Masonic Research Society
Lodge No. 22
Bro. Charles H. Callahan, Virginia
having resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief of the American
at his home, after an absence of several years, on Christmas eve, 1783,
days later received a letter from the Master, Wardens and members of a
Free Masons, which had just been organized in the little city of
under a warrant from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania,
upon his safe return to private life. In reply to this fraternal
wrote on December 28th, as follows: –
"GENTLEMEN: With a pleasing
received your favor of the 26th and beg leave to offer you my sincere
the favorable sentiments with which it abounds. I shall always feel
it may be in my power to render service to Lodge No. 39 and in every
act of Brotherly
kindness to the members of it.
with great truth, your affectionate Brother and obliged humble servant,
In the following
June the General visited his Masonic Brethren in Alexandria and,
according to the
minutes, still extant, "was unanimously elected an honorary member of
In 1788 the
Lodge surrendered its Pennsylvania charter, under which it had been
known as No.
39, and applied to the Grand Lodge of Virginia for a new warrant.
became the first Master of Alexandria Lodge No. 22, under the Virginia
which quaint and historic instrument still constitutes its badge of
only does this venerated parchment contain the name of Washington as
also the autograph of Edmund Randolph, who was then both Grand Master
of the Commonwealth, and who subsequently served in the Cabinets of our
as Attorney General and Secretary of State respectively. In 1805, by
of the Grand Lodge, the name or title of the Lodge was again changed by
sir-name of its first Master, making it Alexandria-Washington Lodge No.
22. It has
been claimed by some writers that General Washington lacked zeal in the
work of our institution, and a few skeptically inclined have contended
that he was
not even a member of the Masonic Fraternity. The fallacy of this
contention is positively
proven by the records of and personal letters from Washington to this
the Charter itself is an eloquent and emphatic denial of the claim. Mr.
in wording the instrument, leaves no doubt as to the identity of its
Master. After the usual preamble, it sets forth, "Know ye, that we,
Randolph, Esq., Governor of the Commonwealth aforesaid and Grand Master
of the Most
ancient and honorable society of Free Masons, within the same by and
with the consent
of the Grand Lodge of Virginia, do hereby constitute and appoint our
and well-beloved Brother George Washington, Esq., late General and
of the forces in the United States, etc." This settles beyond a doubt
as to whether or not it was the renowned leader of the American
the appointment also marks the beginning of the great patriot's
with the Masonic Fraternity of his home town; an association which has
made a little
obscure organization, situated in what was then an old fashioned
the most famous subordinate Masonic Lodge in America – a veritable
shrine to which
thousands of patriotic members of the Fraternity from all parts of the
wend their way and reverently view the cherished mementos of their
Washington, which hang upon its walls and rest in the alcoves of its
official connection with the Lodge raised it to a conspicuous place in
from the very beginning of its existence, and, as a consequence, few
events have occurred in that vicinity in which it has not taken a
We shall, however, only refer to those that have in some way a direct
with the sage of Mount Vernon. On Friday the 15th of April, 1791, by
of President Washington and in the presence of his special
commissioners Hon. Daniel
Carroll and David Stuart and a large concourse of citizens, it laid the
of the District of Columbia; and on the 18th of September, 1793, it
acted as escort
of honor to the President and assisted in laying the corner-stone of
of the United States. But the most important ceremony in which the
Lodge has ever
participated, and which is undoubtedly the most important of its
character in the
history of the American Fraternity, was the funeral of General
Washington on December
18th, 1799. Few people realize how extremely simple and how truly
Masonic were the
obsequies of this great man. Washington's last illness was sudden and
only twenty-four hours. There were four men at his bedside when he
died, viz: Drs.
Dick, Craik and Brown and Washington's Secretary, Tobias Lear. Three of
members of the Craft; Drs. Dick and Craik were members of his own
Lodge, Dick being
the Master; and Dr. Brown was the fifth Grand Master of Maryland, while
joined the Lodge in 1803. The funeral ceremonies were arranged by a
the Lodge, consisting of Dr. Dick, W. M., Colonel George Deneal, J. W.,
Simms and Little, members. The body was borne from the death chamber at
twelve" and deposited in the main room on the first floor, and the
appointed for "high twelve" on the 18th. Five of the six pall bearers,
Colonels Little, Payne, Gilpin, Ramsay an Simms, were members of No.
22, as were
three of the four ministers present, one of them being the Chaplain
Deneal, J.W., commanded the military organizations in attendance while
his subordinate officers were members of the Lodge. Owing to the late
Mount Vernon of the Alexandria contingent, which was composed of the
and a large concourse of citizens, the funeral cortege did not start
o'clock; but the body was borne from its resting place in the State
to the front veranda at meridian, and there the assembled throng took a
of the remains.
moved first north to the "Ha-ha Wall," which borders the lawn (and
has been recently restored), then east to the walk in front of the
by this walk, in a southerly direction, to the old tomb; the militia
way, followed by the Masons, the family and other mourners bringing up
On arriving at the tomb, the procession divided column, facing inward;
the order of march, the family and relatives passed through the
forming an inner circle around the tomb; next came the Masons who
in an outer circle around the family, while the militia filed back to
of the hill, forming a column facing east toward the river. "The
performed their divine services, the Masons their mystic rites and the
the ceremonies with resounding volleys over the bier of the fallen
was far advanced and deep shadows fell upon the familiar landscape
around the beloved
home of Washington, before the Lodge, with its military and civic
escort, took up
its lonely march over the snow-clad hills of Virginia back to the
little town of
Alexandria, nine miles away. How distant these scenes now appear under
splendor of man's achievement. Several hours were consumed by these
in their solemn march through the gathering twilight from Mount Vernon
while in this day of rapid transit tourists board a trolley car at
gates, and, almost paralleling the road over which the funeral cortege
way, make the trip in thirty minutes.
On the 12th
of January, 1785, the General wrote in his diary:
"Went up to Alexandria,
attended the funeral
of William Ramsay, ye oldest inhabitant of the city. Walked in the
the Free Masons; he, being a member of that order, was buried with
It was this
William Ramsay who set apart in his will a half-square of ground for
in Alexandria, reserving thereon a site for a Masonic Temple. Facing
this plot on
the west stands the old city hotel, Washington's headquarters while
Braddock in 1755; from its steps in 1799 – he held his last military
gave his last military order, thirty days before he died. Facing it on
is the equally historic Carlyle House, Braddock's headquarters in 1755,
received his commission as Major on that ill-fated General's Staff, and
also, during the conference of the five governors, holding at that
time, was made
the first suggestion of colonial taxation by the British Parliament;
and in the
old Court House, which stood on this square, Washington cast his last
vote, in 1799
– in it also his will was recorded, January 20th, 1800. In 1802 the
its first Temple on the site provided by Ramsay. It was but-a small
then on either side, as the more modern and commodious one is today, by
wings of the City Hall.
after Washington's funeral his friends and relatives began to send, as
to the Lodge, valuable mementos which had been among the cherished
the General or in some way closely associated with him in life. So
these gifts that in 1818 the City Council of Alexandria, to relieve the
condition of the Lodge, set apart a room in the City Hall adjoining the
the specific purpose of exhibiting the relics, and the Lodge appointed
of this museum. In 1870 the old frame temple, erected in 1802 with the
hall, containing the museum, was burned to the ground. Fortunately,
heroic efforts of the fire department and a number of Masons who were
assisted in the rescue, most of the treasures were saved but some of
the most valuable
were either stolen or destroyed. Among those lost was the bier on which
was borne to the tomb, the crepe which hung on the door at Mount Vernon
at the time
of his death, a portrait of Martha Washington in her youth,
saddle, a settee, which stood in the hall of Mount Vernon, Washington's
numerous original letters of the General, the flag of Washington's
bust of the celebrated Paul Jones, presented to Washington by
LaFayette, the flag
which flew over the "Bon Homme Richard" in her death grapple with the
"Serapis," presented by Paul Jones; and numerous other historic and
prized acquisitions went down before the fire king.
this serious loss, there is- still remaining in the present Lodge room,
erected in 1872 on the site of the old Temple, the most valuable
collection of genuine
Washington relics and heirlooms in existence, with the possible
exception of the
collection at Mount Vernon. There we see the Master's Chair, presented
in use for one hundred and seventeen years, now preserved in a glass
case. In a
niche in the wall, and occupying a space of about 2x3 feet, you are
wedding gloves; farm spurs, pruning knife, a glove he wore when in
his Mother, his pocket compasses, his cupping and bleeding instruments,
pen-knife his mother gave him when twelve years of age, in his
years; a button cut from his coat at his first inauguration, a legging
by Washington in the Battle of Fort Duquesne, (these were presented in
1803 by Captain
George Steptoe Washington, a nephew the General and one of the
executors of his
will); Washington's Masonic Apron, embroidered by Madame LaFayette,
with silk sash
and inlaid box, presented to Lodge in 1812 by Lawrence Lewis, the
who married his adopted daughter, Nellie Curtis. In the same case you
see also a
picture of Dr. Dick; Dick's medicine scales, and by their side
scales; a piece of Braddock's coat worn in the battle of Fort Duquesne,
articles of great interest.
case is shown the little trowel w which Washington laid the
corner-stone of the
National Capitol, the representatives of the lesser lights used on that
and at Washington's funeral; Washington's bed-chamber clock, stopped by
at the moment of his death and presented to the Lodge by Mrs.
Washington, its hands
still pointing to the exact minute of his dissolution, ten-twenty, P.M.
It is said
to be the only piece of furniture in the room when the General died
which has not
the walls are numerous aprons of the General's contemporaries, some of
them of elaborate
design with the emblems of Masonry worked in silk, among them are
Dick's and Craik's.
Autographic letters of Washington, and rare old engravings of the
Father of his
Country and other important personages also adorn the side hall, while
of historic characters, from the hands of celebrated artists, embellish
room proper. Among these we shall only name a few. Probably the most
of all is the picture of the General himself, painted from life by
Williams of Philadelphia,
in 1794, for the Lodge. It is a gem of art. Notwithstanding it has hung
in a glaring
light for over a hundred years, its bold lines and rich colors are as
as fresh to-day, apparently, as they were when it received the last
touch of the
Master's brush 120 years ago. Unfortunately, being a pastel, and, as we
highly colored, this work cannot be satisfactorily reproduced in a
to be fully appreciated the original must be inspected at close range.
has a standing offer for this picture of $100,000.
the Lodge has refused all applications to reproduce the picture until a
ago. Permission was given to have it copied in oil for the Grand Lodge
Brother Julius Sachse, in making the request for a copy, stated that
of about fifty paintings of General Washington, many of them made from
him that the Williams was the most authentic likeness in existence. Not
on the face of the subject has been concealed or omitted. The scar on
the left cheek,
shown as a dimple by others, the black mole under the right ear and the
on the nose are clearly visible on the original of the Williams
painting in the
Lodge, and to a less extent in the reproduction in colors given in The
which is made from the same plate as the frontispiece in Charles H.
"Washington, the Man and Mason," [Lib 1913] which is the first and only
reproduction in colors ever made.
of this great work is brief. The Lodge desiring a correct likeness of
First Master passed a resolution requesting General Washington to sit
for the painting,
obtained his consent and employed Williams, an artist of Philadelphia,
the work. At the time the painting was made, General Henry (Light Horse
representing the Eighth Congressional District, in which Alexandria is
in the National Congress, being not only the official representative of
but a member of the Fraternity, arranged for the sitting and introduced
to President Washington. After the work was completed and General
approved it, Williams personally delivered the picture to the Lodge,
approved it and paid the artist for his service.
The next important
canvas is a life-size painting in oil of Thomas, Sixth Lord Fairfax,
Baron in Cameron,
for whom Washington surveyed when a boy, from the famous brush of Sir
Being the only picture of the old Lord extant, it has a twofold value,
and has been
estimated by art critics to be worth $150,000. Besides these we see La
Colonial uniform, by Charles Wilson Peele, the Peele picture of
Washington, a rich
engraving of the Washington family by Savage (1798), a life size canvas
in Masonic regalia, showing him in his old age, and many, many other
of art, souvenirs and treasures that cannot be either properly
described or even
scheduled in an article of this kind. It is, indeed, a priceless
which the fondest memories cling and in their association form an
link between the material present and that romantic past.
Upon the erection
of the new Temple and City Hall no provision was made to restore the
these valuable heirlooms are now kept in a non-fire proof structure
a public market and heated by large cast iron stoves. Access to the
is through another building by a winding stair and by no conceivable
all of these treasures be saved from destruction if the combustible
fall a prey to a disastrous fire as the original did in 1870.
Elements in Masonry
is universal. It knows no race but the human race. It recognizes no
of class or divisions of society but the ability to serve mankind. It
above nations and the ranks of royalty. It lifts all men to the high
level of the
sons of God, the brothers of men.
lecture, symbol and drama represents truth, and truth is truth the
be it in the great universities of America or on the blood-drenched
fields of Europe
or in the darkest isle of the sea. Masonry is religious since it
readily lends itself
to the inculcation of those truths which bring satisfaction to the
in the hearts of men. Recognizing the Supreme Architect of the Universe
and all mankind as one great brotherhood, Masonry places upon every man
obligation of reverencing the Great Deity and of rendering service to
Thus in its ideals and purposes Masonry is universal and it is all but
in its marvelous and benign influence.
Masonry is the highest and best expression of the universal elements of
About its altar come men of every nation, of every rank, of every
belief, to bow
in reverence before the Great Spirit whom we have learned to know as
in Heaven" and to whom "alone we bow the knee." Here kindred spirits
blend as we break bread together in token of our friendship, pledging
anew to the common brotherhood. We drink the common cup symbolical of
needs, binding ourselves again to charity and patience, to self-denial
to truth and honor. In this fellowship liberty is queen and with her
with toleration and appreciation, she holds loving sway in every heart.
Charles Henry Stauffacher, Iowa.
When you know,
to know that you know; and when you do not know, to know that you do
not know –
that is true knowledge.
the Man and Mason
Bro. Geo. H. Sawyer, Iowa
goodness is unconscious; asks not to be recognized, but its baser
a thing to be despised. Only when the man is loyal to himself shall he
Here and there
on the world's calendar of time the finger of the Almighty has during
over the pages rested with peculiar significance and left its imprint
and unmistakable. These imprints mark the red letter days of history
and of progress.
Sometimes the day thus set apart by the Master Builder commemorates
some deed or
battle which he would have us recognize as a milestone of advancement
on the highway
which leads to that last great day when God shall be acknowledged in
deed as well
as word the Father of us all and when all men shall be as brothers.
this finger print is occasioned by the dedicating of a date as the
birthday of some
man or woman destined to perform a mighty service for God, humanity and
Strange it seems that the little month of February should commemorate
of the two greatest men whose names adorn the pages of American
any one presume to doubt that an All Wise God has from the very
this nation of ours, let him study with care the biography of
Washington and of
Lincoln and learn there the lessons that He would teach. Never should
honor be paid
the memory of one of these noblemen on his natal day without mention
of the services of the other.
and Lincoln – what names with which to conjure. God intended the latter
the work of the former and that their memories might be preserved in
caused their natal days to be in close proximity on February's meagre
born in honor and in plenty, and Lincoln in humility and poverty, teach
us the lesson
sorely needed in these latter days that patrician and plebeian, rich
and poor, high
and low, are distinctions not to be reckoned with in anything that
pertains to things
American. Then, too, how similar and yet how vastly different were
these great Americans.
