Masonic Research Society
The Establishment and Early
Days of Masonry in America
By Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
Grand Master, Massachusetts
conclude with a few words concerning
recent Pennsylvania claims to precedence? After conceding that the
Lodges prior to 1734 were held without Charter or Warrant, a most
is offered to the effect that they made themselves regular by
confederating in a
Gland Lodge; in other words, irregularity plus more irregularity, plus
irregularity equals regularity. It is contended that in 1731 these
came together and formed a Grand Lodge which was a "sister" and not a
daughter to the Grand Lodge of England. The complete answer to this
given by Pennsylvania herself. Her application to Price in 1734; her
as a proxy several times to the Grand Lodge in Boston in the early
days; her application
again to Massachusetts in 1749; her application immediately thereafter
England for a confirmatory Deputation which was issued to her and
accepted and acted
upon by her in 1750; her payment April 10, 1752, of 31:10:0 to the
Grand Lodge in
Boston as a charter fee; her acceptance and action under a Warrant
England bearing date July 15, 1761; and indeed all her Masonic acts
since 1731 are
consistent only with the complete recognition by Pennsylvania of the
fact that all
of her lawful Masonic authority flowed directly or indirectly from
as it is sound law and good reasoning that a tenant cannot deny the
title of his
landlord, so it is equally sound reasoning that a deputized Lodge or
cannot deny the authority of the source issuing the Deputation accepted
by it. After nearly two centuries of Masonic life during which it has
the Grand Lodge of England as its lawful predecessor, and as the one
Body in the
world having the primary right in those early days to issue Warrants or
covering Pennsylvania, it is a little late to claim for the first time
in 1908 and
for a present day historian to contend that "The Grand Lodge of
was a sister and not a daughter to the Grand Lodge of England." It is,
a daughter of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and, therefore, a
of the Gland Lodge of England.
entirely correct that "the
movement in Massachusetts was not an independent one, but subordinate
to the Grand
Lodge of England." But Pennsylvania having in the early days again and
acknowledged itself to be subordinate to England and to Massachusetts,
it is now
too late for Pennsylvania to expect that the novel modern theory of
some of her
recent sons will be permitted to upset the facts of history.
Pennsylvania is too
great a jurisdiction; she has too grand a history; she is too highly
the Masonic world; she has too much claim to Masonic grandeur and
many directions to stoop at this late day to belittle Franklin and
others of her
great men; to belittle Price; to belittle Massachusetts; and indeed to
the Grand Lodge of England itself by the attempt now being made to
While it does
not particularly concern
this discussion, I cannot let pass without notice the same historian's
that the legitimate Grand Lodge of England (which had been nicknamed
was superseded by the rival organization known as the "Ancients" (this
being the schismatic Grand Lodge), and that such supersession has
to the present time. Every impartial Masonic historian and student in
knows better. In 1813 there was a fusion or union of the two rival
in England known as the "Moderns" and "Ancients." On St. John
the Evangelist's Day in 1813 there was a very elaborate ceremony of
union. The story
of the union and its attendant circumstances are thoroughly detailed by
G. Mackey in the fifth volume of his History of Freemasonry, Chapter
1906]. A learned
paper on this subject is to be found in XXIII Transactions of
the Quatuor Coronati Lodge [Lib*]. The ceremony of union is given in
full in the
Minutes of the United Grand Lodge of England, and may be found also in
Bro. W. J.
Hughan's "Memorials of the Masonic Union of A. D. 1813" published 1874;
Revised, augmented and republished by the Lodge of Research in 1913
[Lib 1913]. Original
programs of the ceremonies and of the music are in the archives
of Massachusetts. So far were the "Moderns" from being superseded, that
their Grand Master, the Duke of Sussex, became then the Grand Master of
Grand Lodge. I call attention to this statement more particularly that
it may illustrate
how much weight is to be given to the other claims with which we have
made by the same historian.
briefly the facts, we
find that prior to 1733 many Lodges met without authority; that a
issued to Daniel Coxe for a part of North America in 1730, but that
was never exercised; that after Masonry became an organized Institution
of Lodges without a Charter or Warrant were prohibited, no lawful
ever exercised in America until July 30, 1733, when Henry Price
organized a Provincial
Grand Lodge in Boston under the authority granted him by the Lord
then Grand Master of Masons in England. It is thus that the Grand Lodge
is the Mother Grand Lodge of America, and that Henry Price is the
of Duly Constituted Masonry in America."
has widely and frequently
been made of Massachusetts as the oldest Grand Lodge in the Western
No effort has
been made to collate
with any thoroughness the instances, but a few which come to mind as
this is being
prepared for the printer are as follows:
There has been frequent
recognition by the Grand Lodge of England of Massachusetts as the
in America. The earliest instances have been heretofore referred to.
is a letter from the Grand Master of England to the Grand Master of
dated Feb. 7, 1912, in which he speaks of that Grand Lodge as "The
on this (the North American) continent, and which originally owed its
the Grand Lodge of England." The most recent instance is a resolution
United Grand Lodge of England, unanimously passed on Sept. 2, 1914,
reading as follows:
Grand Lodge expresses its thanks to the Most Worshipful Grand Master
the letter his Royal Highness has received from M.W. Bro. Melvin
Grand Master of Mason of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and desires
itself with his Royal Highness' deep appreciation of the expressions
as voicing a sincerity of Masonic feeling especially welcome to Grand
Lodge as coming
from its 'eldest child in Western Hemisphere.' "
See the Address of Grand
Master William David McPherson at Grand Peace Festival, held at Niagara
Canada, July 16, 1914, to be published in memorial volume, also his
Scotia. See "Early History
of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia," by M. W. Bro. Hon. William Ross, June,
District of Columbia. Massachusetts
was given seniority in ceremonies of dedication of Washington Monument,
1885. This was after a formal hearing by a Committee before which
and Pennsylvania presented their claims to seniority. The decision was
M.W. Curtis F. Pike, Grand
Master of the Grand Lodge of Idaho, in a letter to the writer dated
April 8, 1914,
says, "It occurs to me as I write that Massachusetts is the oldest
in America, if my memory of Masonic History is correct."
