile thee in their wiles.
Protect thy loyal guard
Who watchful and alert
Do trust thy aims, obey thy word
In all unquestioning faith.
History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 1
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A History of the Inquisition of
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Der Untergang des Templer Ordens
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Friederich der Grosse und
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1 : 1 : p. 287. - 10.0 MB - German.
Geheimstatuten des Tempelherren-Ordens
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Geschichte des Templerherrenordens
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Rider & Son Ltd., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 123. - 8.7 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
Sco04 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - New York : American Book Company,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 13.8 MB.
Lectures and Orations of Henry
Hil13 / auth. Hillis Newell D. - New York : Fleming H. Revell Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 334. - 4.9 MB.
Lincoln - and other Poems
Mar151 / auth. Markham Edwin. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 3.1 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Papsttum und Untergang des
Fin07 / auth. Finke Heinrich. - Munster : Verlag der Aschendorfschen
Buchhandlung, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 819. - 49.4 MB.
Sch06 / auth. Schure Edouard / trans. Rothwell F.. - London : Philips
Wellby, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 96. - 1.5 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Chu02 / auth. Churchill Llewella P. - New York : Forest and Stream
Publishing Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 10.7 MB.
Songs for the New Age
Opp15 / auth. Oppenheim James. - London : Grant Richards Ltd., 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 95. - 2.9 MB.
The Assurance of Immortality
Fos16 / auth. Fosdick Harry E. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.6 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV01 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 1 : 30 : p. 282. - 7.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV02 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scirbner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 2 : 30 : p. 320. - 7.6 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV03 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 3 : 30 : p. 324. - 7.7 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV04 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 4 : 30 : p. 375. - 9.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV05 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 5 : 30 : p. 271. - 8.5 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV06 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 6 : 30 : p. 448. - 11.2 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV07 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 7 : 30 : p. 389. - 9.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV08 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 8 : 30 : p. 367. - 9.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV09 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 9 : 30 : p. 339. - 8.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV10 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 10 : 30 : p. 336. - 7.7 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV11 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 11 : 30 : p. 300. - 6.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV12 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 12 : 30 : p. 463. - 11.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV13 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 13 : 30 : p. 421. - 10.5 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV14 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1897. - Vol. 14 : 30 : p. 425. - 11.0 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV15 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1903. - Vol. 15 : 30 : p. 521. - 26.5 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV16 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 16 : 30 : p. 428. - 11.3 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV17 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 17 : 30 : p. 459. - 12.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV18 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribnr's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 18 : 30 : p. 515. - 13.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV19 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 19 : 30 : p. 403. - 11.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV20 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 20 : 30 : p. 373. - 9.0 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV21 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1898. - Vol. 21 : of 30 : p. 398. - 8.3 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV22 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribnr's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 22 : 30 : p. 345. - 7.7 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV23 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 23 : 30 : p. 474. - 10.0 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV24 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 24 : 30 : p. 429. - 9.1 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV25 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 25 : 30 : p. 373. - 8.4 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV26 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1900. - Vol. 26 : 30 : p. 542. - 12.7 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV27 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1900. - Vol. 27 : 30 : p. 518. - 12.7 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV28 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1900. - Vol. 28 : 30 : p. 506. - 11.9 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV29 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 29 : 30 : p. 509. - 12.2 MB.
The Complete Works of Carlyle
CarV30 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1901. - Vol. 30 : 30 : p. 400. - 8.9 MB.
The Great Initiates
Sch611 / auth. Schure Edouard / trans. Rasberry Gloria. - San Francisco
: Harper & Row, 1961. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 243. - 1.7 MB.
The Hidden Church of the Holy
Wai09 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : Rebman Limited, 1909. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 719. - 31.0 MB.
The History of Magic
Lev22 / auth. Levi Eliphas / ed. Waite Arthur E. / trans. Waite Arthur
E.. - London : William Richer & Son, Ltd, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 577. - 28.4 MB.
The Man with the Hoe
Mar99 / auth. Markham Edwin. - New York : Doubleday & McClure
Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 136. - 3.1 MB.
The Poetry of Freemasonry
Mor95 / auth. Morris Rob. - New York : The Werner Company, 1895. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 420. - 10.5 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Shoes of Happiness
Mar15 / auth. Markham Edwin. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 208. - 7.7 MB.
The Story of Freemasonry
Sib13 / auth. Sibley W G. - Gallipolis : The Lions Paw Club, 1913. -
3rd : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 122. - 4.3 MB.