Here again can God's plan be read. At a period in the world's unrest a
man was needed
whose heart beat in close accord with manhood's struggle for equality,
and yet a
man withal whose dignity, seclusion and apparent sternness of character
at all times a familiarity which meant anarchism and destruction. In
this note well the horrors of the French Revolution. But in Lincoln's
time a purely
local measure in a certain sense demanded a man who training, manner
made him familiar almost to contempt. Austere dignity and seclusion
would have made
a Washington in Lincoln's time a farce and Lincoln in Washington time a
tragedy. To Washington the Father and Lincoln the Savior of our country
we bow in
While as a
nation we this day pay homage to the memory of Washington, is
that Masons we meet in our various Masonic homes and in solemn quietude
several altars contemplate the virtues of this man and Mason; this
who exemplified every virtue which Masonry inculcates. So intimately
are the history
of Masonry and the life of Washington interwoven that seem but the web
of the same fabric. The year 1732 marks the birth year of Washington,
that date for the first time recognized Masonry makes its formal
appearance on American
soil in the form of established lodges. From that date until the
present time Masons
and Masonry have played important parts in the wonderful history of our
This is not the occasion for the lauding of this order nor does the
need or demand public commendation. As we review the history of the
we cannot but be grateful that Masons have been permitted under the
God to contribute as they have to liberty and progress as exemplified
in the development
of the United States. Let us be thankful that not one word in the
we take nor one act in the mystic rites which we indulge conflicts in
degree with our duty to God, our country, our neighbor, or ourselves,
fosters and impels the noblest and the best in the way of social,
civic, and religious
us call to mind a few of the events in the history of our country in
and Masonry have played important roles. The Boston Tea Party of 1773
for all time be shrouded in mystery and yet it is scarcely to be
doubted that Masonic
brothers wont to meet in the rooms above the Old Green Dragon Tavern of
have lifted the veil of mystery had they been so disposed. It was a
in the person of Paul Revere who on the "18th of April in '75" carried
the message flashed from the tower of the Old North Church on that
so many years ago. Bunker Hill was forever consecrated by the shedding
blood. Masonry here offered as its sacrifice the Grand Master of Masons
in the person of Gen. Warren, whose name is ever mentioned in every
account of that
memorable engagement. By a strange coincidence it happened that on the
that Warren fell, another brother in the person of Washington received
as Commander in Chief of the American forces. The Declaration of
acknowledged the world over to be the most profound exposition of civic
liberty that was ever penned by man. History and tradition inform us
the signers of that era-forming document were several leaders of public
to whom Masonic teachings were a constant source of inspiration.
On the roll
of Masonic honor in connection with the Revolutionary War besides the
are to be found the names of the following whom we delight to designate
Benjamin Franklin, the astute diplomat and statesman; Baron Steuben,
drill master; Gen. Israel Putnam, the two Randolphs, Edward and Robert
Gen. Knox, and last but not least the great LaFayette, the companion
of Washington who in the dark days of intrigue vindicated the character
of his brother
when wrongfully traduced. To him America owes a debt of gratitude
To what extent the fraternal bonds buoyed up and encouraged these men
long eight years can be understood somewhat by a review of the
On the 30th
of April, 1789, Washington took the oath of office as the first
president of these
United States. The ceremony was a most impressive one. The oath was
by Robert E. Livingston, the Chancellor of the State of New York and
the Grand Master
of Masons in that state. The Bible on which rested the hand of
Washington as he
entered into that solemn engagement had been taken from the altar of
Lodge No. 1 of New York City. Having taken the oath, Washington in
the page of the sacred volume. The leaf whereon his lips had rested was
and after the ceremony the honored volume was returned to its cushion
velvet on the altar where it remains until this day.
On two other
memorable occasions in the career of Washington as President did
Masonry play an
historic part. On the 15th of April, 1791, with Masonic ceremonies was
southeast cornerstone of the District of Columbia from which point was
the area comprising the federal grounds, the location of which had with
been left to Washington; and again on the 18th of September, 1793, with
elaborate and impressive of Masonic ceremonies Washington as Grand
Master pro tem,
laid the cornerstone of the Capitol building itself in the city which
name. At least eight brother Masons since the days of Washington have
president's chair. From first to last the history of Masonry in America
an honorable one.
But it is
to Washington, the man, that we wish this day to pay our homage.
Someone has said
that the perpetuity of this nation depends upon the spirit and the
manner in which
the American people observe their patriotic days. If this be true it
to look well to the charge that the rising generation lacks in these
– restraint, respect and reverence. Lord Brougham has said that "The
paid to the immortal name of Washington will ever be a test of the
our race makes in wisdom and in virtue."
We have stated
that Washington exemplified every virtue which Masonry inculcates. At
the age of
20 he sought admission into the mystic order and soon after the
attainment of his
majority he was made a Master Mason. The teachings of the order
impressed him deeply
and his connection with it was intimate and constant. The story of his
life is too
well known to justify repeating. We can profit most perhaps by causing
to pass before
our eyes some scenes which tend to show the man and the virtues which
The home life
of Washington affords a beautiful picture of devotion to wife and
mother. He was
an ideal son and husband. What tribute could be greater? He was a man
fond of his home and nothing on earth would have been so in harmony
with his conception
of a happy and contented life as to have been permitted to have spent
his days in
the supervision of his beautiful Mt. Vernon estate. But during the
forty seven years
from the time of his majority until his death at sixty eight, public
duties of the
most exacting nature forced themselves upon him, and hardly did he
retire to peace
and quietude at any period but that some new duty confronted him, and
called, personal comfort and preference were laid aside. Extracts from
by him to personal friends at the close of the war breathe the
satisfaction he felt
at being able once more to live the private life. One of these extracts
follows: "The scene has changed. On the eve of Christmas I entered
an older man by nine years than when I left them. I am just beginning
the ease and freedom from public care which however desirable take some
realize. I hope to spend the remainder of my days in cultivating the
of good men and in the practice of domestic virtues. I have not only
all public employments but I am retiring within myself and shall be
able to view
the solitary walk and tread the paths of private life with a heartfelt
Envious of none, I am determined to be pleased with all, and this, my
being the order of my march I will move gently down the stream of life
until I sleep
with my fathers."
But how soon
this dream was shattered. There followed the stirring days of the
Convention and the eight years of the presidency. Again he retired
private life, but once more came duty's call. Scarcely had Adams been
the president's chair when France assumed such a belligerent attitude
that war clouds
hung thick and heavy. Washington received and reluctantly accepted the
the provisional army against France and repaired at once to
Philadelphia to perfect
plans for a military campaign. This was at the age of sixty five.
sentiment of France changed and Washington was spared. But all this
the lesson to man and Mason that when public responsibility seeks the
man he has
but little right to resist the call.
Two of many
beautiful pictures tell the story of Washington's devotion to his
mother. The fall
of Yorktown had been accomplished. The war was over. His journey from
New York to
Virginia had been a continual ovation. At Fredericksburg he stopped to
aged mother. He allowed no pageantry or pomp to mar the scene. She was
aged hands were busy with household duties as he crossed the threshold.
as she turned to greet him. A mother's embrace and kiss were more to
him than the
flying of banners and the blare of trumpets. Not a word was said of the
To her he was not the humbler of Great Britain's power. He was the son
she had sacrificed and who in manhood's years had crowned her life with
as commander-in-chief of the American army but by virtue of a pure and
With a mother's solicitude and only as a mother can, she noted the
seven years of the nation's sorrows had plowed deep upon his brow.
a gala event was planned in the city in honor of Washington's presence.
men of this and other nations who had accompanied Washington to the
with the brilliant company of Virginia's best, were in the recreation
Washington consented to be present although she said demurely that her
were over. Leaning on the arm of her son she emerged among the happy
group. A beautiful
picture she made dressed in the plain but becoming gown of the Virginia
olden times. With quiet reserve and dignity she met the flower of
and the polished attentions of gallant French officers present.
Courteous she was
but with naught of haughtiness as their compliments fell upon her. At
an early hour
she retired saying simply that she wished the company much joy in their
but it was time for old folks like her to be in bed. Again on the arm
she left the room. To the army officers present who were familiar with
distinctions of society life in the old world this scene was a
wonder unrepressed they said among themselves that any country which
such as that would never lack for illustrious sons.
In the spring
of 1789 on his way to New York, the Federal Capital, where as
was to take the oath of office, Washington once more, ever mindful of
stopped at Fredericksburg to see his mother. He came to explain to her
his country demanded his services but that he would soon return. With
vision she interrupted: "You will never see my face again; my great age
me that I shall not be long for this world. But go, George, fulfil the
which Heaven appears to assign you, and may Heaven's and a mother's
you." Washington hid his face on her shoulder and wept. Her prophecy
too true. In a place of her own choosing near a ledge of rocks where
she was wont
to go for prayer, her body rests – a spot made sacred to American
liberty by a mother's
prayers for her son as he bore the nation's burdens.
is said by some critics to have been stern, cold and unresponsive.
Perhaps in a
measure the charge is true so far as outward manifestation is
concerned. But we
must remember that this was a transition period from the artificial
pomp surrounding power as manifested in office, and that growing desire
from all such artificiality and to reduce all to the level of absolute
in form and effect. Neither extreme is safe nor can long exist. One of
secrets of Washington's power lies in this very element. But that
underneath a stern
exterior there beat a brother's heart let no one doubt. If doubt there
again the story of Valley Forge. During that awful winter Washington's
were at the home of a Quaker minister. One day, 'tis said, this good
while wandering in the woods, accidentally came upon the person of
in audible prayer. The minister is reported to have remarked after this
that he never from that moment doubted for an instant the outcome of
for such prayers must needs be answered.
"Oh, who shall know the might
Of the words he uttered there?
The fate of nations then was turned
By the fervor of that prayer."
scene which tells most of his inner heart life is that enacted at
in New York City December 4, 1783. The occasion was the gathering of
officers of the war to take final leave of their commander. "As
entered the room and stood before them for the last time he could not
emotions. Filling a glass he raised it and said: 'With a heart full of
gratitude I now take leave of you; and most devoutly do I wish that
days may be as prosperous and happy as your former ones have been
glorious and honorable.'
And then, his voice trembling with emotion, he added, 'I cannot come to
you, to take my leave; but shall be obliged to you if you will come and
hand.' Gen. Knox stood nearest him. Washington grasped his proffered
incapable of utterance, drew him to his bosom with a tender embrace.
in turn received the same silent, affectionate farewell. Every eye was
tears, every heart throbbed with emotion, but no tongue interrupted the
of the scene. To those who had known him only as a stern commander, it
Joseph's making himself known to his brethren; but to those who had met
him as a
brother in the lodge room it was but the renewal of the mystic grasp,
and the well-known
silent embrace they had known before."
"Weeping through that sad group
Turned once and gazed, and then was gone –
It was his tenderest and his last."
taught by Masonry is that of benevolence. To what extent this was
Washington's career let the following excerpt from a letter by him at
of the war give testimony. This letter was written to the one in charge
of his estate
at Mt. Vernon and at a time when the demoralized condition of his army
have demanded his whole time and thought. "Let," he said, "the
of the house be kept with regard to the poor. Let no one go away
hungry. If any
of this kind of people should be in want of corn, supply their
it does not encourage them in idleness. I have no objection to your
giving my money
in charity when you think it will be well disposed. I mean that it is
that it should be so." This together with the fact that for all his
service during the war he would accept nothing but his expenses puts to
graft and greed of public life today.
years of the presidency having passed, how eagerly he sought the
quietude of Mt.
Vernon and the happy private companionship of his wife. In a letter he
it thus: "To the wearied traveler who sees a resting place and is
body to lean thereon I now compare myself." But political enemies
of his services and sacrifices were seeking to malign him. To his
and greatly to his comfort he was able to say that "conscious rectitude
the approving voice of his country" removed the sting of criticism.
three years were allotted to Washington's life in private. His fatal
on the evening of December 12, 1799. The physician gave no hope. " 'Tis
said Washington, "I am not afraid to die." At the foot of the bed, her
face buried in the curtains, the faithful wife prayed in silence that
the end might
be a peaceful one. Her prayer was answered. "It is well, all is now
shall soon follow him. I have no more trials to pass through." Thus
the life of Washington.
And his soul, naked and alone
Appeared before the Great White Throne
As pure and spotless, we believe
As the leathern apron he'd received
So many years before.
Masonic ceremonials, together with the burial service of the Episcopal
by his pastor and Masonic brother, his body was laid to rest in a tomb
it now reposes. The Bible on which he had taken the oath of office as
was brought from the lodge room in New York and played a conspicuous
part in the
ceremonies of the day. Washington's war horse, riderless that day but
holsters and pistols, took its place in the procession.
changes in these more than a hundred years since that far off funeral
a struggling nation among the humblest in history to a world power
is second to none is the record of our rise. But in this very thing
our greatest peril. That the virtues of Washington and the ideals for
which he and
his compatriots fought may be preserved unsullied, let us here and now
and as Masons rededicate ourselves to the service of God and humanity
and thus in
the truest sense do honor to his memory.
"God of our fathers, known of
Lord of our far flung battle line –
Beneath whose awful hand we hold
Dominion over palm and pine –
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
Lest we forget – lest we forget."
Homer's War-Film -- [A Poem]
The Iliad, Book IV,
host now joins and each a god inspires,
These Mars incites and those Minerva fires,
Pale flight around, and dreadful terror reign;
And discord raging bathes the purple plain.
Discord ! dire sister of the slaughtering power,
Small at her birth but rising every hour,
While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound
She stalks on earth, and shakes the world around.
The nations bleed where'er her steps she turns
The groan still deepens and the combat burns.
bitterness, unkindliness, deliver me. Make me charitable in thought,
slow to condemn,
and may my heart and soul be free of the poison of malice, intolerance,
John T. McCutcheon.
Character of Washington
Hon. W.E.H. Leckey
On the appointment
of Washington, far more than to any other single circumstance, is due
success of the American Revolution. Punctual, methodical, and exact in
degree, he excelled in managing those minute details which are so
essential to the
efficiency of an army, and he possessed to an eminent degree not only
courage of a soldier, but also that much rarer form of courage which
long-continued suspense, bear the weight of great responsibility, and
the risks of misrepresentation and unpopularity. For several years, and
in the neighborhood of superior forces, he commanded a perpetually
almost wholly destitute of discipline and respect for authority, torn
by the most
violent personal and provincial jealousies, wretchedly armed,
and sometimes in imminent danger of starvation. Unsupported for the
most part by
the population among whom he was quartered, and incessantly thwarted by
of Congress, he kept his army together by a combination of skill,
and judgment which has rarely been surpassed, and he led it at last to
triumph. In civil as in military life he was preeminent among his
for the clearness and soundness of his judgment, for his perfect
self-control, for the quiet dignity and the indomitable firmness with
which he pursued
every path which he had deliberately chosen. Of all the great men in
was the most invariably judicious, and there is scarcely a rash word or
judgment recorded of him. Those who knew him well noticed that he had
and strong passions; but his power of self-command never failed him,
and no act
of his public life can be traced to personal caprice, ambition, or
In the despondency
of long-continued failure, in the elation of sudden success, at times
when his soldiers
were deserting by hundreds and when malignant plots were formed against
amid the constant quarrels, rivalries, and jealousies of his
subordinates, in the
dark hour of national ingratitude, and in the midst of the most
universal and intoxicating
flattery, he was always the same calm, wise, just, and single-minded
the course which he believed to be right without fear or favor or
free from the passions that spring from interest and from the passions
from imagination. He never acted on the impulse of an absorbing or
enthusiasm, and he valued very highly fortune, position, and
reputation; but at
the command of duty he was ready to risk and sacrifice them all. He
was, in the
highest sense of the words, a gentleman and a man of honor, and he
public life the severest standard of private morals. It was at first
dread of large sections of the American people that if the old
Government were overthrown
they would fall into the hands of military adventurers and undergo the
yoke of military
despotism. It was mainly the transparent integrity of the character of
that dispelled the fear. It was always known by his friends, and it was
by the whole nation, and by the English themselves, that in Washington
found a leader who could be induced by no earthly motive to tell a
to break an engagement or to commit any dishonorable act. Men of this
are happily not rare, and we have all met them in our experience; but
there is scarcely
another instance in history of such a man having reached and maintained
position in the convulsions of civil war and of a great popular
To Lessing -- [A Poem]
R. R. Morgan
do not know it – nay – for if you knew,
Your soul would burst the bounds of time and space To stand here
crying in the market-place,
Crying to those who know not what they do.