See Proceedings. of May,
See 11 Moore's Freemason's
By Maine. See
1887 Mass. 236.
At a banquet in Baltimore,
Md., in 1885, the representative of Massachusetts was called upon to
the toast "The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the Mother Grand Lodge of
M.W. Van Fremont Boor,
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, in a letter to the writer,
29, 1914, refers to Massachusetts as "The oldest Grand Jurisdiction in
Pennsylvania. As set forth in earlier
P. Reigh, a learned Masonic
student and Past Master of Washington Lodge No. 164 of Pennsylvania, in
dated Sept. 9, 1852, refers to Massachusetts as "The oldest Grand Lodge
the United States."
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on June 16, 1834, on motion of a Committee
Past Grand Master Michael Nisbet was Chairman, unanimously adopted a
"For the celebration of St. John the Baptist's Day, 24th of June A. D.
A. L. 5834, being the Centennial Anniversary of the Establishment of
the First Lodge
in Pennsylvania, of which Lodge Bro. Benjamin Franklin was the First
M. W. Sereno
D. Nickerson of Massachusetts
on June 10, 1903, said: "At the time of this Centennial the orator (R.
W. Dallas) was the Attorney General of Pennsylvania and ex-United
afterwards Minister to Russia, Vice-President of the United States and
to England. He was Deputy Grand Master, and six months later was
elected Grand Master.
He was then fighting the battle with anti-Masonry in his State. His
father was a
distinguished lawyer in Philadelphia, Secretary of the Commonwealth
died, and Secretary of the Treasury under President Madison; he must
Franklin well, and lived until the son, born only two years after
was twenty-seven years old. It is simply absurd to claim that the
such circumstances, did not know the history of his Grand Lodge, did
not know whether
they were celebrating the true date of the 'Establishment of the First
Pennsylvania, of which Lodge Bro. Benjamin Franklin was the First
Master.' It is
not improbable that there were Brethren present who had heard the story
own lips. Only forty-four years had elapsed since Franklin's death, and
the incidents of his life were as familiar as household words to some
On Sept. 26,
1855, Bro. James King
was orator at the dedication of the new hall on Chestnut Street,
there and then referred to the illustrious Franklin as "The First
a Masonic Lodge in Pennsylvania."
On Sept. 26,
1873, Past Grand Master
Robert A. Lamberton of Pennsylvania, President of Lehigh University, in
at the dedication of the Temple in Philadelphia said: "The Lodges in
doubtless desiring to place themselves under the immediate jurisdiction
Grand Lodge (Massachusetts), accepted and recognized the power of
to appoint Benjamin Franklin as the Grand Master; Massachusetts
the date of this appointment the 24th of June, 1734. From a
it is certain that on that day at the celebration of the Feast of St.
John the Baptist
he appeared as 'Grand Master.' Franklin evidently had doubts of the
the powers of the Lodge or Lodges over which he exercised authority,
himself as Grand Master on the 28th of November, 1734, he wrote from
to the 'R.W.G.M. and Most Worthy and Dear Brethren in Boston,'
requesting that a
Deputation or Charter be granted by the R.W.G.M. Price, by virtue of
"It is needless
to follow on the history of the Grand Lodge, as then constituted, and
of which Franklin,
in 1749, again became the Grand Master by appointment of R. W. Thomas
It would seem that Brother Lamberton was disposed to give full credit
See 9 Moore's Freemason's
At the laying of the corner-stone
of the Bennington Monument.
In this connection it
is interesting to recall a letter written by General Lafayette on Aug.
to the Master of St. John's Lodge of Boston, in which he refers to that
"The first Lodge on the Continent of America."
as now stated, assumed
not simply the impotence of the human, but of the Divine reason; for a
God man cannot
know is at the same time a God who cannot make himself known. Our
inability to reach
Him is possible, only because of His inability to become intelligible.
– Albert Pike
The End of Evil – [A Poem]
on itself shall back recoil,
And mix no more with goodness, when at last,
Gathered like scum, and settled to itself,
It shall be in eternal restless change
Self-fed and self-consumed.
The Mystery – [A Poem]
it touches the heart of a Poet,
The gods and the ages will know it;
For over the waters and crags of time
The winds of The World Will Blow It.
My Brother Kneels – [A Poem]
Poems of Kabir
Brother kneels, so saith Kabir,
To stone and brass in heathen wise,
But in my brother's soul I hear
My own unanswered agonies; His God is as his fates assign;
His prayer is all the world's – and mine.
The Bible in Masonry
By The Editor – Joseph Fort
Toastmaster: Time is a river
and books are boats. Many volumes start down that stream, only to be
lost beyond recall in its sands. Only a few, a very few, endure the
time and live to bless the ages following. Tonight we are met to pay
homage to the
greatest of all books – the one enduring Book which has traveled down
to us from
the far past, freighted with the richest treasure that ever any book
to humanity. What a sight it is to see five hundred men gathered about
an open Bible
– how typical of the spirit and genius of Masonry, its great and simple
its benign ministry to mankind.
needs to be told what a place
of honor the Bible has in Masonry. One of the great Lights of the
Order, it lies
open upon the altar at the center of the lodge. Upon it every Mason
vows of love, of loyalty, of chastity, of charity, pledging himself to
of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. Think what it means for a young
man to make
such a covenant of consecration in the morning of life, taking that
wise old Book
as his guide, teacher and friend! Then as he moves forward from one
degree to another,
the imagery of the Bible becomes familiar and eloquent, and its mellow,
music sings its way into his heart.
And yet, like
everything else in Masonry,
the Bible, so rich in symbolism, is itself a symbol – -that is, a part
the whole. It is a sovereign symbol of the Book of Faith, the Will of
God as man
has learned it in the midst of the years – that perpetual revelation of
which God is making mankind in every land and every age. Thus, by the
which Masonry pays to the Bible, it teaches us to revere every book of
which men find help for today and hope for the morrow, joining hands
with the man
of Islam as he takes oath on the Koran, and with the Hindu as he makes
with God upon the book that he loves best.
knows, what so many forget,
that religions are many, but Religion is one – perhaps we may say one
that one thing includes everything – the life of God in the soul of
man, and the
duty and hope of man which proceed from His essential character.