Of all your country's loving children, you
The best could serve her in her desperate case –
You whom no power could force to aught of base,
Whose life was but the passion to be true.
Ah, to what end your spirit's high emprise,
Schiller's white flame, Goethe's Olympic calm,
If after you come men of low surmise,
Men who belie your truth without a qualm,
Who think to enjoy – God's love! – a place in the sun,
With all around black Hell and faith fordone !
In Proportion -- [A Poem]
there's only one thing that I can say
That you might be likely to carry away;
It is, that your Masonry of worth will be
In proportion as you take it seriously.
Masonry -- [A Poem]
no "market cart" with the physical
That alike by us all must be won;
But a vehicle laden with mysteries rare, –
A "chariot of the sun."
to Great Men Who Were Masons
Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P. G. M., District Of Columbia
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Grand
Master of Free
Masons of the State of Virginia. The splendid bronze statue shown in
the cut was
presented to the Nation by the Bar Association: It is the only statue
in the parking
of the Capitol Grounds in Washington. It rests on a cubical marble
the west side of the building, at the foot of the terrace.
It shows the
great Jurist sitting in his chair, clothed in his judicial robes. The
has basso-relieves, in the white stone, one of which shows young
America being led
by Victory to swear fidelity at the Altar of the Union: another shows
the Constitution to young America.
It is a beautiful
work of art, executed in Rome by the famous sculptor, Mr. W. W. Story.
No one has
ever uttered a word of adverse criticism on this sculpture.
was to law givers of England, and what Moses was to the Children of
Marshall was to the legal fraternity of the Republic of the United
States. He was
the fourth Chief Justice, chronologically, but the first in ability.
he set, the logical rulings he made and the words he used to express
will ever be held as models for future generations.
In the day
of John Marshall the people were guided by the law: they possessed
and altruism, and the law was executed with the assistance of the
people, and with
was born in Virginia in 1755 and died in Philadelphia in 1835. He was
of 15 children of Colonel Thomas Marshall, the distinguished commander
in the battle
of the Brandywine. His ancestry, on both sides, was English. John
Marshall was an
unusually bright student, possessed with a wonderfully retentive
memory: at the
age of 12 he could recite the whole of Pope's writings, and he was
Shakespeare, Milton and Dryden. He was a fellow student of Monroe, in
He began the study of Law at the age of 18 years.
In 1775 he
joined a Military company, and was soon in the field. He took part in
at Dunmore and Great Bridge with his company of Culpeper Minute men. He
lieutenant in the Eleventh Virginia regiment in 1776, and marched
part in the battle at Iron Hill, where he was promoted to be a captain.
He was in
the engagement at Germantown and Monmouth and went through the
hardships at Valley
Forge. In the darkest hour he was bright and cheerful, being able to
see the funny
side of everything, and earned the reputation of a humorist. He was
as Judge Advocate, and secured the warm attachment of Washington.
the lectures at William and Mary College and was admitted to practice
law in 1780.
Possessed with a warm, genial nature, but with determination, he made
hosts of friends,
which lasted through life. In 1783 he married Mary Ambler; and in 1788
he was chosen
a member of the Virginia convention to act on the constitution drawn up
by the Philadelphia
convention assembled, and took a conspicuous stand, by the side of
Edmund Pendleton and other advocates, making a masterly defense of the
against all its assailants. In three famous debates on the subjects of
the Judiciary and power over the militia, John Marshall showed powerful
massive faculty of reasoning, which led to the adoption of the federal
was reselected and continued to sit in the assembly during the sessions
Virginia was the headquarters of the States Rights party whose views
in the National Cabinet by Thomas Jefferson. The question whether the
should be strictly or liberally construed was the point at issue:
the Federal view with the calmness and moderation of tone which ever
him, but with all the vigor his friends had expected.
In 1792, his
biographers say, "he retired from the body, without leaving an enemy
and devoted himself to his law practice until 1795."
But, for a
fact, during that time John Marshall was particularly active in
Deputy Grand Master in 1792, and Grand Master in 1793 and 1794.
object lesson is needed to prove the wisdom of selecting a Grand Master
worth and usefulness to the Craft, rather than promoting vigorously by
as is becoming the practice, we have it here. John Marshall was elected
floor of the Grand Lodge to be Deputy, and at the next election was
made Grand Master.
So great a man brought us great credit and honor.
all that time he was frequently at the side of Washington, and his
During the period of his Grand Mastership he defended the proclamation
occasioned by the conduct of the French Minister, Mr. Genet; he also
administration of Washington with his pen and secured the passage, by a
of the citizens, of a set of resolutions approving it, which he had
he had retired from office in the Grand Lodge he sat again in the House
taking part in the violent discussions on Jay's treaty.
offered John Marshall the position of Attorney General, which he
later declined the office of Minister to France: When the French
to receive Mr. Pinkney, the President prevailed on Marshall to accept
when he successfully negotiated with the Directory in relation to the
thrown in the way of the commerce of the United States.
be filled with glowing accounts of the public services rendered by Past
John Marshall, but space does not admit. He afterwards-served in
Congress; was appointed
Secretary of War, and then Secretary of State and in 1799, the year
President Adams offered him a seat in the Supreme Court which he
declined. In Congress
he became the administration's principal reliance though he did not
approve of the
alien or the sedition laws. In 1801 he was appointed Chief Justice of
Court, where his record was brilliant. He published a "Life of
five volumes; a History of the American Colonies, and other valuable
John Marshall was ungraceful in appearance, "tall, meagre and
muscles relaxed and his joints so loosely connected as to destroy
harmony in his
movements." But he was, socially, a great favorite, and the center of
in polite society. He was an unaffected Christian, and liberal in his
possessed great wit, and was fond of a joke.
over the biographies of great men we find little or no mention of their
ties: ties which, we think, have had so much to do with their ability
to adapt themselves
to their surroundings; to recognize the inherent rights of their fellow
to set an example in altruism. Whether these biographers have made this
intentionally or not it is hard to say. But of all the memorials to
great men, in
the Capitol of the Nation, there is but one that intimates the hero was
and that one was erected by the Fraternity.
"Once In A While"
J. T.Wray, W.M.
a nice little isle
Called "Once in a while,"
Where most of us will go
When our work is done,
And our race is run,
And our lamp is burning low.
We don't write home
Only "Once in a while,"
For there's nothing much to say,
We've lost the touch
That means so much
To the old folks far away.
We go to church
Perhaps "Once in a while"
Because it's our duty to.
We like the choir,
But of the sermons we tire
So we don't always sit it through.
We're on time at the office,
Well, "Once in a while,"
It's awfully hard, you know,
The train is late
As sure as fate,
Or old Big Ben is slow.
We keep a date
Not even "Once in a while,"
What's a half an hour or more?
We jog along
As if nothing was wrong
And wonder why they're sore.
We go to lodge,
Yes, "Once in a while,"
When there's nothing else to do.
The work is the same
So we're hardly to blame
If we leave before they're through.
a Mason at Sight
Bro. Wildey E. Atchison, Colorado
of the Grand Master to make Masons at sight is described by Dr. Albert
the eighth of the Twenty-Five Landmarks of Free Masonry. To quote Dr.
a technical term, which may be defined to be the power to initiate,
pass and raise
candidates, by the Grand Master, in a Lodge of Emergency, or as it is
the Book of Constitutions, 'an Occasional Lodge,' specially convened by
consisting of such Master Masons as he may call together for that
the Lodge ceasing to exist as soon as the initiation, passing, or
raising has been
accomplished, and the Brethren have been dismissed by the Grand Master.
Lord Lovell, being Grand Master, he 'formed an Occasional Lodge at
Sir Robert Walpole's House in Norfolk,' and there made the Duke of
Emperor of Germany, and the Duke of Newcastle, Master Masons.
initiation, passing and raising of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1737,
in an 'Occasional Lodge,' over which Dr. Desaguliers presided, but this
be called a 'making at sight,' because Dr. Desaguliers at the time was
a Past Grand
Master, and not the actual Grand Master at the time. He most probably
the dispensation of the Grand Master, who at that time was the Earl of
Lord Blaney, who was then Grand Master, convened an 'Occasional Lodge,'
passed and raised the Duke of Gloucester.
in 1767, John Salter, the Deputy then acting as Grand Master, convened
Lodge,' and conferred the three degrees on the Duke of Cumberland.
the Prince of Wales was made a Mason 'at an Occasional Lodge,
convened,' says Preston,
'for the purpose at the Star and Garter, at Pall Mall, over which the
Duke of Cumberland
(Grand Master) presided in person.'
been said, however, by those who deny the existence of this
prerogative, that these
'Occasional Lodges' were only Special Communications of the Grand
Lodge, and the
'makings' are thus supposed to have taken place under the authority of
and not of the Grand Master. The facts, however, do not sustain this
the Book of Constitutions, other Communications, whether Stated or
distinctly recorded as Communications of the Grand Lodge; while these
Lodges' appear only to have been convened by the Grand Master for the
making Masons. Besides, in many instances, the Lodge was held at a
from that of the Grand Lodge, and the officers were not, with the
exception of the
Grand Master, the officers of the Grand Lodge. Thus the 'Occasional
initiated the Duke of Lorraine was held at the residence of Sir Robert
in Norfolk, while the Grand Lodge always met in London. In 1766 the
held its Communication at the Crown and Anchor, but the 'Occasional
in the same year conferred the degrees on the Duke of Gloucester, was
the Horn tavern. In the following year, the Lodge which initiated the
Duke of Cumberland
was convened at the 'Thatched House' tavern, the Grand Lodge continuing
at the Crown and Anchor.
without doubt, a conclusive argument may be drawn from the dispensing
the Grand Master, which has never been denied. No one has doubted, or
the inherent right of the Grand Master to constitute Lodges by
in these Lodges so constituted, Masons may be legally entered, passed
This is done every day. A constitutional number of Master Masons
applying to the
Grand Master, he grants them a Dispensation, under authority of which
to open and hold a Lodge, and to make Masons. This Lodge is, however,
be the mere creature of the Grand Master, for it is in his power at any
revoke the Dispensation he had granted, and thus to dissolve the Lodge.
if the Grand Master has the power thus to enable others to confer the
make Masons, by his individual authority out of his presence, are we
to argue that he has also the right of congregating a proper number of
and cause a Mason to be made in his sight? Can he delegate a power to
he does not himself possess? And is his calling together an 'Occasional
making, with the assistance of the Brethren thus assembled, a Mason 'at
is to say, in his presence, anything more or less than the exercise of
power, for a temporary period, and for a special purpose? The purpose
effected, and the Mason having been made, he revokes his dispensation
and the Lodge
is dismissed. If we assumed any other ground than this, we should be
say that though the Grand Master might authorize others to make Masons
when he was
absent, he could not do it himself when present. The form of the
Masons at sight' is borrowed from Lawrence Dermott, the Grand Secretary
of the Athol
or Schismatic Grand Lodge; 'making Masons in an Occasional Lodge,' is a
by Anderson and his subsequent editors. Dermott, commenting on the
the Old Regulations, which prescribes that Fellow Crafts and Master
be made in a private Lodge, except by the Dispensation of the Grand
is a very ancient regulation, but seldom put in practice, new Masons
made at private Lodges; however, the Right Worshipful Grand Master has
and authority to make, or cause to be made, in his Worship's presence,
Accepted Masons at sight, and such making is good. But they cannot be
made out of
his Worship's presence without a written Dispensation for that purpose.
his Worship oblige any warranted Lodge to receive the person so made,
if the members
should declare against him or them; but in such case the Right
Master may grant them a warrant and form them into a new Lodge.'
the fact that Dermott uses the phrase does not militate against the
the prerogative, nor weaken the argument in its favor. For, in the
he is not quoted as authority, and secondly, it is very possible that
he did not
invent the expression, but found it already existing as a technical
used by the Craft, although not to be found in the old Book of
form there used is 'Making Masons in an Occasional Lodge,' which is of
mode of exercising the prerogative is this: The Grand Master summons to
not less than six other Masons, convenes a Lodge, and without any
but 'on Light' of the Candidate, confers the degrees upon him, after
which he dissolves
the Lodge and dismisses the Brethren."
I have discovered
several instances of the prerogative having been exercised by the Grand
Eichbaum, Grand Master of that state in 1887, initiated, passed and
raised a Candidate
at an Emergent Communication on April 23rd of that year, in
Philadelphia. He said
the initiate was a young man with whom he had been in almost daily
closely associated with for some fourteen years and whose moral
character he was
fully prepared to vouch for. He claimed the right to be unquestioned,
exercise of it possibly injudicious.
Grand Master of Pennsylvania in 1893, called a Special Communication of
Lodge on May 3rd of that year for the purpose of making a Mason at
sight, and on
June 13th, five weeks later, he visited Lodge No. 59 for the same
purpose. His principal
reason for exercising the prerogative was "in order that it might not
that it has become obsolete by non-use."
In 1894, Brother
Richard C. McCallister, Grand Master of Masons of South Dakota, granted
No. 54 at Webster, a Dispensation to confer the three degrees upon
waiving the usual time. The Grand Master states that he was present and
the conferring of the three degrees, which was done in a very
"Although I am very well aware that Masonry regards no man for his
wealth or honors," he states, "in this case I fully believe the
possessed both the internal and the external qualifications, and
But the Committee
on Jurisprudence did not approve of this action and made the following
to it in their report, which was adopted by the Grand Lodge:
"In reference to the
for conferring the degrees out of time upon Governor Sheldon, the
committee is of
the opinion that this prerogative of the Grand Master should only be
case of the greatest emergency, and only when the Candidate shows
himself by examination,
to be fully proficient as required by our by-laws and usages. The facts
in he case
reported did not, in our judgment, justify the exercise of such power."
Spinks, Grand Master of Mississippi n 1895, gives the following account
been made a Mason "at sight:"
"On June 1st, at sea, in Ship
and within the State of Mississippi, by virtue of the high power in me
Grand Master of Masons, in and for the state of Mississippi, organized
a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, and with the consent and
assistance of the
Brethren present erect, conferred the degrees of Entered Apprentice,
and Master Mason, upon Captain George Maddrell, master of the British
County of York, giving him in full the lectures of each degree, after
Lodge was dissolved."