Therefore it invites
to its altar men of all faiths, knowing that, if they use different
names for "the
Nameless One of a hundred names," they are yet praying to the one God
of all; knowing, also, that while they read different volumes, they are
reading the same vast Book of the Faith of Man as revealed in the
struggle and sorrow
of the race in its quest of God. So that, great and noble as the Bible
sees it as a symbol of that eternal Book of the Will of God which
when he wrote his memorable lines:
the Bible of the race is writ, And not on paper leaves nor leaves of
age, each kindred; adds a verse to it, Texts of despair or hope, of joy
While swings the sea, while mists the mountain shroud, While thunder's
on cliffs of cloud, Still at the prophets' feet the nations sit."
less, much as we honor every
book of faith in which any man has found courage to lift his hand above
that covers him and lay hold of the mighty Hand of God, with us the
Bible is supreme
What Homer was to the Greeks, what the Koran is to the Arabs, that, and
the grand old Bible is to us. It is the mother in our literary family,
and if some
of its children have grown up and become wise in their own conceit,
they yet rejoice
to gather about its knee and pay tribute. Not only was the Bible the
loom on which
our language was woven, but it is a pervasive, refining, redeeming
to us, with whatsoever else that is good and true, in the very fiber of
Not for a day do we regard the Bible simply as a literary classic,
apart from what
it means to the faiths and hopes and prayers of men, and its in-weaving
intellectual and spiritual life of our race.
There was a
time when the Bible formed
almost the only literature of England; and today, if it were taken
away, that literature
would be torn to tatters and shreds. Truly did Macaulay say that, if
else in our language should perish, the Bible would alone suffice to
show the whole
range and power and beauty of our speech. From it Milton learned his
song, and Ruskin his magic of prose. Carlyle had in his very blood,
knowing it, the rhapsody and passion of the prophets – their sense of
of the littleness of man, of the sarcasm of providence; as Burns,
before him, had
learned from the same fireside Book the indestructibleness of honor and
pity of God which throbbed in his lyrics of love and liberty. Thus,
to Tennyson, the Bible sings in our poetry, chants in our music, echoes
in our eloquence,
and in our tragedy flashes forever its truth of the terribleness of
sin, the tenderness
of God, and the inextinguishable hope of man.
here is a Book whose scene
is the sky and the dirt and all that lies between – a Book that has in
it the arch
of the heavens, the curve of the earth, the ebb and flow of the sea,
sunset, the peaks of mountains and the glint of sunlight on flowing
shadow of forests on the hills, the song of birds and the color of
its two great characters are God and the Soul, and the story of their
together is its one everlasting romance. It is the most human of books,
the old forgotten secrets of the heart, its bitter pessimism and its
hope, its pain, its passion, its sin, its sob of grief and its shout of
joy – telling
all, without malice, in its Grand Style which can do no wrong, while
sweet-toned pathos of the pity and mercy of God. No other book is so
us, so mercilessly merciful, so austere yet so tender, piercing the
heart, yet healing
the deep wounds of sin and sorrow.
great and simple Book, white
with age yet new with the dew of each new morning, tested by the
sorrowful and victorious
experience of centuries, rich in memories and wet with the tears of
walked this way before us – lay it to heart, love it, read it, and
learn what life
is, what it means to be a man; aye, learn that God hath made us for
unquiet are our hearts till they rest in Him. Make it your friend and
you will know what Sir Walter Scott meant when, as he lay dying, he
to read to him. "From what book?" asked Lockhart, and Scott replied,
is but one Book!"
Let There Be Light – [A Poem]
Lewis Alexander Mcconnell
there be light! In world's dim dawn
When all earth's hopes depended on
The spread of that effulgent glow
To germinate all things below,
Then wisdom's laws, by His command
Made ready evolution's hand.
Then were the clouds of chaos riven
When that decree by Him was given.
Let there be light!
Let there be light! The edict spread
O'er all the universe, where sped
The essence of the Power Supreme
Alight with glory's potent beam
Which woke to action, growth and force,
Each slumb'ring atom in its course,
While life's prodigious prospects bright
Took shape at earliest dawn of light.
Let there be light!
Let there be light! In darkened hours,
When hov'ring clouds with threatening powers,
By superstition's gruesome hand
Are spread o'er mystic beauty's land,
Swift as the lightning's flash from heaven
The blest decree to worlds is given,
And lights revealing hope and love
Break through the darkened clouds above.
Let there be light!
Let there be light! By symbols known
That wonderful decree is shown
Expressing each true heart's desire
That lights of truth from mystic fire
Which burns in each appointed place,
May spread their gleam o'er all the race
And they, in glow of beauty find
Pare truths long sought by all mankind.
Let there be light!
Let there be light! When nations rise,
And war clouds hover o'er the skies,
When thunders of the battle break
O'er lovely plains, and havoc wake,
VVhen devastation's scorching breath
Is borne through lands on wings of death,
When horrors of the conflict rage
And leave their marks on hist'ry's page
Let there be light!
Let there be light! Nay, seek no more
To stop each devastating war
While leaving causes of the strife
To stay and harass human life;
While war lords yet their systems nurse
To make mankind's condition worse.
Think well of these, of moral laws
Which, violated, gave the CAUSE!
Let there be light!
Let there be light! When they, in war,
The rights of liberty ignore
And scatter baneful dangers wide
'Mong friends and foes, all laws defied,
Vain are the pleas ignobly made
For wholesale murder's cruel aid,
Nor can diplomacy atone
For willful acts of murder done.
Let there be light!
Let there be light! In time of peace,
That each oppressive system cease
Should be our aim, and never wait
Until remonstrance be too late;
Till outraged manhood's hosts, in wrath,
Poise up across the oppressor's path,
And freedom's warriors' bold stand
At length brings peace through every land.
Let these be light!
The Way of Ditty
comes to us more and more
the longer we live, that on what field or in what uniform, or with what
do our duty, matters very little, or even what our duty is, great or
or obscure. Only to find our duty certainly and somewhere, and do it
makes us strong, happy and useful men, and tunes our lives into some
of the life of God.
not an exposition of a manufactured
ritual, nor is it a new revelation. It expresses the underlying
govern all the religions which the race has loved, and is founded upon
traditions which are necessities to humanity.
- Sir Gilbert
Side of Masonry
By Bro. J. H. Morrow, California
ONE of the
most beautiful of natural
phenomena is the dew. We rise up early in the morning, throw open the
and there, spread out before us on earth's green carpet, lie myriads
of gems more brilliant than ever graced a queenly brow. It is as though
rolling up the canopy of night had laid the stars for a moment upon the
man's nearer view.
As we gaze,
entranced, the sun asserts
his majesty, and along invisible paths the wealth of magic beauty
vanishes in thin
air. But each crystal drop has left refreshment in its wake. The tender
grass, the new-born leaf of the shrub, the unfolding petal of the
blossom has each
in turn gathered fresh life and renewed vigor.
And so, in a
way, is spirituality.
Heaven sent, it comes to earth to quicken men's souls into new life. It
is all that
the dew is to nature, but it is far more. It more closely resembles the
in the depth and permanence of its effect.
brought a seed from the skies,
and it said to the man, "The seed I bring is precious beyond all price.
name is the Knowledge-of-God. I would fain plant it where it shall find
nourishment, so that it may germinate and grow and bear fruit for the
the man uncovered his head,
and humbly bared his breast. "O gentle dove," he said, "vouchsafe
that this seed may find lodgment in my poor heart." And the dove
let it be," and straightway it planted the seed in the human breast so
flew to earth another dove,
and the seed it brought- was called Faith, and this seed, too, found
the man's heart. And still another dove brought the seed of Hope, and
seed of Charity, and a fourth the seed of Brotherly Love, and again a
seed of Immortality; for these seeds, too, the man's breast gave
The name of
the man was Freemason.
The life he lived, and the deeds he wrought, be they small or great,
are known to
all, but the vision of the doves and the planting of the seeds were for
I have indulged in metaphor
and resorted to parable, it has been but to stimulate the imagination
that you may
the more easily rise with me to the plane upon which Masonry in its
their fulfillment rests. The first seed implanted in the heart of the
was the Knowledge-of-God. To put our trust in Him is the initial and
step in the journey of life. With Him as our guide, our mentor, we can
without doubt or fear. As Christian, Jew, Brahmin, or Mohammedan, each
Him by a different name, but to one and all He is the Great Architect,
Ruler of the Universe, and as we learn to accept His guidance, He
still the Heavenly Father, drawing us to Him with bonds of love. "We
presence, e'en unseen," and we walk by faith, and are sustained by hope
its whispered promise of eternal life. And so it is with the other
seeds. In the
exercise, for example, of charity through the promptings of brotherly
love – charity
which softens and modifies our judgments, makes us conscious of our own
and renders us responsive to the appeals of those in distress – we
of the Divine nature and thus children of God.
worship rightly is to love each other;
Each smile a hymn, each kindly deed a prayer."
"Each loving life a psalm of gratitude."
Solomon's Temple is long crumbled
into dust, but we as Masons are taught that we may rear another in its
plan lies upon the trestle board of the Supreme Master. Happy is the
man who builds
according to that plan. For the temple site is the human heart, and the
known as character. Masonry is character-building, and whether we be
Fellowcraft, or Master Mason, our duties are clearly defined, and our
character is what we are, and
must not be confounded with reputation, which is what men think of us.
be sound, be good, be true, then reputation can safely be left to take
care of itself.
Men covet reputation, but reputation is only secure when it rests upon
a moral foundation.
Hypocrisy, deceit, false pretensions may achieve their ends for a
while, but sooner
or later the sham will be found out, and the structure so faultily
built prove but
a house of cards. Therefore, the question which concerns me as a Mason
is not what
do men think of me, but what do I think of myself?
In the light
of Masonry I am able to
judge myself. The plan lies before me. My obligations are emblazoned
upon the walls
of my remembrance. How have I hewn and laid the foundations of my
have I built the superstructure? Dare I apply to the walls the plumb
and level of righteousness? The heart of the man who received the seeds
doves knew as the days and the years went by how well it had cherished
gifts. So, as I lay my head at night upon my pillow, and turn upon
myself the eyes
of introspection, I can search my soul.
Shall I be
discouraged by the faults
I find? Nay, not so. If I only realize that I have tried to build a
to the Supreme Architect, I have not wholly failed. To be able to
discover the fault
shows that I have not lost sight of the plan, and am not deaf to the
voice of conscience. And the wonderful thing in character-building is
that so long
as life lasts opportunity is given all to correct the faults.
am I if the faults be those of days rather than of years. Yet it were
begin all over again, though the structure eventually remain
incomplete, than never
to have made the attempt. But I must not put off the rebuilding to "a
convenient season," for "the night cometh when no man can work."
Opportunity is mine, but it is limited. The sands remaining in my
hour-glass I cannot
Still, I must
not despair. Hands of
brotherly love are outstretched to help me.
though we may, none toils alone –
A brother's hands help lift the stone
My arm is powerless to place;
And love is beaming from his face.
we cannot contemplate
the sublime truths of Masonry without receiving a reciprocal blessing.
It is an
immutable law that like begets like. Out of the abundance of the
harvest is the
promise of another garnering of like kind. And we sow without doubt,
as we sow so shall we also reap. What is true of nature is true of
Of all the gifts of the inner life, the highest is that of love.
unifies Masonry, and in its expression ennobles the lives of the
brethren. It is
this ennoblement, this enrichment so evident in innumerable instances,
men to our sanctuaries, humble and voluntary applicants for admission.
discovered in the influences of Masonry a transforming power for good
would fain enjoy.
profile on a New England
mountain cliff is the noble face of a man. Tradition foretold that one
day the counterpart
would appear in human form. And the story runs that a lad was wont to
spot, watching in his boyish faith for the fulfillment of the promise.
passed, but never one who in lineament and expression reflected the
of the face of the granite hills. From boyhood the watcher grew to
youth, and from
youth to manhood, and still his dream remained unfulfilled. The tocsin
of war sounded,
and he hastened to the defense of his country's flag. Bravely,
he did his part, but often on picket duty in the gloomy watches of the
amid the fitful sleep of the turf-pillowed bivouac, that radiant face
of the distant
mountain would reveal itself, and he would study it with the eyes of
The war ended, and it was vouchsafed to him to return to his home. From
habit he repaired to the mountain. There stood the face, as it had
stood for ages
untold, not an attribute impaired. Lost in reverie the soldier in his
became unconscious of surroundings, and unaware of the gathering of an
group. The tradition was at last come true; the counterpart in human
form was there
– but he did not know it.
like, beauty begets beauty,
love begets love, holiness begets holiness, but the discovery is left
the almost inaccessible
peak of a lofty mountain was a bird of snow-white plumage. Its name was
and to him who should find one of its spotless feathers was the promise
life. Many essayed to find a feather, but discouraged by the obstacles
and dropped back to the Valley of Ease – all save one. Undaunted,
and bleeding, he pressed upward. Often he stumbled, sometimes he
but only to regain lost ground and to keep on climbing. Would he ever
top? His strength was giving out, when suddenly the shadow of the bird
him. With one last effort he stretched forth his hand, but only to
grasp thin air.