He says further:
"That anyone can or will
question the right,
or rather the prerogative of a Grand Master to do this, I do not for a
That many do question the propriety, I am fully aware, as I have had
from many Brethren for full particulars, and from the tone of some of
one would infer that I had committed the 'unpardonable sin.'
on Masonic Law and Jurisprudence, to whom the matter was referred,
reported as follows:
"We have given such
consideration to so much
of the Most Worshipful Grand Master's address, as was possible under
It is a question which must be considered as one of law and expediency.
first branch, we find that as late as 1875 the Grand Lodge adopted the
Text-Book,' containing Brother Mackey's Twenty-Five Landmarks, one of
which is declaratory
of such a prerogative residing in the Grand Master. In the present
edition of the
Text-Book there is a declaration of the 'Fundamental Principles of
which the Grand Master is declared to have certain prerogatives among
which we find
"'To make Masons at sight, with
and assistance of the Masons he assembles into a Lodge.'
"As a question of expediency,
is unanimous in the opinion that if the prerogative exists, it ought
not to be exercised
under any circumstances whatever. And in expressing this opinion we do
to be misunderstood as criticizing the act of the Grand Master, for if
he has the
prerogative, it certainly is discretionary with him whether he will
or not. We concede this right to the Grand Master, and while not
approving the act,
we cannot deny to him the right and if he has the right it surely is
with him whether he will exercise it or not."
was on motion recommitted to the same committee, with directions to
the question, and report at the next Annual Communication, at which
time they reported,
in part as follows:
"We are not insensible to the
fact that in
this Grand Lodge and in a number of others, the doctrine that the Grand
powers and prerogatives which are not subject to the control of the
has been maintained, and we give due weight to the learning, zeal, and
of the large number of eminent Masons who have sustained the claim but
the great array of names which may be cited against us, we fail to find
in the arguments
presented, a single reference to any Ancient Law, which gives, as we
by implication, to the Grand Master the right to set aside a law of the
and without so doing he cannot make a Mason at sight. But, granting,
for the sake
of the argument, that he formerly possessed such a prerogative, we are
by the fact that every Grand Master, in modern times, is obligated at
to support and maintain the Constitution and Regulations of the Grand
we think, therefore, that if they do not confer upon him the power of
their provisions regarding the initiation of Candidates that he must be
have waived whatever prerogatives he may have anciently possessed, by
obligation of office. He is not above the law, but, if possible, more
than any other
Mason, bound to support and maintain it in all its integrity. Without
argument to demonstrate that the Grand Master is a Constitutional
officer, it seems
very clear to us that he is at least bound by the maxim in Masonry that
which are not permitted to a Mason are clearly prohibited.' (Drummond,
Masonry [Lib*], page 552.) It is not permitted now, nor has it been
to make a Mason except in a Regular Lodge, nor since 1753, until due
been made as to his character, nor without the unanimous consent of the
of a Lodge, which qualification is not the subject of a Dispensation.
"Our conclusion, therefore, is
that the prerogative
of making a Mason at sight does not exist, and has not since 1717, or,
who contend for exploded Masonic History, prefer it, since 1663, and we
the adoption of the following:
"Resolved, That it is the sense
of this Grand
Lodge that the prerogative of making a Mason at sight does not exist by
any Landmark or Ancient Regulation, and is not conferred by the
Laws of this Grand Lodge."
upon the above resolution of our Mississippi Brethren, Brother Lawrence
Past Grand Master of Colorado, and Chairman of the Committee on Foreign
"From 1862 to 1875, the
Constitution of this
Grand Lodge, among other powers of the Grand Master enumerated in
Article IX, contained
"'It is his prerogative to make
sight, and for this purpose may summon to his assistance such Brethren
as he may
deem necessary.' "'In 1875 the revised Constitution was adopted and the
paragraph no longer appeared. Under 'Grand Master,' section twelve
reads as follows:
"'The Most Worshipful Grand Master shall have and enjoy all the powers
prerogatives conferred by the Ancient Constitutions and Usages and
(In the Book
of Constitutions as revised by the Grand Lodge of Colorado in
September, 1914, this
section is now numbered 19.) Brother Greenleaf says further:
"While the prerogative has
never been exercised
in this district, it has nevertheless been deemed to exist. The report
of the above
committee is a valuable contribution in support of the negative side of
but we are not wholly convinced of its correctness.
"If it shall be shown that the
referred to is an inherent right of the Grand Master, neither the Grand
Mississippi nor any other Grand Lodge can dispossess him of that right.
whether for 120 or 200 years, certainly must enter largely into the
of the question."
J. Shryock, Grand Master of Masons in Maryland in 1897, exercised this
"By virtue of the authority in
as your Grand Master, I convened an 'Emergency Lodge,' and made 'at
Excellency Lloyd Lowndes, Governor of Maryland, a Mason. An erroneous
idea has arisen
in the minds of many of the Fraternity as to the ceremony of making a
sight,' and to erase this wrong, and perhaps damaging, impression, I
deem it but
proper to say that in the making of a Mason 'at sight' by the Grand
Candidate is required to pass through all the forms and ceremonies
incident to the
conferring of the three degrees, in the same manner that an applicant
does in applying
to a Subordinate Lodge. The impression of some, that the Grand Master,
of his authority, touches a man on the shoulder and creates him a
Mason, is entirely
erroneous, and as I know that this impression does exist to a certain
think it proper to here state, so the Craft may understand it
throughout our Jurisdiction,
that such is not the case. The making of a Mason 'at sight' is one of
of the Fraternity, the prerogative of the Grand Master, and I have on
exercised that prerogative, as much for the purpose of not allowing it
dormant as for any other reason.'"
Taft, Ex-President of the United States, was made a Mason "at sight,"
shortly before his inauguration in 1909. The ceremony took place at the
Rite Cathedral in Cincinnati, on February 18th of that year, of which
account appears in the review on Foreign Correspondence in the Colorado
Proceedings of 1910:
"The ceremonies were simple and
entire meeting, from its opening to its close, taking only one hour.
at the appointed hour the Most Worshipful Grand Master of Ohio arose
and made the
announcement that by virtue of the power and authority vested in him by
Lodge of Ohio, he declared the present Convocation of Master Masons to
be an 'Occasional
Lodge,' convened for the purpose of conferring upon Mr. William Howard
degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason, and he
Lodge open, directed the Senior Deacon to perform his duty, and then
the Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge, Rev. Paul R. Hickok, to invoke
of Almighty God.
"Brother William B. Melish,
Past Grand Master,
as Master of Ceremonies, then escorted Mr. William Howard Taft into the
presented him at the altar, declaring him to be a legal resident of the
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, and stated that he introduced him at his
being his desire to receive the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow
"The Grand Master, after
customary questions and receiving the required answers, obligated the
in the Entered Apprentice obligation, and then instructed him fully in
work of that degree.
"The same procedure followed
with the Fellow
Craft and Master Mason degrees, the final statement being made that the
of the Master's degree would be exemplified in full form in the evening
Lodge, and that he would then have full opportunity to learn that part
of the work
"The charge appertaining to the
degree was then read.
"The Grand Master then made
that William Howard Taft, having received the degrees of Entered
Craft and Master Mason, he declared him to be a Master Mason in good
"After congratulations and
welcome to the
recipient, he delivered an address setting forth the appreciation of
the honor conferred
after which the benediction was pronounced and the Grand Master then
the purpose for which the 'occasional Lodge' was convened having been
he declared the Lodge closed and dissolved."
Fleming Moore, Editor of the New Age, in the March, 1909, issue of that
"Before he was nominated for
Secretary Taft expressed a desire to become a Mason and really made
'of his own free will and accord.' The proper initial steps were taken
to make him
a Mason 'at sight' and Brother William B. Melish, an eminent Mason of
a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of that State; Levi C. Goodale,
Grand Master, and Jacob H. Bromwell, Grand Secretary of the Grand
in a petition addressed to Charles S. Hoskinson, Grand Master of Masons
of the State
of Ohio, asking that the three degrees conferred in the Blue Lodge
might be given
to William Howard Taft, and that he might be made a Mason 'at sight.'
"In this petition it was shown
to the Grand
Master that Mr. Taft had been compelled by official business to be
absent from his
home in Ohio for a long time, and that this had interfered with his
article on this subject appeared in the June, 1909, issue of the New
"The public press gives the
President Taft has received notice of his election as an honorary
member of a Lodge
instituted in London, on June 3, 1909. The Duke of Connaught, who is a
King Edward VII, and Grand Master of Masons in England, has granted the
to carry out the arrangements.
"The President recently
attended a meeting
of Temple Lodge of Washington, D.C., and saw the third degree
conferred. He was
introduced by Grand Master Simpson of the Grand Lodge of the District,
who had seen
him made a Mason 'at sight' in Cincinnati, and was received and
welcomed by T. C.
Noyes, Worshipful Master of the Lodge, in the following words:
"Brother Taft: Along with
the civilized world, the 8,000 Masons of the District rejoiced when you
Master Mason. That was not so much because of your distinguished
so much because of your high official position, but because we knew
had come into its own.
"Masonry stands for the binding
of man to man, of men to men, of peoples to peoples, of nations to
in one great Brotherhood of men under the Fatherhood of God. Your whole
both private and public, had been Masonic before you took the degrees
life was Masonic, your public life was Masonic, your smile was Masonic.
"We therefore rejoiced that you
come into the Brotherhood and had actually been made a Master Mason by
degrees, had become one of us in fact, as you had been in spirit, all
life. It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to this Lodge, to
to a seat in the East."
"President Taft responded, in
part, as follows:
"Worshipful Master, I
appreciate in full
your very cordial welcome. I am conscious that my introduction into
some support and I attribute it to the spirit of mercy and charity that
I am sure
is found in a reception such as you have given, in order to justify the
of my initiation."
God And Man -- [A Poem]
E. G. Cheyne
is not a looker-on
At the life of anyone,
But a bearer of all grief,
And a sharer in relief.
God can never stand aloof
In reproach, denial, reproof;
God is under every ban,
God is part of every man.
By Bro. Charles C. Smith, Iowa
I feel that,
in discussing a subject of this kind, it is necessary to define briefly
understand by the term religion. There is perhaps no social force among
is quite so ubiquitous as the religious force. Like the law of
gravitation, it is
found in all the realms of human experience. There is no human sphere
in which its
voice and language are not heard. Travel back into the dim dawn of the
you find the evidence of its presence there. Plutarch, the Roman sage
on returning from his journeys, declared that he had seen cities
that he had seen cities without libraries, that he had seen cities
without the public
bath, but that nowhere had he seen a city without its temples of
worship. It might
seem from this that a definition is unnecessary. Yet in spite of its
in spite of the voluminous literature written on it, there is really no
of human importance about which people are so unreasonable, so
fanatical and so
ignorant as this subject of religion.
looking into the future, has mentioned "a far off divine event toward
all nature moves." But what is it that compels man to take his place in
procession of these events? Matthew Arnold, a pessimist and almost a
studying the entire field of human history, was forced to declare that
was a power, outside ourselves, which makes for righteousness." Now
may not be a part of ourselves, yet it becomes of human importance only
as it comes
to expression in and through man. Now, it does not matter especially
what you call
that force, or what you call its source. I hold that, at least so far
as man is
concerned, the activity of this force within man is religion. Religion
be a participal, something provoked by a fundamental influence. Thus I
as my definition; Religion is the searchings of finite beings for the
with the view of becoming like the Infinite One in ethical character.
You will see
at once that I do not confine religion to the churches. I am a hearty
believer in the churches. No institution has had, or is having, so
large a part
in molding ideals and shaping the destiny of man as the churches.
with all our various denominations, and with the various organizations
denominations, religion is not circumscribed by our churches. Religion
is as broad
as humanity. The churches have no corner on it. I suppose many good
look at me with eyes askance when I give religion such a broad
I am convinced, that religion must take this view of herself before she
her own ideals. And the quicker our churches recognize it the better.
There is a
tendency for many to us to mistake the overt expression of a force for
itself. When we speak of thunder we think only of a loud noise. We
speak of lightning
and we see only a zigzag streak of light or perhaps a barn burning.
we speak of religion many of us think only of the churches, as if the
were synonymous. And this applies also to Masons and Masonry. Too often
the organized Lodge for the spirit and teaching of Masonry. There are
who have been made such "in a just and lawfully constituted lodge of
but who have never been "duly and truly prepared" in their hearts. They
fail to discriminate between the organized Lodge and the aim and ideal
between the "white leather apron" and that for which it is emblematic.
It has been
said that Masonry is not a religion. This is without doubt correct,
the popular understanding of religion. It has no creed that must be
offers no dogmas about either God or man or the universe that must be
In fact, when Free Masonry is "duly tiled," religious creed and dogma
can gain no admittance. Nevertheless, Masonry does have some of the
In whom does she put her trust but in God? Are not the virtues which
and demands in her members the same virtues that religion emphasizes?
Was not Free
Masonry born of the feeling of Ought? It is unfair if not criminal to
of sordid and selfish motives when she talks about, and strives for,
of man. Nothing but the feeling of Ought is responsible for her
may be individual Masons, and even whole lodges, whose motives are
sordid, but if
so they are positively out of harmony with Free Masonry as such.
If our above
definition of religion be true, is not the development of virtue, upon
insists, a religious work as much as, of not even more than, the
believing of certain
creeds? It appears, therefore, having cleared our minds of the
both religion and Masonry, that while Masonry is not a religion she is
in fundamentals, with religion. It is a branch upon the tree of
are many other branches, of course. Masonry, like the churches, lives,
has its being in the broad principle of religion. Masonry without
religion is like
a branch severed from the vine. The particular lodge that is not
the religious spirit is not true to Masonry as such. The individual
ideal of manhood does not possess a mind and heart like unto the mind
of the barefoot Carpenter of Galilee, has not incorporated into his
life the fundamental
aim and spirit of Free Masonry.
Not only is
Masonry religious in her foundation. She also appears religious in her
is clear in comparing her ideals with the ideals of our churches. We
look for the
designs upon the trestle board of both Masonry and the churches, and,
our surprise, find plans and specifications regarding the same
building. Each is
clearly endeavoring to build a structure of brotherhood. The plans may
not be executed
by the same methods, but the finished product is the same. They are
different sides of the building, perhaps.
But even the
methods are becoming more and more the same as we understand one
Already is the church beginning to insist that her members square their
the Square of Virtue, that they "walk uprightly in their several
God and man," and that they meet all mankind upon the common level of
Likewise, Masonry is about to see that before she can reach her own
she must have the enthusiasm of religious zeal, and the driving power
of the conviction
of religious duty.
Now, if Masonry
ever feels that the churches have often failed, I would call her
attention to the
material with which the churches are compelled to build. They must deal
old man in his dotage," with the "young man in his nonage," with
the libertine, the intemperate and all vulgar classes which Masonry
refuses to admit
into her fold. Not that Masonry wishes such to perish, but that she has
for them. In this is found the answer to that old question; Is the
Lodge good enough
without the church? Most emphatically it is not. That Mason who is not
sympathy with the church, even with all her faults, and who does not
lend her his
support, both spiritual and material, is not as good a Mason as he
ought to be.
On the other
hand, if our churches feel that Masonry is exclusive and secular, I
would call their
attention to the fact that for her to be otherwise would be to weaken
force and to lower her high standards. The advanced guard must not be
by too much dead weight. There is needed just such an exclusive social
Masonry. The stronger will be that force the more it is supported by
To oppose her is like the hand opposing the foot, for we are only
members of the
religion must not grow suspicious of one another, therefore. Society
and in this need they are closely related. They should toil on, in
harmony and peace,
side by side. They should march up life's incline arm in arm, ever
they reach that temple above, not made with hands, eternal in the
whose inner chamber each may enter where each shall receive, from the
of the Universe, a Master's wages.