He fell and died, and then, lo the miracle! From the pitying breast of
bird descended a feather, and rested on the palm of the nerveless hand.
of eternal life was won.
spiritual rewards of
Masonry are not to be sought in the Valley of Ease. They may be summed
up in one
phrase – the satisfaction of feeling that we have endeavored to walk
every path of life, and to discharge our duties to God, to country, to
our fellow-men in conformity with the sublime teachings of the Order.
The rest may
be left to Him who noteth even the fall of a sparrow.
the cedars of Lebanon grow at our door,
And the quarry is sunk at our gate;
And the ships out of Ophir, with golden ore,
For our summoning mandate wait;
And the word of a Master Mason
May the house of our soul create!
While the day hath light let the light be used,
For no man shall the night control!
Or ever the silver cord be loosed,
Or broken the golden bowl,
May we build King Solomon's Temple
In the true Masonic soul!"
meaning is this – that we do
not have to go far afield to discharge our Masonic obligations, and to
quickened. In the pursuit of wealth men often travel to the uttermost
parts of the
world and endure danger and privation without end, alas, sometimes in
realizing that mines of golden promise lie buried at the very doorsteps
of the homes
they have spurned. So the demands for the exercise of Masonic virtues
at hand. The stranger, hopeless, distressed, is knocking at our gate
The tearstained faces of the widow and the orphan are lifted in appeal
to our windows.
The brother, needy in a material or in a spiritual sense, is mutely
his hand for help and sympathy along the pathway of our daily routine.
are demanding of us the highest expressions of love. Our city and our
expecting us to exemplify civic righteousness. And the voice of God is
in our ears, "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of
brethren, ye have done it unto Me."
It is a
misnomer to speak of the spiritual
side of Masonry. If there be another side it is foreign to our Order,
and I know
it not. Spirituality is the life of Masonry. Blest is he who is
privileged to partake
of it, and to help rebuild the Temple of King Solomon.
Freemasons as Builders
(A Series of Researches
into the Operative Efforts of the Craft
III. The Temple at Iowa
completely equipped for
slightly less than $50,000.00 the Temple occupied by the Brethren at
Iowa, is at once compact, convenient and commodious. It is designed to
Lodge, Chapter and Commandery needs. The Brethren have ventured further
house arrangements than we have previously illustrated in this series.
is the home of Iowa State University, and the presence of a large
number of Masons
in the student body probably accounts for this.
story (not illustrated,)
is occupied by a dining room, kitchen and heating plant. The first
floor is arranged
around a central "Exchange," utilized for social features as well as a
Commandery Drill Hall. Two Game Rooms, a Billiard Room, the Secretary's
Vault, and a Reading Room, all have openings into the Exchange. In the
of the building, separate parlors and cloak rooms are provided for the
Brethren, both readily accessible from the main entrance.
In the second
floor, additional cloak
rooms are provided. The Armory, with a generous balcony, is well
adapted to the
uses of the Commandery, and opens directly into the Lodge Room. The
Room and Preparation Room open into the Lodge Room also, while (as in
thus far presented) the paraphernalia and storage room parallels the
East and West. A high ceiling in the Lodge Room affords opportunity for
floors all around it, thus permitting the introduction of a pipe organ
accessories, if desired.
of Masonry to the Liberation of Spanish America
By Bro. Henry Bixby Hemenway,
A.M., M.D., Illinois
– The following article has been written at the earnest solicitation of
It is submitted, not as a completed study, but that it may aid others
who wish to
follow a similar path. Unfortunately, such a study should occupy much
the investigator should be able to follow the path into many countries,
and to search
through documentary records. Citations are here given to shorten, if
preliminary work of other students. – H. B. H.)
ONE of the
most inviting fields for
the Masonic investigator is that which pertains to the relationship
great order and governmental history. It is not probable that anyone
would be so
rash as to affirm that Masonry was the cause of the War of the
Revolution. On the
other hand, there are many who believe that the Revolution would not
have been successfully
begun, continued and ended were it not for the aid of that body of
this be granted, the next question to arise is whether the revolution
was the incidental
result of the teaching of Masonry, or was the organization used by the
the movement because secrecy was necessary for their operations. Were
driven into the society for mutual protection?
was the oppression of
the Huguenots in France and the constant annoyance of the Scotch Irish
by the English
government that developed in each of those oppressed a spirit of
and a love of liberty, which they strongly exhibited on coming to
had much to do with the starting of the revolution. Both of these
peoples were patrons
of Masonry, and the two leading spirits of the movement which resulted
in the formation
of the Grand Lodge of England, June 24, 1717, were James Anderson, a
clergyman, and John Desaguliers, a French Huguenot. One of the
of Masonry is religious liberty; and it therefore received the
condemnation of the
Roman See. While Masonry has no opposition to the Roman church as a
it does oppose its attempt to connect spiritual and temporal power. As
and democracy that church has in the past always been arrayed on the
side of monarchy.
It was therefore a natural result that a large proportion of the
leaders in the
American Revolution were members of the fraternity, though it must by
no means be
forgotten that some loyal members of the Roman church gave important
and personal support to the cause.
In the minds
of such men as Washington,
Masonic membership was another evidence of a man's reliability and
fitness for trust.