The Clasp of a Veteran's
Nelson Williams, P.
G. M., Ohio
a warmth in the clasp of a Veteran's hand
Which the world can never feel;
And a depth in the tone of a Veteran's voice
Which his words do not reveal.
There's a friendly beam in a Veteran's eye,
And a cheer in his pleasant smile,
Which enlivens the heart and makes one feel
That the old world is worthwhile.
He is taught by the test of experienced years
What the nature of men requires;
And has learned by the use of the Veteran's Gauge
To measure the hearts desires.
He is loved by his brothers in Masonry,
For his heart is ever true;
And he reaches the souls of his fellow men
As no other one can do.
Then here's to the health of our Veterans all,
And the hope that many years
May be granted them ere Life's shadows fall
And the light of heaven appears.
There is ever a spark in a Veteran's heart
Which keeps Love's embers aglow,
And a warmth in the clasp of a Veteran's hand
Which the world will never know.
The Only Light -- [A Poem]
only one great light
That can bring the dawn of day;
All others show the night
Where the somber shadows play.
So the brightest moral light
That shines for the greatest good,
And that makes the old world bright
Is the light of brotherhood.
There's only one great light
That reflects its warmth and cheer,
All others leave but blight
Where flowers might appear.
So the sweet, soul warming rays
In their gleams from heart to heart
Give Deity the highest praise
And man his noblest art.
There's only one great light
That never, never fails,
Its dawning greets the sight
Of the salt 'neath rended sails.
So the dangers we may scan
As we sail the sea of time,
And the best way blazed for man
In a brotherhood Divine.
Square and the Cross
Bro. A.S. Macbride, Scotland
the most delightful of recent Masonic books is that entitled,
Masonry: Its Mission, Its Evolution, and Its Landmarks [Lib 1914]," by Brother A.S. Macbride;
a series of lectures delivered in the Lodge of Instruction in
connection with Progress
Lodge, Glasgow, Scotland. The lectures follow the well-established
Masonic scholarship, as revealed in the work of Gould, Speth, Crawley
but they give the results of that learning in popular and suggestive
many exquisite studies in symbolism. One of the most interesting
chapters in the
book is that on "The Law of the Square," which the writer discusses
five heads: the law of the Square in Nature, in material building, in
in relation to the Circle and, finally in relation to the Cross. We
give here an
excerpt from the study of the Square and the Cross, having already
book in our Library column.)
do not associate the square with the cross; yet essentially they are
the same. The
cross is composed of right angles, or squares. It is found on rocks
the prehistoric ages and in graves carved on rude pottery buried with
very bones in the course of thousands of years have crumbled into dust,
and on the
top of which lie the ruins of periods and of peoples of whom history
has not the
faintest trace. It is found thus, not in an isolated spot, but in
far apart. It is the most universal of all symbols. In the Hindu
temples, in the
Egyptian pyramids, in the ruined altars of America, and in the churches
ancient and modern alike, it occupies a conspicuous position.
– with a circle round it – is associated with the earliest known relics
with the most ancient carvings and records of India, and with coins and
to a pre-Christian age in France and elsewhere.
In all kinds
the cross is formed of right angles, and the circle is implied where
In the Latin and Greek forms generally the circle has disappeared, but
it is still
found at times, particularly in paintings, where it is shown as a halo
behind the cross. As the craftsman in making the cross has first to
form the circle
and from its center work out the limbs, the circle must always be
assumed to be
present, even where it does not appear. The oldest form always has the
the Egyptian form, the circle is placed on the top, and the vertical
limb is lengthened,
evidently to form a handle. To the Egyptians this circle symbolized the
or productive power, in nature. It is the transverse section of the
egg, which was
also used sometimes in its upright shape, in the form of a loop or
oval. We find
the Hindus representing the same idea, also by a loop, but in every
case the circle,
or loop, is associated with the cross. The basis of Gothic architecture
is the cross,
the triangle and the loop, all of which are inter-related. The cross
form the base of the plan, and the loop forms the plan for the windows,
sometimes the roof.
details not helpful to our present purpose, let us turn our attention
to the general
ideas connected with this symbol. The ancients of Asia, Africa and
the circle as the symbol of the Divine One circumscribing Himself, so
as to become
manifested to us. The limitations of human nature demand this
otherwise, we could have no knowledge of Him. Without the limiting
circle we gaze
on boundless space, incomprehensible and void of any idea to our minds.
have form before we can have ideas. The blank page of a book conveys
on it a flower, or an animal, and an idea is presented to the mind.
Thus, the Divine
One circumscribed Himself in His Creation and for our sakes clothed
Himself in a
garment of matter, so that he might be manifested to us. The material
everywhere a circumscribing of the Infinite and the cross symbolizes
manifestations of Power, Light, Life and Love.
Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Power. The two
the cross, intersecting at right angles in the center and extending to
limits of the circle, represent the two great central forces which
matter and which we have already considered in the law of the square in
If we work with these forces the Divine Power in them will manifest
itself by working
with us. If we work against them, it will manifest itself by destroying
They work on the square … and we must therefore work on the square if
we are to
have the Divine Power with us.
Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Light. Darkness
and expresses nothing. Light is circumscribed that it may be
manifested. It comes
out of darkness and is lost in darkness. The energy from the sun comes
to our earth
through the boundless ether: cold, silent, and in darkness. Did it come
in the form
of direct Light the whole heavens would be a blaze and we would see
Not until it impinges on our atmosphere does it burst into light. In
the same way,
electricity is unseen in the wire until it meets with the resisting
the common candle, and the lamp, are all enveloped in darkness until
their light in almost essentially similar, although apparently,
In all these varied conditions, however, light manifests itself on the
energy from the sun strikes our atmosphere at right angles and bursts
A rope, stretched out with one end fastened and the other end shaken by
appears to have waves running from end to end. In reality it is moving
up and down,
at right angles to the line of progress. Science tells us it is in this
moves. It works on the square, and the circle with the square, or
cross, is a fitting
symbol of the manifestation of material light.
But this symbol
is particularly representative of moral light. That only can be light
is true and square. Beliefs and doctrines that do not accord with the
of our conscientious convictions, can never give light.
Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Life. Through
there are two great elemental principles variously called the active
and the passive,
the positive and the negative, the male and the female. The various
units of atoms,
molecules, vegetables and animals possess one, or both, of these
the inanimate kingdom, the term "polarity" and "affinity" are
employed to indicate the action of these principles and the relation of
to the other. In the animate kingdom the word "sex" is used for the
purpose. In both kingdoms everywhere we find these two elemental
principles at work.
The formation of a crystal and of a crystalloid, the building of a tree
and of a
man, all seem to proceed along the lines of two main forces working at
– that is, working on the square. The atoms, which form the basis of
creation, have their positive and negative poles. According to the
discoveries, they are the product of electricity and something called
one being active and the other passive.
But it is
for the spiritual truths which this symbol reveals and yet conceals
that it is of
greatest importance to us. In the frescoes of the pyramids we see it in
of the god, as the symbol of regeneration. The dead one is shown lying
on the ground
in the form of a mummy, and the god is coming to touch his lips with it
his body. Ages before Egyptian civilization dawned, it was carved on
buried with human bodies along with food and weapons, the evidence,
even in that
early period, of a faith in a resurrection and a life beyond the tomb.
It is a somewhat
saddening and peculiar fact that this sacred symbol should have been
with, what appears to us to be, a vile and most degrading worship.
While the phallic
cult may have originally been the recognition of a Divine purpose
all the arrangements for the propagation of life, and of the symbolic
of a spiritual regeneration, yet the broad fact remains that the
multitude saw in
it the reflex of their own animal passions. It brought ruin on the
Greek and Roman
empires. Had the glory of art, the abundance of wealth, the grandeur of
or the culture of the intellect, possessed any power of salvation,
would have survived. But salvation is neither possible to the
individual nor to
the community that is impure. If you worship the brute, a brute you
will be. If
you would be divine, worship the Divine.
Divine manifestation symbolized by the cross is that of Love. From the
associations of phallic worship this symbol had to be purged and
purified by blood
and sorrow. For many years it was an instrument of tyranny for the
cruel and intense suffering. There can be little doubt but thousands
it whose only fault was in being too good to be understood. The divine
is at first misunderstood. His language is heaven-born and his
cannot interpret it. Hence the thorny crown of derision. The good are
to pursue their quiet path. They are dragged into the full blaze of
fame and their
pains and punishment become their glory. Love's best work is most
likely to be rejected
and despised … Suffering is the perfecting process of the perfect
is the sign of degradation. Capacity for suffering is the mark and
insignia of rank
in the scale of evolution. The higher the love, the deeper the sorrow.
the higher forms of life are born.
Why Not Try -- [A Poem]
John Esten Cooke
and growling will make a man old;
Money and fame at the best are beguiling;
Don't be suspicious and selfish and cold, –
Happiness stands like a maid at your gate;
Why should you think you could find her by roving?
Never was greater mistake than to hate, –
Secret of Washington's Power
By Bro. Gilbert Patten Brown, Mass.
is a man for the present need of the nation and its individual
citizens. And this
is the reason: He saw through the superficial things of his time into
truth of all time. His character and work were controlled and shaped by
and he sought to make it the controlling force in the new-born nation.
of the wisdom and power of God, trust in His providence, obedience to
His law, formed
the foundation upon which Washington began to build this republic.
of his Country" knew that the great achievements of his life were not
"If such talents as I possess," he said, "have been called into action
by great events, and those events terminated happily for our country,
should be ascribed to the manifest interposition of an over-ruling
was but the humble agent of favoring heaven, whose benign influence was
manifested in our behalf, and to whom alone the praise of victory is
He had more
religion than he had creed. He was a mighty man of prayer. One of the
Washington relics is a Book of Prayers written out by hand, as a man
would sit down
and write intimate letters to a dear friend. All those prayers begin
with a reverent
address to the Almighty, and have characteristic endings: "Let Thy
extended to all my relations, friends, and all others whom I ought to
my prayers." Paine wrote and talked. Washington prayed and fought. The
of Jesus appears often in these prayers, which were evidently intended
use, morning and evening, and were called by Washington his "Daily
A few extracts reveal their spirit: Sunday Morning: – "I yield Thee
and hearty thanks that Thou hast preserved me from the night past, and
to the light of this day, and the comforts thereof, a day which is
Thine own service and honor." Monday: – "More and more direct me in Thy
truth, and defend me from my enemies – especially my spiritual ones.
Pity the sick,
the poor, the weak, the needy, the widows and fatherless, and all that
are broken of spirit."
"I beseech Thee to help me to render Thee deserved thanks and praise –
food, raiment, health, peace, liberty and a better life through the
merit of Thy
dear Son's bitter passion – prosper all my lawful undertakings – let me
directions from Thy Holy Spirit, and success from Thy bountiful hand."
– "Let my bed put me in mind of my grave, and my rising from there of
of Washington is well established by the evidence of his personal and
Frequently, in his public addresses and private letters, we find
He was often in attendance at meetings of Divine worship conducted by
and others amid the hills of Valley Forge, and at those fraternal
the Temple of Virtue.
said that Washington was "the greatest man of our or any age."
placed him in "the highest group of statesmen"; Everett declared his
was "the genius of patriotism"; Webster admired him for a "symmetry
where mind and heart, conscience and will were equal"; Choate spoke of
"moderation and immense reserve"; Curtis finely affirms that "Hamilton
was the head, Jefferson was the heart, John Jay the conscience, but
each of these
separate qualities may truthfully be said to have even more signal
they were all united in the single character of Washington."
this generation must do as Washington did – reach up by the power of
take hold of God's almighty power. The government of this nation, the
public and private business, the molding and exalting of national
preservation of our dearly bought and deeply cherished institutions,
we cannot delegate to others. They belong in very distinct manner to
each of us.
Belief in Divine Providence
of the complete attainment, at a period earlier than could have been
the object for which we contended against so formidable a power, cannot
us with astonishment and gratitude. The disadvantageous circumstances
on our part,
under which the war was undertaken, can never be forgotten. The
of Providence in our feeble condition, were such as could scarcely
escape the attention
of the most unobserving – while the unparalleled perseverance of the
armies of the
United States, through almost every possible suffering and
discouragement, for the
space of eight long years, was little short of a standing miracle. –
of General Washington to the Armies of the United States, Rocky-Hill,
New Jersey, November 2, 1783.
The end, the
moral, and purpose of Masonry is, to subdue our passions, not to do our
to make a daily progress is a laudable art, and to promote morality,
fellowship, good nature, and humanity.
James Anderson, Golden Remains.
Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid
Bro. C. C. Hunt, Grinnell, Iowa
Mason will readily recognize this proposition as one of the emblems of
Degree. He will also recall the monitorial explanation of it there
given, and possibly
feel that it is an explanation which does not explain. He may not
question the legendary
history of it as given to him, but he does not understand why it should
selected as a Masonic emblem, nor how it teaches Masons to be lovers of
and sciences. In fact there are many Masons who are not mathematicians
and do not
even know what the proposition is, and on this point the monitor is
It is the
object of this paper to briefly consider the history of the proposition
a few suggestions as to its Masonic significance. In doing this we may
conclusion that some of the monitorial statements are not historically
at least that they have not been proven. We will find, however, that
the value of
its symbolism does not depend on the truth of the historical statements
the monitors, but is inherent in the proposition itself.
be hard for many Masons to understand. Through association of ideas, we
to think that the traditions which cluster around a central truth, are
parts of that truth, and when critical investigation attacks the truth
of the tradition,
we feel it is an attack upon the truth itself. It is this trait of
which is the underlying cause of all religious persecution, and we are
by no means
free from it as Masons, though it is contrary to the fundamental
principles of Masonry.
of the Masonic Research Society, it is our duty to search for the
truth, no matter
how much it may conflict with our preconceived notions or with
traditions. If we
but search aright, we will find that these traditions are but the outer
with which time has clothed the truth, and that they are not its
In our associations
with each other we meet a kindred soul whom we learn to love and honor.
We are told
that he is the descendant of a great and honored name in history, and
we say that
the spirit of his forefathers has fallen upon him. Then some critic
shows that there is no proof of his illustrious ancestry, or perhaps
it. What of it? Is he not the same friend we knew before? Has his soul
of its greatness? May not the spirit of a great soul have descended
upon him, though
his physical blood does not literally flow in his veins? We are told
that the spirit
of the prophet Elijah descended upon Elisha and centuries later
appeared in John
the Baptist. Yet there was no blood relationship between them. So it is
proposition we are now studying. Its tradition and its history are both
but its truth and the richness of its symbolism are not affected
Elements of Geometry there are thirteen books, and the subject we are
is the forty seventh proposition of the first book. It is not a problem
but a theorem,
and is so called by Euclid. A problem in geometry is something to be
done, as a
figure to be drawn, while a theorem is something to be proved. This
is to prove, as Euclid states it, that "In any right-angled triangle,
which is described on the side subtending (opposite) the right angle is
the square described on the sides which contain the right angle." The
containing the right angle are called respectively the base and
the side opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse.
state that "This was the invention of our ancient friend and brother
Pythagoras." This statement has been denied by many students of the
It has been claimed that this proposition was known to the Egyptians
the time of Pythagoras, and that he learned it from them and carried it
and Asia. We have no proof either for or against this claim. Pythagoras
wrote nothing, and we know of his teachings only through the writings
of his disciples.