Silence and circumspection had been taught him. If therefore there were
business to be done in the interest of the colonial army or government,
it was natural
that it should be safeguarded by those fraternal bonds. If a council
it was not unlikely that it might be protected by the privacy of the
There was a double test of safety in the membership in the order, and
in the army. The practical influence of this association impressed
itself upon the
Marquis de Lafayette, and he became an enthusiastic Mason.
It has been
said that when Lafayette
came to this country he had upon his staff a young native of Venezuela
by the name
of Miranda. It has been supposed that Miranda here became a Mason also,
and it has
often been said that Washington was his ideal. After he left the United
settled in London for a time. There he established a secret society for
purpose of freeing Spanish America from the European yoke. This
society, we have
been told, was founded on Masonry. It inculcated republican doctrines,
and was formed
principally, if not exclusively, of Spanish Americans who were pledged,
degrees, to work for South American freedom. Into this society the
of the southern rebellion were initiated – San Martin, Bernardo
Sucre and the rest. At Cadiz, we are told, (1) a subordinate society
affiliated with the mother organization, and known under the name
de Lautaro, o Caballeros Racionales." Subsequently a Logia Lautaro was
in Buenos Aires, and another at Santiago, Chile.
It will also
be remembered that almost
immediately after the success of the Spanish revolution, Masonic lodges
throughout Latin America, and that the political leaders were Masons.
the Roman church was not disturbed in its ministrations, wherever the
were the strongest, there the temporal power of that church was the
evidence, therefore, tends
to show a direct relationship, not only between the revolution in the
that in the Spanish colonies, but between both and the Masonic order,
a causative, or as an executive agent.
It is only
within a relatively short
time that the study of history has approached scientific accuracy.
Formerly it was
the custom of a historian to take what came to hand without special
he found that statements or evidence did not agree. The consequence was
were kept alive, and by their very frequency they became convincing.
If, as sometimes
happened, many writers went to the same source for their information, a
in the original caused the error of many; still, in the place of being
evidence of many, it was the evidence of only one, oft repeated.
In the sketch
of Miranda's life in
the International Encyclopedia it is said that he resigned from the
in order to fight with the French in the United States. The
says: "He entered the army, and served with the French in the American
of Independence. The success of that war inspired him with a belief
that the independence
of Spanish America would increase prosperity. He began to scheme a
was discovered and had only time to escape to the United States. Thence
to England." As will be seen later this account is almost entirely
that writer refers in his bibliography to the only critical study of
which has been made. The Encyclopedia Americana repeats the former
error about Miranda's
service in our Revolution, even giving the dates, 1779-1781. It also
refers to his
formation of the Gran Reunion Americana, which is correct. The other
are silent as to this society, and the Logia Lautaro.
misstatement relative to Miranda's
service in our Revolution is repeated by Dalton, (2) Hirst, (3) Eder,
Calderon, (5) and Chisholm. (6) Chisholm gives no authority for any of
but he dwells at some length upon Miranda's influence in the liberation
of the Spanish
Americans, and his formation of the Gran Reunion.
to South American sources,
(but Professor Pennington, of the University of Cordoba, Argentina, and
of Peru, should also be so ranked,) we find the two best recognized
for this period of history are B. Vicuna Mackenna of Chile, and
of Argentina. Mackenna, in his "Ostracismo de O'Higgins" [Lib 1860 Spanish] in speaking
of Miranda says
(7) that he went to the United States and fought for freedom, with
his hero, and Lafayette as his companion. Mitre, the poet, historian,
President, wrote large histories of San Martin [Lib 1893]
and Belgrano. [Lib 1881 Spanish] In the first of these he
says (8) of Miranda that
he was "a soldier of Washington in the war of North America, Comrade of
a General with Dumoriez in the early campaigns of the French
revolution, a companion
of Madame Rolland in prison, the confidant of Pitt in his plan of
Spanish American colonies, distinguished by Catherine of Russia, by
the important mission which was imposed was fostered, and considered by
as a crazy man, fired by hot blood. In a similar manner Mitre speaks in
of Belgrano” (9) of Miranda's having known Hamilton when under the
orders of LaFayette
and Washington he had fought for the independence of the English
We have been
thus particular to refer
to many accounts which speak of Miranda's service here because they are
all in error,
but evidence of the mistake is likely to be overlooked. The only
critical life of
Miranda which the writer of these lines has found is that by Professor
Robertson, which is hidden in a copy of the Proceedings of the American
Society. (10) Robertson has taken the pains to verify his study by
official documents and private diaries. In marked contrast with the
methods of Mitre,
Mackenna, and the others cited, he makes it a rule to state the
evidence. What he
says may be taken as reliable so far as he goes, and from his account,
specified, the following sketch is taken:
Miranda was born of Spanish parents in Caracas, Venezuela, probably
June 9, 1753.
Blanco gives (11) the year as 1756, and Vicuna Mackenna (12) as 1758.
He was educated
in a college in his native city, and according to his statement to
at Yale College, he received his B. A. degree in 1767. He later studied
a year or more" at a college in the city of Mexico. (The father of
independence was Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a creole priest, who
B. A. degree in the city of Mexico in 1770, (13) after his education in
of Valladolid, Mex. It is therefore more than a possibility that
Hidalgo and Miranda
met at that time. It must be remembered that the word "creole" does not
imply mixed blood, as many imagine, but is descriptive of those of pure
born in America.) In Caracas it is probable, as has been stated, that
one of Miranda's
companions during those early years was Manuel Gaul, who later took an
in the revolution, and who was punished for translating and publishing
of Man." [Lib 1817]
Incidentally we may here mention that later Thomas Paine became one of
Miranda's intimate friends, and that his "Rights of Man" became one of
the potent influences for the revolution of Spanish America. Miranda
was an enthusiastic
student, and before he became of age he went to Spain, and there
to the study of mathematics. His sympathies at that time were intensely
In 1772 he was commissioned a captain in the Spanish army. He served in
the Moroccans. During the summer of 1777 charges were made against him,
and he was
imprisoned for a short time, at the instigation of the Inquisition, he
However, the official report of his commander in November of that year
contrast with the report relative to many of his fellow soldiers: "This captain performs his duties
early service he came under
the command of Cagigal, who was ever thereafter his firm friend. In
Miranda was transferred from Madrid to Cadiz. Early that spring the
French and Spanish
governments cooperated in hostile operations against England, and in
force sent to the West Indies. Miranda was on the staff of Cagigal. In
Miranda was brevetted Lieutenant Colonel. In September Miranda was sent
Jamaica, ostensibly to arrange for an exchange of prisoners, but really
as a spy.