Vitruvius, a celebrated Roman architect of the time of Augustus Caesar,
the discovery of this proposition to Pythagoras. Plutarch quotes
Greek painter of the 5th century B.C., as authority for the statement
sacrificed an ox on the discovery of this demonstration. Proclus
with the first demonstration, but asserts that his proof was different
given in Euclid. In fact so many writers, both ancient and modern, have
this proposition to Pythagoras that it is commonly called by his name,
Theorem of Pythagoras."
On the other
hand, the properties of the triangle whose sides are respectively, 3,
4, and 5,
were certainly known to the Egyptians and were made the basis of all
standards. We find evidence of this in their important buildings, many
of them erected
before the time of Pythagoras. We also find that this triangle was to
them the symbol
of universal nature. The base 4, represented Osiris, the male
principle; the perpendicular
3; Isis, the female principle; and Horus, their son, the product of the
was represented by the hypotenuse 5.
May we not
find an explanation of this apparent discrepancy in the statement of
Pythagoras discovered the demonstration of the general proposition, but
particular case in which the lengths of the sides are 3, 4, and 5, was
to the Egyptians? Plutarch also thinks that the case in which the base
are equal (as in the sides of a square) was likewise known to the
is called the classical form in Masonry and is the form usually found
on the Master's
carpet. Both these forms are rich in symbolism, and if known to the
they probably were, would naturally lead to the belief that the general
was also known. Nevertheless it may be true, as claimed by so many
to Pythagoras we owe the demonstration of the general proposition,
the theorem true for all possible cases. It was the delight of this
to discover a universal principle underlying a concrete fact, and he
must have attached
a deeper meaning to the general truth than the Egyptians did to the
known to them. With him the science of numbers was the essence of all
having discovered a proof for the general proposition, he set himself
the task of
finding right triangles whose sides can be expressed in numbers. Heron
and Proclus are authority for the statement that Pythagoras discovered
method: Take any odd number for the shortest side; subtract one from
of that number and divide the result by two; this will give the medium
one to the medium side and the result will be the hypotenuse or longest
is true as far as it goes, but it does not give all the right triangles
be expressed in numbers.
symbolism of Pythagoras is an interesting study in itself and is
to much of our Masonic symbolism, but that is outside the province of
paper. It is simply mentioned here, because, while it is probably not
he was raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason as stated in our
yet there is so much resemblance between his teachings and that of
we can understand how the error might have occurred.
also states that Pythagoras celebrated his triumph in the discovery of
by the sacrifice of a hecatomb (one hundred oxen). We can see how this
been an outgrowth of the statement attributed to Apollodorus above.
it and Hegel laughs at it, saying, "It was a feast of spiritual
at the expense of the oxen." The strongest argument against it,
the fact that Pythagoras taught the doctrine of the transmigration of
forbade animal slaughter. However, when we consider that among many of
the sacrifice of a number of oxen was their method of expressing their
for a great triumph, we can understand how the tradition arose, and
accept the fact
of the joy without caring for the truth of the sacrifice.
the discovery of this demonstration have been considered a great
it is of the utmost importance to the science of geometry. Dionysius
his edition of Euclid, quoted by Mackey, says, "Whether we consider the
problem with reference to the peculiar and beautiful relation
established in it;
or to its innumerable uses in every department of mathematical science,
or to its
fertility in the consequences derivable from it, it must certainly be
most celebrated and important in the whole of the elements, if not in
range of mathematical science. It is by the influence of this
proposition and that
which establishes the similitude of equiangular triangles (in the sixth
geometry has been brought under the dominion of algebra; and it is upon
principle that the whole science of trigonometry is founded." The
Britannica calls it "One of the most important in the whole of
one which has been celebrated since the earliest times ;" and adds, "On
this theorem almost all geometrical measurement depends, which cannot
What is its
significance in Masonry? Our monitors tell us that it teaches Masons to
of the arts and sciences. Since it is so important a proposition in the
of mathematics, we can understand why it should be adopted as a symbol
investigation, and to such an investigation all Masons are pledged in
for truth, the great object of Masonic study. But has it not a deeper
Lardner says it is the basis of the application of algebra to geometry.
is the application of symbols to mathematics, and Masonry is the
symbolism in character building. The Britannica says that mathematical
which cannot be directly obtained depend on this proposition. Yes, and
to Masonry, the highest truths of morality cannot be directly obtained.
come to us indirectly through the medium, principally, of symbolism.
There is no
apparent relation between the numbers 3, 4, and 5 and 5, 12, and 13,
but when we raise these numbers from the first to the second power
(that is, square
them), we obtain 9, 16, and 25 in the first case, and 25, 144, and 169,
in the second.
In this form we notice in each case that the sum of the first two
squares is equal
to the third, and that the numbers in which we could at first see no
the sides of right angled triangles. So it is in life. Measured on the
our lower natures, there is no relation between our own desires and our
needs. We are connected, it is true, as the sides of a triangle are
there is no reason why we should not use him for the accomplishment of
our own selfish
purposes, irrespective of his welfare. It is only when we square our
lives by the
square of virtue, and our selfish desires are raised to spiritual
we perceive that our own welfare is intimately connected with that of
His misfortunes are our misfortunes, and we can no more injure him and
not be ourselves
harmed thereby, than we can strike off our right hand and be none the
worse by reason
We are traveling
upon the level of time to our eternal destiny. We cannot stand still,
but must constantly
go forward. Shall we also go upward? All the time there is a spiritual
to lift us to higher levels. We may refuse to avail ourselves of it and
the depths of our lower nature; or we can accept it and allow its
to shine in our lives. The base represents our earthly nature on the
level of time;
the perpendicular is the divine spirit striving to manifest itself
through us. When
these forces are squared to each other, their union becomes a constant
upward movement to the throne of God Himself. Pythagoras himself
symbolism when he said that early in life he came to the place where
two ways parted.
One was easy and pleasant traveling; the other was rugged and tended
necessitated hard climbing. Which was the way that led to life? All who
and find these two paths, know that he should choose the upward path,
but the other
seems so much more pleasant, and many are inclined to walk therein.
They will try
it a little while, and then return to the better way. But there is no
on the level of time. The farther they go on the lower level, the wider
the two ways, and the harder to cross from one to the other.
we have heard Masons say that there is no moral lesson to be derived
from the 47th
proposition of Euclid, and that it is not to be described as the symbol
of any moral
truth. Have they forgotten that there is not an observance or symbol of
which has not a deep significance? Significance for what? Certainly as
would have no especial significance for us unless it aided us in
attaining the great
purpose of our Order, "the uprearing of that spiritual temple, that
made with hands, eternal in the heavens." It may well be that the
is not recognized by us, but that by no means proves its nonexistence.
It may be
buried in the rubbish of preconceived opinions, and it only needs
to bring it to light.
We have here
suggested but a few of the many applications of this symbol in the hope
will stimulate others to more diligent research.
Washington in Glory
- America in Tears -- [A Poem]
Odillon B. Slane, Illinois.
on a picture over 100 years old, at Alexandria,
Virginia. The objects seen in the painting are mentioned in the poem.
referred to are Washington's fraternal jewels. The name of this picture
in Glory - America in Tears.")
in Glory - America in tears,
Such the heavenly vision as the picture now appears,
Washington in Glory – an Angel standing by,
Beckoning from earthly scenes to mansions in the sky.
Washington in Glory – a shaft of light is here –
Widows and orphans weeping, an Indian crouching near;
Washington in Glory – through
Immortal is the story, America reveres.
Washington in Glory – America in tears,
The scythe of Time is cutting the brittle thread of years,
Washington in Glory – sands
of time are through
The hour-glass of the nation, again inverted, too.
Washington in Glory – while Liberty still appears
Her staff supports Old Glory while Patriotism cheers;
Washington in Glory – and through the endless years,
Immortal is the story, America reveres.
Washington in Glory – America in tears,
Cherish, in song and story the hopes of coming years.
Washington in Glory – our country's laws abide,
Not the "Constitution falling" nor "jewels laid aside,"
But Washington in Glory – with all that name implies
In all its naked splendor looking upward to the skies;
Washington in Glory – and through the endless years,
Immortal is the story, America reveres.
of two hands is literally a physical contact of two pieces of human
secular and lifeless it can be! We all know the flabby, the clinging,
the icy hand grasp. Yet who has not sometimes rejoiced in the grasp of
a hand that
conveys life and love? Two souls are here united by a physical contact
birth to new aspirations and new certainties. Two human beings are here
to hand in mutual respect, mutual trust, and mutual encouragement.
Richard C. Cabot.
NO doubt most
of our Members know something of the George Washington Masonic National
Association, organized in 1910 with Brother Thomas J. Shryock, for
Grand Master of Maryland, as President, and Brother John H. Cowles,
of the Scottish Rite in its Southern Jurisdiction, as Treasurer.
Although only five
regular meetings of the Association have been held, forty-two Grand
Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Elite, the General Grand Chapter,
Council, and a large number of grand bodies have officially endorsed
the plan. Representative
in form and national in scope, the Association is composed of two
each constituent Grand Body. Its objects, as set forth in its
"First, the collection of a
fund to erect
and maintain a suitable Masonic Memorial to George Washington in the
form of a Temple
in the City of Alexandria, Virginia, provided that at least one floor
set apart forever as Memorial Hall, to be under the control of the
Jurisdictions in the United States of America, members of this
Second, To provide a place
where the several Grand
Jurisdictions, members of said Association, may perpetuate, in
the memory and achievements of the men whose distinguished services,
and unswerving fidelity to the principles of our institution merit
lasting reward; to create, foster, and diffuse a more intimate,
understanding and intercourse between the several Grand Jurisdictions
Grand Bodies throughout the United States and her Insular possessions,
the Association; to cherish, maintain and extend the wholesome
influence and example
of our illustrious dead."
to the Memorial Temple, it may be added, is to be vested in five
by the Association and appointed in accordance with the laws of
Virginia. In this
fire-proof structure, when it is completed, the Alexandria-Washington
deposit the priceless heirlooms in its possession, an account of which
gives elsewhere in this issue. They are among the most precious relics,
and Masonic, now remaining among us, and it would be something worse
to allow them to be exposed to destruction by fire, as they are now,
when it is
within our power to protect them and hand them down to future ages.
As a perpetual
memorial to the first President of the Republic, who was the greatest
man and Mason
this land has known, such a plan should appeal to every patriotic
he is a poor Mason, and no American at all, who can visit
Lodge, or Mount Vernon, and not feel his heart beat with solemn joy and
he lives in a land that is free from the curse of kings, and where the
the common people is heard. When one stands beside the grave of a man
who was greater
than any king the world has known, for that he refused a crown, or sits
in the old
Lodge where he was wont to meet his fellowmen upon the Level, one sees
to what fine
issues our mortal life may ascend, and why the whole world pays homage
But this movement
means more than building a monument to the past. It looks also to the
is a great school for the propagation of patriotic thought and
sentiment, and the
Temple which it is to build will become a mecca and a shrine for
for all time to come. Not least among its benefits will be the
a permanent representative Association, which will bring together in
the leaders of the two great Rites of the Order to deliberate and
council upon topics
of universal interest and importance to the Craft. Any Mason, any
Lodge, any Masonic
body is entitled to membership in the Association on payment of one
and we trust that many of our members will take advantage of the
also induce their lodges to do so.
* * *
New Light on Lincoln
ago, while studying Lincoln and Herndon, we went to Springfield,
Illinois, to explore
the treasures of Lincoln-lore in that city. Of course we found much of
much, but we also met one of the most remarkable men it has ever been
our joy to
know. By chance, as the saying goes, we called on Mr. Henry B. Rankin,
and we shall
not live long enough to forget our interviews with him in his beautiful
gave us more insight into the real Lincoln than all the books we had
read then or
have read since, and we fain would tell our readers something about him.
one of the "Lincoln boys" who grew up in the valley of the Sangamon,
the sturdy race of pioneers had disappeared, and saw Lincoln for the
in 1846. His mother was a friend of Ann Rutledge, the sweetheart whom
and lost, and he heard the story of the courtship with many details not
to others. Later he was for several years a student in the "Lincoln
law office – entering it in 1856 and remaining until the breaking out
of the war
– and enjoyed an intimate fellowship with both men, who were at once
and his friends. He was also well acquainted with Mrs. Lincoln – whom
treated so harshly – with whom he used to read French, and in whose
home he often
so much from Mr. Rankin, we urged him to write his reminiscences of
some hesitation he agreed to do so, and at our suggestion he kept on
to it, rewriting and elaborating as one fact suggested another, until,
after six years, he has finished. He then placed the manuscript in our
edit and publish, asking us to write an introduction. The work is now
done and will
be published by the Putnams of New York in the early spring. It is not
still less a history, but a series of musing memories and flashlight
discursive but always illuminating, recorded by a man who, in the
gloaming of his
years, would fain add a touch to the portrait of a great soul whom he
youth and whose memory is a precious possession. If time has softened
of years ago, it has also brought the deeper interpretation which comes
calmer light of eventide. [Lib 1916]
as one of the biographers of Lincoln [Lib 1910], thinks he knows something of
literature of the subject, but this book has in it much not to be found
– some things that will have to be reckoned with in the final account
of a life
which, were it not a matter of history, would be regarded as one of the
of the world. Here are pictures of the background of the life of
Lincoln, of the
atmosphere and environment of his early years, of the growth of his
and genius, such as one can find nowhere else. A man of exquisite
the writer brings to his record a keen, discriminating insight, joined
with a great
veneration, and the total impression is such a sense of the living
Lincoln as one
has hardly felt before.
it would be unfair to tell in detail the contents of this remarkable
book in advance
of its publication, except to say that it corrects a number of errors
in the popular
mind. Here we see the real Lincoln in the setting of his life, as he
grew up among
the hardy, wholesome, self-reliant pioneer folk, with many snapshots
and some full
length portraits of the friends who, like the friends of St. Paul,
help" in the making of the man. We are glad to have had a part in the
and publication of a book which, if we mistake not, will be a permanent
to our knowledge of a man who was a child of the South, a leader of the
the one mighty soul of his epoch who embodied the prophetic genius of
* * *
down the ages, we can see a few pillars still standing, despite the
by time. Socrates and Plato stand under the blue Grecian sky, half
buried in the
rubbish of a once noble civilization. Just so, looking back over our
we see two lofty characters towering above all others. If our nation
and fall, as others have done before it in the weary round of glory and
lives of Washington and Lincoln would remain standing despite the
ravages of time
and change, to mark the place where once stood the greatest and freest
Washington was born at the top, Lincoln at the bottom, but they meet on
level of honor, courage, disinterestedness, and practical capacity –
in common save their faith in the republic and the fact that both were
born in the
shortest month. No two men were ever more maligned in the days of their
no two were ever more bepraised after death. Time transformed both of
is doing for them what they would have desired – the measure of their
in life being the measure of their good fame in history. Byron's
tribute to Washington
and Lowell's ode to Lincoln show them in their true characters, and as
have been accepted by the world as the best contributions America has
made to the
greatest purposes of humanity.
* * *
interest is an essay in the latest issue of the transactions of the
Lodge of Research, by Brother Wynn Westcott, on "Freemasonry and its
to the Essenes." [Lib 1915] Its interest lies, however,
in what it does
not tell us. After an elaborate and scholarly investigation, the writer
scarcely any resemblance, much less relation, between our Fraternity
and a tiny
sect or cult of monastic Pharisees, of a communistic kind, inhabiting
the wild region
near the Dead Sea in southeastern Judea. They vanished long ago, taking
with them into oblivion, and the few bits of information about them
lend little encouragement to those ardent Brethren who would reckon
them among the
ancestors of our Order. Josephus and Philo, two Hebrew historians
the Essenes, knew very little about them, apparently, and seemed to
care even less.