There, with the aid of a Boston man by the name of Fitch he purchased
The English commander received at the least a strong reprimand from his
for the transaction; and Miranda found charges preferred against
himself, and was
arrested in the absence of Cagigal, but immediately released on
Envious fellow officers later made other charges involving both Cagigal
Cagigal was transferred to Spain. April 16, 1783, Miranda wrote to
he was disgusted with his treatment, and saw no chance for justice,
though he was
"more innocent than Socrates"; he had therefore determined to return to
Europe by way of the United States. In spite of his desertion from the
and in spite of the knowledge of the government that after leaving the
had been engaged in intrigue and plotting against the Spanish
authority, in 1799
the Council of the Indies fully exonerated both Cagigal and Miranda of
made. Early in the summer of 1781, and while Cagigal was in command,
captured from the English. It is possible that Miranda was present at
but aside from this there is no evidence that he was within the present
the United States before the spring of 1783, when he landed at
Charleston to make
his tour of the country.
West Indies were very properly
regarded as in "America"; because the Spanish and French nations were
warring in the West Indies together against the English during the
latter part of
the war of the Revolution; and because Lafayette, a Frenchman, and some
of his compatriots
were with the American army, though not with the sanction of the French
and because Miranda and Cagigal were serving in the Spanish army in the
it was, perhaps, natural that some non-critical historian should draw
that those Spanish officers were serving with Lafayette in the Colonial
the incidental effect of the Spanish campaign might have been helpful
for the Colonial
army, this was not its object. By the treaty of 1783 England
surrendered title to
Florida to Spain as a result of the Spanish victory. Since Miranda was
with Washington and Lafayette in the Revolution, it follows-that the
unfounded that his observations at that time led him to an appreciation
and that he was made a Mason in the Military lodge, or anywhere in the
at that time.
From time to
time Miranda sent letters
to the Spanish government demanding justice and protection, but he did
to visit Spain. However, the Spanish government kept a close watch of
all his movements,
and at one time expected to capture him in France. This official
the consequent records, makes it easy to trace his wanderings. The
feared that he might dispose of valuable plans of Spanish
fortifications to the
After a tour
of the United States Miranda
went to England. Complaints from his friends in Spanish America,
combined with his
own feeling of injustice received, and contrasted with his observations
in the United
States, begot in his mind a scheme for freeing Spanish America from the
rule. He visited most of the European countries to study their
secured from Catherine of Russia financial aid and encouragement in his
He got Pitt thoroughly interested for England; and in the expectation
advantages to be received, there seemed to be a prospect of naval and
from Britain. Miranda also received encouragement from Alexander
Hamilton and from
Rufus King that the United States would also assist. It was probable
his American tour he discussed this project with Washington, Smith,
and others, some of whom became his firm friends. It was here that he
made the acquaintance
of Thomas Paine. After his trip through Europe, and another sojourn in
entered the French contest for liberty. Later, with the turn in
fortunes, he was
imprisoned in the Bastille, at the same time that Madame Rolland was
On being released he returned to London, and continued to plan for
action in America.
At this time
there was a young Chilean
at school in Richmond, England. He was the natural son of Ambrosio
Viceroy of Peru, but was known then as Bernardo Riquelme. Needing an
in mathematics, chance sent the young O'Higgins to Miranda, but their
were not limited to pure science. They studied maps together, and
great problems of the western hemisphere. It was about this time that
the Gran Reunion Americana, with headquarters in London, though from a
by Mitre (14) we infer that it was organized in Paris in 1797. It is
we should find few records of this most important organization – in
fact, the wonder
is that we find so many. It is also natural, considering all the
that its existence should be covered by the assumption of various names.
Pennington, of the ancient
university in Cordoba, Argentina, close to the seat of San Martin's
exertions in connection with the secret organization, gives this
account: (15) "General
Francisco Miranda, a native of Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, was
South American to dream of the greatness of the various South American
if they could be freed from Spanish dominion and converted into
In order to carry his ideas into effect, he established a secret
the 'Gran Reunion Americana' with headquarters in London. This parent
gave birth to many branches and affiliated societies of which the
the Sociedad de Lautaro, or of Caballeros Racionales, which in 1808 had
forty members in Cadiz alone. The meetings of these societies were
secret and protected
by rites and pass-words derived from Freemasonry. There were various
first involving a promise to work for American independence and the
Republican principles. The fifth grade was the highest and most
it involved more than mere expressions of opinion and professions of
says: (16) "Erected on
the models of the Lodges of Free Masonry that wielded such a beneficent
for humanity during the eighteenth century, and conforming in great
part with Masonic
principles and methods, the "Reunion" included in its rolls many of the
foremost patriots of Spanish America. There were found registered the
names of Nariño,
San Martin, Fretes, Cortes, Yznaga, Bejarano and many others who
Spanish American colony from Cuba to Chile. When Miranda had satisfied
Bernardo [O'Higgins] possessed those qualities of character that would
steadfast as well as enthusiastic, he opened before him the great
purpose of achieving
the independence of all the Spanish Colonies in America by one
concerted and irresistible
movement, and O'Higgins joined the lodge and took the necessary oaths
and service. It is interesting to know that a few years later Simon
joined the same order, took the same oaths and fulfilled with equal
solemn engagements which joined him with San Martin and O'Higgins in
the power in America of the King of Spain." (Though this indicates that
was not an original member, I am satisfied from many items that he was
one of the
founders of the organization in Paris, in 1797.)