Where so little is known there is a rich field for conjecture, and we
told, as if it were a fact, that both Jesus and his forerunner were of
having learned their teachings from it. If the essay by Brother
by one jot or tittle the ingenuity of Brethren who seek to make up in
of invention what is manifestly lacking in actual knowledge, it will
a useful purpose.
O Mystic Art -- [A Poem]
L. B. M., Michigan
mystic art, come to my heart,
Come, whisper sweet to me;
Come very near, to me make clear
The art of Masonry.
O mystic art, I crave a part,
Some little gift from thee;
Let it be mine, of rare design
Because 'tis Masonry.
O mystic art, somehow impart
The secret rare to me;
To thee I turn, of thee I'd learn, –
My teacher, Masonry.
O mystic art, hast thou no part
Thou can'st reveal to me?
Must I pass on without the song
That rings to Masonry?
O mystic art, must mine own heart
Make answer to my plea?
If so I plead for what I need
For apprehending thee.
the Man and the Mason
OF books about
Washington we have many, very many, and yet it can hardly be said that
we have a
really adequate picture of the man and his life. Indeed, it requires
of the imagination to call up the men of that far time and make them
our minds. Our historical fiction, when it is true to the facts, may
help us; but
too often, when it is not a mere panegyric, it feels commissioned to be
And as between the eulogists and the dealer in barn-yard biography and
history, there is little to choose. Changes in manners and customs make
to recall the men of those days. Those knee-breeches and powdered wigs,
and ruffled shirts work a spell so peculiar that we feel that the men
who wore them
belonged to another race.
So they did.
They were in fact English gentlemen in "blue and buff," even if Ben
did insist on wearing woolen hose. The stately Miltonian style in which
was so unlike the more familiar speech of our day – to say nothing of
which is language in misery – that we seem to live in another land.
Why, a love-letter
of that time reads like a passage from an oration by Edmund Burke or an
by Dr. Johnson. When we translate the letters of Washington and
Lafayette into simple
language, they are full of friendship and tender humanity, with now and
then a glint
of fun, but they must be translated before we can see their beauty.
Once we get
behind these differences of custom and speech we find Washington and
the men of
his time to have been very real folk, less remote and much easier to
thing which we very much like about "Washington, the Man and the
by Brother Charles Callahan, is its emphasis upon the more intimate and
aspects of the great life which it seeks to portray. No effort has been
the author to write a complete biography of Washington, and for that
task he was
not fitted. Moreover, no such effort was needed, since his public
career has already
many times been critically investigated and minutely recorded. But too
detailed analysis of his official life has overshadowed his private
life, with its
rural pastimes and rustic occupations, in which, the author holds, we
illustrated the beautiful simplicity of his character. Therein he is
to this task he sets himself, giving a delightful history of Mount
from the acquisition of the original grant by John Washington, the
to the present time. One gets here, by the aid of story and
illustration, a new
conception of that great old colonial home to which Washington returned
again with gladdened heart after the turmoils and vicissitudes of his
and which remains to this day our noblest patriotic shrine.
But the real
intent of the volume, of course, is to give in brief form the history
connection with Masonry and, in particular, his relation to
Lodge No. 22, of which he was the first Master. The data in this branch
of the work
has been gathered with diligence, and sifted with care, unfounded
cast into the discard; and the record as we have it here – taken with
Masonic Correspondence," [Lib 1915] recently published by the
of Pennsylvania – should forever hush the mouths of those who have been
say that Masonry was of little account in the life of our first
The last chapter
of the book is a story of the organization and growth of the Washington
National Memorial Association, by which the volume is published, and to
net proceeds of the sale of the book are applied. The volume sells for
may be ordered through the Research Society, or directly through the
the Association, Brother John H. Cowles, 16th and S. Streets N. W.,
* * *
too, is the volume by Brother Sidney Hayden on "Washington and his
Compeers," [Lib 1869] albeit published in 1905. The
first half of
the book is devoted to the life of Washington himself in its Masonic
and the second half to sketches of some of his friends and
as Henry Price, Peyton and Edmund Randolph, Franklin, Wooster, Edwards,
Jackson, Putnam, Gist, and others. The sketches are rather brief,
upon the Masonic services of the men discussed, and altogether it makes
interesting and worthwhile. Not yet has been told the whole story of
of Freemasonry in our revolutionary period, and its silent, molding
force in giving
shape to the organic law of this republic. It will be told some day, or
such part of it as can be printed, and men will look with a new
an Order which, more than any one influence, gave form to the greatest
of all republics.
Our young men should study the Masonic life of Washington, and learn
from it that
Ere mature manhood marked his
He sought our altar and he made his vow –
Upon our tesselated floor he trod,
Bended his knees, and placed his trust in God!
Through all his great and glorious life he stood
A true, warm Brother, foremost e'er in good;
And when he died, amid a nation's gloom,
His mourning Brethren bore him to the tomb!"
* * *
Chips From The Quarries
is the title which Brother Wm. F. Kuhn gives to the almost forty little
he has brought together into a tiny volume, called "A Small Basket of
From the Quarries." [Lib 1915] The subtitle is more accurate
when it describes
the little book as "some practical thoughts on an everyday working
Four of the essays included in it were published in The Builder, the
of the Scripture readings of the Second and Third Degrees, the brief
The Future, and the essay on Hysteria in Freemasonry – if some of our
pardon "a reference to an allusion." Therefore our readers know the
of this little book, and its pointedly practical emphasis upon the
usefulness of Masonry as an influence, yea, as an instrument, for human
heartily do we commend this wise and straightforward book, and we are
many of our readers will want to own it.
* * *
Where We Got
the Ritual of the Knights Templar Degree, by J. L. Carson. Virginia
About Albert Pike, Scottish Rite Herald, Dallas, Texas.
America's Oldest Mason, by G. P. Brown. London Freemason.
Ancient Signs and Symbols, by Bro. Mehaffy. New Zealand Craftsman.
History of Colored Masons in Louisiana. The Plumbline.
The Vehmgerichte, by E. J. Wittenberg. Bulletin Los Angeles Consistory.
The Symbolism of the Universe, by B. R. Baumgardt. The New Age.
The Lodge Room Floor, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard.
Freemasonry and Peace, by J. H. Fussell. The Trestle Board.
Freemasonry and its Relation to the Essenes, by W. W. Westcott.
* * *
A Basket of
Chips from the Quarries, [Lib 1915]
by W. F. Kuhn, Rialto Bldg., Kansas City, Mo.,
and His Masonic Compeers [Lib 1869],
by Sidney Hayden. Macoy Co., New Yorkr $1.75.
Foundation, Annual Report, 1913-14. [Lib 1915]
Master of Life [Lib 1915], by W. E. Leonard.
Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago,
The Near East
From Within [Lib 1915], Anonymous. Funk
& Wagnalls Co., New York,
The Star Rover
by Jack London. Macmillan Co., New York, $1.50.
Faces [Lib 1916],
by Theodore Watts-Dunton. Herbert Jenkins,
When we consider
the magnitude of the prize we contended for, the doubtful nature of the
and the favorable manner in which it has terminated, we shall find the
possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing: this is a theme that will
delight to every benevolent and liberal mind, whether the event in
be considered as a source of present enjoyment, or the parent of future
and we shall have equal occasion to felicitate ourselves on the lot
has assigned us, whether we view it in a natural, a political, or moral
of America, placed in the most enviable condition, as the sole lords
of a vast tract of continent, comprehending all the various soils and
the world, and abounding with all the necessaries and conveniences of
now, by the late satisfactory pacification, acknowledged to be
possessed of absolute
freedom and independency; they are from this period to be considered as
on the most conspicuous theatre, which seems to be peculiarly designed
for the display of human greatness and felicity: here they are not only
with everything that can contribute to the completion of private and
but Heaven has crowned its other blessings, by giving a surer
opportunity for political
happiness than any other nation has ever been favored.
– A Letter
from Washington to the Governors of the States, June 18. 1783.
I now make
it my earnest prayer, that God would have you, and the State over which
in His holy protection; that He would incline the hearts of the
citizens to cultivate
a spirit of subordination and obedience to government; to entertain a
affection and love for one another, for their fellow-citizens of the
at large; and particularly for their brethren who have served in the
finally, that He would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all to
to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, and
temper of mind, which were the characteristics of the Divine Author of
religion; without an humble imitation of Whose example, in these
things, we can
never hope to be a happy nation.
– Letter from
George Washington to the Governors of the States, June 18, 1783.
The Earth-Spirit -- [A Poem]
Being's floods, in Action's storm,
I walk and work, above, beneath,
Birth and Death,
An infinite ocean;
A seizing and giving,
The fire of Living:
'Tis thus at the roaring Loom of Time I ply,
And weave for God the garment thou seest Him by!
more it becomes clear that the Question Box is to be one of the most
and valuable features of The Builder. There is no reason why it should
not be so.
It is a kind of Open Lodge where we can chat, compare views, and swap
of a number of details that do not lend themselves readily to elaborate
discussion. As said before, it is a kind of free-for-all forum, as
though we were
gathered about the great fire-place in the House of Light at the Sign
of the Square
and Compasses; and we are happy to have our Members feel at ease and
join in the
conversation as the spirit moves them. )
Not only do
our Members read The Builder closely, but many of their ladies also
read it, whereof
we are made to know from many lovely letters that reach us betimes. A
ladies have written to thank us for the sketch of Father Taylor, "and I
not a Methodist either," one of them adds. Another asks where she can
a story called "A Sweet-smelling Name," [Lib 1915] which she has been unable to
It was written by Fedor Sologub, a Russian writer whose stories have
translated into English, and gives title to a book of his stories which
is now published
with an introduction by Stephen Graham. Sologub does not rank with
Tolstoi or Gorki,
but he has something to say, and the story of "A Sweet-scented Name" is
one of his best. (Published by Messrs. Constable, London, $1.25 net).
* * *
ladies read more than men do. For that reason, while we hold that woman
has a right
to the ballot, if she wants it, we are half afraid for her to have it,
disfranchise the men – on an educational test. Here is a lady who read
Harbor," [Lib 1915] by Poole, and agrees with us
that it is a brilliant
story, and now she wants another equally good. Well, try "The Star
by Jack London, (Macmillan Co.) If it is not a masterpiece, it does not
by many inches. Certainly it is the best thing London has done so far,
mastery of his art, his richness of imagination, observation, and
it has passages the like of which it would be hard to find in recent
There are many stories within this story, many hints, glimpses,
dim memories of things half-remembered, like faint echoes from the
caves of the
mind. Read it, and you will understand.
* * *
of the ladies, we may also reply to a Brother who asks us to suggest a
an address to a mixed audience of Masons and their ladies. Why not talk
Masons alleged to have been initiated into the Order? (See a paper by
before the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, Jan. 11th, 1895 [Lib 1895]).Look up what Hutchinson,
and others have to say about Masonic secrecy, as it is related to
women. Read the
interesting chapter in "Sidelights on Freemasonry," [Lib*] by Lawrence,
(Chap. XXVII) entitled "Ladies on the Level," and the glimpses there
of the antecedents of the Order of the Eastern Star. If you
particularly want any
thrills, you might get the story called "Love and the Freemason,"
by Guy Thorne. by this time you will have abundant materials for an
room for sense and nonsense, the while you discuss the question: Should
admitted to the Order? The best answer to the question, of course, is
that to be
inferred when we ask another: Why should they?
* * *
Temple Of Heaven
My dear Brother:
– The article by Brother Lobingier on Masonry in "The Temple of Heaven"
interested me greatly. I wonder whether you or many of your readers
significance in the following words: "The Great South Altar, the most
of Chinese religious structures, is a beautiful triple circular terrace
marble whose base is 210, middle stage 150, and top 90 feet in width,
encompassed by a richly carved balustrade." Divide each of the above
by 30, and we have in this temple of heaven used more or less
accidentally for a
Masonic temple, the old sacred numbers 7, 5, 3. Perhaps it was only a
but it is interesting.
R. P. Clarkson, Canada
* * *
B. Melish, Executive Director of the Masonic War Relief Association of
States, writes that he recently received a contribution of $137.25 from
unique Masonic Lodge in the world – the "Roof of the World Lodge,"
at Cerro de Pasco, South America. The Worshipful Master says that they
try to keep
very much alive up there on top of the Andes, and adds: "We have had
from almost every jurisdiction in the United States, and have acquired
fame for having held (as far as we can find out) the highest Masonic
the world, at an altitude of 17,575 feet above sea level." With right
claim to be high-up Masons.
* * *
– The Standard Dictionary defines "oblong" as something longer than it
is broad. Also a Square as an instrument to measure or lay out right
usually of two legs or branches at right angles to each other, in "L"
shape. Now this L-shaped square is the oblong square used in
Freemasonry, and its
appropriate naming serves to distinguish it from the equilateral or
of the Master Mason. Moreover, we Masons know what we mean by an
and if others do not know what does it matter? With sincere good wishes
Society and its Builder, I am,
Wm. A. Montell, Maryland.
* * *
I have somewhere
seen a statement to the effect that the Masons organized the first
society ever started. Can you help me find it?
the following statement from "The Mission of Masonry," [Lib*] by Madison C.
is what you have in mind: – "The first total abstinence society on
was formed by Masons in Italy, one hundred and sixty-eight years ago,
– men who do not drink – under which name they met to avoid the Bull of
XII, in 1738 [Lib 1738]." The little book by Brother
Peters was published in 1908.
* * *
There Be Light."
to a Brother who asks for a few lines that may be used by the Master or
Deacon when the candidate kneels to offer prayer, the following
been made. Both are good, but not more than one should be used at the
is the offering up of the heart's desires to God for the things
agreeable to Him,
and which we most need. As we come into life a prayer is offered up for
as we pass out of life and earth's shadows grow dim and our eyes behold
of the eternal world, a prayer is offered that our soul may be renewed
gates of pearl. Then be not afraid to pray.”
"Be not afraid to pray – to
pray is right;
Pray, if thou canst, with hope; but ever pray,
Though hope be weak or sick with long delay;
Pray in the darkness, let there be light."
the letters exchanged between Brethren Mikels and Shepherd, a Brother
asks us to state the facts about a general Grand Lodge as proposed by
while Grand Master of Kentucky. Brother Clay – a kinsman of ye editor,
by the way
– was very much in favor of a general Grand Lodge, and was the moving
the Convention looking to that end held in Washington, D. C., March
9th, 1822, and
wrote the Appeal in behalf of such a National Grand Lodge adopted by
The nature and purpose of the movement were misunderstood, if not
by many. Brother Clay did not have in mind a national body exercising
coextensive with the Union, embracing complete and universal control
over the fiscal
and detailed concerns of every Grand Lodge, subordinate Lodge and
in the country – that would manifestly be impracticable. The objects of
at Washington were two: To acquire an elevated stand for the Masonry of
by uniting it, making it effective and influential; and, second, to
the States that uniformity of work and that interchange of good
offices, which would
be difficult, if not impossible, by other means. As such, a National
would be composed, undoubtedly, of the ablest Masons in the Union, and
so be a central
point of Masonic intelligence and influence; and that was what Grand
wanted. ( See "History of Masonry in Kentucky," [Lib*] by Rob Morris,
* * *
– While in general I am more particularly interested in the History of
and would like to receive further light therein, I am especially
interested in what
seems to me to be the glaring weakness of our present system. That is,
Masonic Lodge spends itself in a weekly round of ritualistic work,
and raises candidates, dispenses a little charity within its own
circle, at rare
intervals assist some worthy cause outside its own door (Masonic cause,
and then holds its annual meeting with the feeling that it has
performed all its
obligations. I don't believe it has. It seems to me that Masonry ought
for something better than a ceaseless round of ritualistic work and
charity; that it ought really to live the principles it sets forth in
of its members; that there are calls sounding on every side, not
brother Masons, which it ought to answer. Just where a Masonic Lodge
and how it should do this kind of work, I do not know, at present.
are other Masons like-minded with myself who, by correspondence, might
working plan which would put into effect the great working principles
of the Order which, to my mind, are now for the most part lying idle
a fine lot of dust and cobwebs.
Charles O. Ford, Michigan
* * *
The Royal Arch
– At this time of year our Chapter does not do much work in the way of
and I have been thinking that we might have a series of talks by
dealing with the origin, history, symbols and ceremonies of the
Chapter. I would
be pleased to have your suggestions in the matter, both as to materials
W. F. E.
you can make use of your time most delightfully and profitably, as you
have a mind
to do, studying as you suggest. Of course, you will want the "Book of
[Lib 1870] by Mackey (Macoy Co., New
and "The English Rite," [Lib 1884] by Hughan, which can be
from the Lodge of Research, Leicester, England, Brother J. T. Thorp,
There are three brief but valuable chapters on the Royal Arch in
on Freemasonry," [Lib*] by J. T. Lawrence, and of course the well-known
in the "History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," [Lib 1891] by Hughan and Stillson. The
however, will be your chief text-book, and you will find the study of
of rebuilding the temple fascinating indeed – a story to stir your
blood, for that
it tells of a heroic undertaking in face of almost overwhelming
origin of the Royal Arch degrees is most interesting, and also their
Masonry before the Lodge of Reconciliation, in 1813. But the great
question is this:
– Mackey held and taught – like Brother Williams, in his beautiful
study of Royal
Arch symbolism in The Builder (Vol. 1, p. 51) – that symbolic Masonry
is an allegory
of life in this world, and that the Royal Arch has to do with life in
the next world;
with the progress of the soul in the life beyond. This interpretation –
as it is, and worthy of long pondering – is hardly known in England at
we confess that it has never satisfied us. Nor do we believe that it
was so understood
in the early days of the Rite. There is much to be said for it indeed,
as it does, chronologically, the drama of the Third Degree. But with
some of us
the chief meaning of the Third Degree is not its teaching of
immortality after death,
but its revelation of immortality here and now. Some time we hope to go
matter more thoroughly than can be done in a brief note, setting forth
as we think, more practical view; but we would have Brother Evans and
keep it in mind and discuss it in their course of study. Indeed, we
to have the question discussed in these pages, and trust that the
take notice and govern themselves accordingly.
Dear Sir and
Brother: – Your note to Brother W. A. Harper's query in the December
the Katipunan, is misleading. The Filipinos cannot be classed among
like the tribes of New Hebrides. The Filipinos, properly so-called, are
of the eight peoples (not tribes) who were converted to Christianity at
of the Spanish conquest (before 1600). Before the coming of the
were real peoples with a definite beginning of civilization. Through
of America, they are now being slowly welded into one people. But there
wild, non-Christian, or pagan tribes, like the Ifugao or Bontoc, of
whom your assertion
is more or less true. But these cannot be called Filipinos, but rather
the broader classification of "Philippine Peoples," which includes also
the Filipinos. It is a poor classification, but the best we have. The
tribes (and I am sure that we should not say "peoples") have the
of the "Mens' House," and it proves very useful among them. Both are
and away more advanced than the tribes of New Hebrides or other pagan
the Philippines in their general district.
is only by the way, and in order that I may set the Filipinos in their
My real purpose in writing is to answer Mr. Harper's query re the
the pamphlet regarding it.
In Blair &
Robertson, The Philippine Islands: 1493-1898 (Cleveland, Clark,
46, p. 361, note, I cite this pamphlet, (The Katipunan, Manila, 1902
[Lib 1902), and say of its author
to be by one Francis St. Clair, although it is claimed by some to have
by or for the friars." Its author is really one J. Brecknock Watson,
an Englishman and a convert to Catholicism. At the time of its
was in the employ of, or was actually a lay-brother among, the
Dominicans, for whom
the pamphlet was compiled. The author himself told me that he was
St. Clair" shortly after my arrival in Manila in February, 1910, when I
to the Philippines to take charge of the Philippine Library. James A.
his death one of the foremost authorities on things Philippine, says in
Notes" (vol. 52, p. 188 note, of the series above cited) that the
was "published in order to put before Americans the friar viewpoint of
Filipino revolutionists." The work is, as might be expected, ultra
in character, and consists of translations into English from Spanish
were opposed to Masonry. By the enemies of Masonry, the Katipunan has
designated "the fighting body of Masonry" in the Philippines, a
which is as ridiculous as it is erroneous. "Francis St. Clair," at
an editor on the staff of the Cablenews-American, is writing another
book on the
Katipunan (this time under his own name) from materials which he claims
discovered. The book will be anti-Masonic in tone.
So much for
the Pamphlet, which is utterly untrustworthy. Now for the Society. The
of the latter was "Ang Kataastaasan Kagalanggalang Katipunan manga Anak
Bayan," or "The Sovereign Worshipful Association of the Sons of the
"Katipunan" simple means "society" or "Association"
and is in constant use in the Philippines in connection with many
clubs, etc. As
an organization, the above society borrowed some of the trappings of
some at least of its founders were Masons, but in no sense can the
be said to be Masonry, nor did it have any connection with Masonry.
founded under a regional grand lodge and secret signs and passwords
A Supreme Council was organized in 1892. The organization was generally
to the island of Luzon, although some few lodges were organized outside
It was, throughout its course, a Tagalog organization, and was extended
among any of the other Filipino Peoples.
was formed by men of the middle class, but it was distinctly for the
when the notorious Andres Bonifacio obtained control it was opened to
passions of the ignorant populace. The objects of the organization in
was not revolution against Spain but protest against the friar abuses.
But it is
undeniable that Bonifacio fostered the idea of revolution, and worked
that end, and to him probably more than to any other man is due the
against Spain that was waged in the Philippines as a prelude to the
the revolution of 1896.
I dare not
take any more space to discuss this matter. I trust enough has been
said to satisfy
Brother Harper's query. LeRoy's Americans in the Philippines [Lib 1914 Vol 1, Vol 2] (Boston, Houghton, Mifflin,
vol. 1, p. 79 et seq. should be consulted for a fuller description, as
well as various
citations in Blair and Robertson, ut supra.
the Philippines dates back to about 1860, when a lodge was formed among
Spaniards. After a while some of the half castes were admitted and
were formed among the Filipinos. Some Filipinos became Masons also in
movement was bitterly fought by the friars who had no wish to see
principles enter the Philippines. Many Masons were deported and some
Upon the acquisition
of the Philippines by the United States, Masonry was able to come out
into the plain
light of day. There is now a Grand Lodge of the Philippines, with five
of which is composed of Filipinos almost entirely; about nine Filipino
work under a Spanish charter; one lodge chartered by the Grand Lodge of
and two lodges chartered by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. It is hoped
that the day
is not far distant when all these lodges will be enrolled under one
The Chapter, the Knight Templars, and the Scottish Rite, all have local
Manila; and there is a Sojourners' Association which gathers in Masons
of all jurisdictions.
The Filipino makes an enthusiastic Mason; and the Philippines offer a
James A. Robertson, Ohio.
* * *
Editor: – In reading through the fascinating files of The Builder, two
have caught my attention upon which I happen to have, from other
varying from those of your contributor. Will you courteously accord me
generosity you have shown to former correspondents, if I briefly note
is pertinent to the article by Bro. Baird on "Ancient Evidences," as
in your January issue. Prof. August Mau's "Pompeii," [Lib 1902] translated by Prof. Francis
of the University of Michigan, reproduces the same picture of the
p. 391, but describes it as having been found in a tanner's
establishment. May I
"In the same building four
tools were found,
similar to those used by tanners at the present time. One was a knife,
with a charred wooden handle on the back of the blade; two were
scraping irons with
a handle on each end; and there was another iron tool with a
"The garden on which the
contains an open-air triclinium. The table was ornamented with a mosaic
in the Naples Museum, with a characteristic design. The principal
motive is a skull;
below is a butterfly on the rim of a wheel, symbols of the fluttering
of the disembodied
soul and of the flight of time. On the right and the left are the
spoils that short-lived
man leaves behind him, – here a wanderer's staff, a wallet, and a
robe; there, a scepter, with a mantle of royal purple. Over all is a
the plumb line hanging straight, symbolic of Fate, which sooner or
the lots of all mankind. The thought of the tanner, or of the earlier
of the house, is easy to divine: Mors aurem vellens, Vivite, ait, venio,
"Death plucks my ear, and says,
'Live!' for I come."
quoted by Bro. Baird as having been found over the door of the house in
is mentioned by Professor Mau in connection with quite a different
house (p. 379).
"Near the Porta Marina (at the northwest corner of Insula VII, xv), a
block may be seen near the top of the wall, showing a Mason's tools in
it is the inscription, Diogenes structor, 'Diogenes the mason.' This is
not a sign
– the inscription can hardly be read from below; it is, moreover, on
of a garden wall, with no house or shop entrance near it. It is rather
signature; Diogenes had built the wall, and wished to leave a record of
paper in the series "Memorials of Great Men Who Were Masons," in the
issue of The Builder, also from the pen of Bro. Baird, (I hope he will
me guilty of a personal animus), contains a reference to the sword
Washington by Frederick the Great. Henry Cabot Lodge has an article in
for August 26, 1911, entitled "An American Myth," in which he cites the
story of the sword as an example of historical myth (p. 952).
never a Marshal of France, and there is no evidence that he was ever
given a sword
by Frederick the Great. Yet both stories have been widely believed;
both crop up
from time to time, are roundly defended, and then sink down, only to
as smiling and as false as they were in the beginning.”
else, only recently, I have seen the same myth more minutely discussed,
but I cannot
now recall where. Perhaps some reader of The Builder may happen to know.
Frederic Stanley Dunn.
(P. G. P., O. E. S. of Oregon; P. M., P. E. C.
* * *
The Builder: – It seems to me that the title of your splendid magazine
a solution of the problem of how to get 1453 columns, 2906 pilasters,
Solomon's Temple if it was only 90 feet long, 45 feet wide and 30 feet
also how to accommodate those two famous brazen pillar 60 feet high
the outer porch." One sleepless night this solution occurred to me and,
as it is, it seems the only solution and perfect in results. We know
chosen people used two or more measures bearing the generic name of
or measure of length. One was the measure of a man's forearm or 18
inches, but another
was of two paces or six feet. If they used both how did they use them?
small objects, interior decorations such as columns, pillars and
measured by the smaller cubit and exterior dimensions and distances by
Now to apply this rule draw a rough sketch of a building by the larger
follow the Biblical statement and you will get a temple 60 cubits or
360 feet long,
30 cubits or 180 feet wide, and 20 cubits or 120 feet high. In its
outer porch the
60 foot (by the smaller cubit) pillars would satisfy the taste of any
and the interior would be gorgeous with the columns and pilasters,
whereas in a
building only 90 feet long and 45 feet wide they could not be stored as
My idea as to why this rule of estimate has not all along prevailed is
subject of the Temple has been studied chiefly by clergymen interested
in the religious
bearing alone and who never had occasion to look into the mathematical
Think of it
in another light. Would a Temple of 90x45x30 feet have been classed as
one of the
wonders of the world in a generation when architectural display was the
of the age? Would a building no larger than the average small family
excited the envy and avarice of a foreign potentate and induced him to
a military expedition with a million men to destroy and plunder such a
I am sure
that, vast as were the expenditures of gold and other valuables, such a
would at best have been famed as a gem or bijou of architecture, and at
excited ridicule and contempt.
Jos. W. Eggleston, P. G. M. Virginia.
* * *
Sands of the Sea
Editor: – An interesting thing came to my attention not so long ago
which I give
for the benefit of the Craft. I am sorry that I cannot give the exact
as I do not remember whether I read it or heard someone tell the story.
It is said
that the poet Shelley, who met his death by drowning, was picked up on
in the territory of the "estates of the Church," as they were known at
the time. Biographies of Shelley state that, on account of quarantine
all such bodies were to be buried in quicklime where found, although
was burned. Now it so happened that Shelley was not a Roman Catholic,
and that the
area between the high tide mark and the low tide mark, literally the
of the sea and just about a cable's length from the permanent shore, is
as being neither land nor sea – that is, it is a most dishonorable
place of interment.
I believe there is a reference in one of the Greek poets to a seaside
might throw further light on the selection of so curious a place, but I
to find it. Perhaps some other Brother may be able to locate it.
– H. W.
The Working Tools -- [A Poem]
work on mind and matter now,
A Master raised to power art thou,
Impress on each and all you can
Wise Heaven's eternal Temple-plan.
As on a trestle-board portray
The great Design, from day to day,
And build, in silence rever’ntly,
The temple of Humanity.
Basket of Chips from the Quarries
Kuh15 / auth. Kuhn William F. - Kansas City : [s.n.], 1915. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 133. - 1.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 008 - 1895
Ars951 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 94.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 028 - 1915
Ars15 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Reylands W. H.. - London :
AQC, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 215.4 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J. / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Lincoln and Herndon
New10 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1910.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - 13.9 MB.
Old Familiar Faces
Wat16 / auth. Watts-Dunton Theodore. - New York : E. P. Dutton and
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 315. - 9.1 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Pompeii it's Life and Art
Mau02 / auth. Mau August / trans. Kelsey Francis W.. - New York : The
Macmillan Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 613. - 51.9 MB.
Recollections of Abraham Lincoln
Ran16 / auth. Rankin Henry B. - New York : Knickerbocker Press, 1916. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 440. - 14.0 MB.
Rockefeller Foundation - Annual
Roc15 / auth. Rockefeller Foundation. - New York : Rockefeller
Foundation, 1915. - 1st and 2nd : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 450. - 11.4 MB.
Socrates Master of Life
Leo15 / auth. Leonard William E. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Co., 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 130. - 3.2 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
The Americans in the Philipines
LeR14 / auth. LeRoy James A. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 459. - 32.1 MB.
The Americans in the Philipines
LeR141 / auth. LeRoy James A. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1914. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 359. - 17.4 MB.
The Book of the Chapter
Mac70 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : Clark & Maynard,
Publishers, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 31.7 MB.
Poo15 / auth. Poole Ernest. - New York : Grosset & Dunlap,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 385. - 14.1 MB.
Cla02 / auth. Clair Francis St. - Manila : Amigos del Pais, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 343. - 9.2 MB.
The Near East from Within
Ano151 / auth. Anonymous. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 10.3 MB.
The Star Rover
Lon15 / auth. London Jack. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 348. - 9.2 MB.
The Sweet Scented Name
Sol15 / auth. Sologub Fyodor. - London : Constable and Company, Ltd.,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 255. - 9.1 MB.
Washington and His Masonic
Hay69 / auth. Hayden Sidney. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co., 1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416. - 21.5 MB.
Washington the Man and Mason
Cal13 / auth. Callahan Charles. - Washington : The Memorial Temple
Committee, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 501. - 28.3 MB.
Washington`s Masonic Correspondence
Sac15 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : New Era Printing Co.,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 182. - 11.6 MB.