1797, Pedro Jose Caro
came to London, representing that he owned large properties in Cuba and
in the city
of Mexico, and attempted to get the English government interested in
for freeing Spanish America. The Spanish officials thought that he was
conspirator from Caracas. About the same time Antonio Nariño, a
Santa Fe, failed to secure a favorable hearing from the English
is possible that both these emissaries were sent or directed to London
It is also possible, as stated by Miranda later, that other alleged
South America were sent to London while the master intriguer remained
(17) "It is clear that the arrival of Miranda in England early in the
year was with the full knowledge and consent of the English
On January 17, 1798, Miranda addressed a communication to Pitt
beginning with the
words: "The undersigned, principal agent of the Spanish-American
has been named by the junta of deputies of Mexico, Lima, Chili, Buenos
Santa Fe, etc. to present himself to the ministers of H. B. M., in
order to renew
in favor of absolute independence of these colonies the negotiations
begun in 1790,"
(19) etc. "Nothing is known of the alleged Spanish junta which was to
cognizance of the negotiations. Nevertheless, it is possible that some
spirits from Spanish America, like Caro and Nariño, did meet in Paris
a plan of campaign." (20) Apparently the junta was the mother lodge of
original scheme Miranda planned
a constitutional monarchy, binding the states in a federation, with an
Inca at the
head; this monarchy to extend westward from Brazil and the Mississippi,
parallel 45 degrees north to the Cape Horn. (21) In the new version it
was to be
a federation of republics, and one of the propositions included the
cutting of canals
connecting the Atlantic and Pacific at Panama and through Nicaragua.
Robertson does not mention the Gran Reunion by name, he says: (23)
may well have been the founder of a revolutionary club which later
a great international association of Spanish American revolutionists,
that was transported
by the leaders to the different parts of Spanish America."
Mackenna speaks (24) of the
departure of Bejara, Caro, Iznardi, O'Higgins and others to arrange for
of the Gran Reunion Americana into the Spanish peninsula; and Mitre
tells us (25)
of the Sociedad de Lautaro o Caballeros Racionales in Cadiz. Vicuna
us (26) that the Lojia Lautarina (Chilean for Logia Lautaro) was
founded in Buenos
Aires in 1812, and Mitre says (27) that in 1717 a lodge of the Lautaro
in Chile, to be composed equal parts of Chileans and Argentinos. It
will be remembered
that the rebellion of all the Spanish American colonies began at
same time, about 1811, and that the names of the leaders in each
country are among
those enrolled in the Gran Reunion or its branches. I have somewhere
seen the statement
that Hidalgo, who sounded the signal for the Mexican uprising from his
Dolores, was a member of this organization. Certain it is that there
was an organized
secret body of Mexicans in the plot, but I have not found definite
evidence as to
its official connection with the Gran Reunion.
As to the
meetings of the Buenos Aires
lodge, Mitre tells us (28) that it sometimes met in the factory of
in the country house of Orma; but more frequently in that of Rodriques
was the sinew of this association, of which Belgrano was the counselor;
showed sometimes the enthusiasm of Castelli, or the prudence of
Vieyetes, or the
high reason of Passo.
organization having ceased to-exist,
Vicuna Mackenna has been able to publish a copy of the constitution and
of the Lojia Lautarina. (29) "The mother lodge is composed of thirteen
aside from the President, Vice President, two secretaries, one for
and one for South America, an orator, and a master of ceremonies. The
be increased. No Spaniard or foreigner can be admitted, nor more than
Whenever a brother is made the governor or magistrate in a section of
he shall assist in forming a subordinate lodge. When one of the
brothers is elected
Supreme Governor, he shall plan nothing of grave importance without
the lodge. The objects of the institution are to assist and protect
each other in
the conflict of civil life, and to support the opinion of the others,
but when it
is opposed to the public, they should nevertheless preserve silence.
should support, at the risk of his life, the determinations of the
constitute a quorum. A brother, who by word or sign reveals the secret
of the existence
of the lodge shall be put to death by the means most convenient. There
is no mention
of any connection with the Masonic order, and no stipulation that the
(30) of these secret societies
that they were composed of South Americans with the object of the
South America, and its foundation upon the republican plan. They
in their organization and in their political plans the societies of
formed upon the Masonic rites, and which have not only the Masonic
forms, but also
Calderon says (31) that "from
Mexico to Chili the same revolutionary fervour engendered the partial
of 1808 to 18L1. Conspirators similar to the Italian carbonari, lodges
men spoke of liberty in the midst of ingenuous rites, and university
read the Encyclopaedists, were preparing the great crusade." And again
(32) The Masonic lodges worked in silence against the power of Spain
and upheld the humanitarian ideas of French philosophy. In the lodge of
San Martin and Alvear received their initiation as revolutionaries. In
lodge of York was transformed into a Jacobin club."
plain implication of Garcia
Calderon is that there was a vital connection between the revolutionary
and Freemasonry. It is true that in those early years there were no
established as such. So long as the old regime lasted such
organizations were prohibited.
It is probable, however, that there were many Masons scattered through
and that they met occasionally as Masons. We may perhaps suspect that
O'Higgins may have received Masonic light, either in England or in
France. In speaking
of the early days of the independent Mexico, Rives says (33) "The
to a social or political organization was to be found in the Masonic
had been successfully established near the very beginning of
independence. The fundamental
principle of that order – the
of all men and the apparent indifference of its members to theological
always arrayed the Roman Catholic Church against it, and indeed against
societies. Damnantur clandestinae societates, were the words of an
and so long as ecclesiastical authority was in full vigor in New Spain
were not tolerated in the kingdom. But when Mexican delegates sat in
Cortes under the Constitution of 1812 some of them were initiated under
Scottish rite, so that in 1820 and afterward Masonic lodges were
Mexico, and came to be exceedingly influential bodies."
Masonic lodge in Mexico
was established in 1806 by Spaniards. There were at that time four
lodges in the
peninsula, which had been founded by Englishmen – two at Gibraltar, one
and one at Madrid – and it may be reasonably assumed that from these
Masons first derived their existence. It is reported that Hidalgo, who
the cry of independence, became a Mason about 1807. At any rate, the
this first lodge was short lived, for it was denounced to the
authorities in 1808,
and many of the brethren were imprisoned and prosecuted before
tribunals of the
Inquisition. Later on the Spanish troops which landed in Mexico after
in their ranks a number of Masons; and still later the Mexican
delegates to the
Spanish Cortes were initiated in Europe, and on their return founded
deriving apparently from French sources, followed the Scottish rite.
were chiefly composed of men who were fairly well-to-do or were of
or commercial standing, and they thus naturally came to form in a short
time a nucleus
for those who were not favorable to the idea of a republic." (34)
The York rite
was introduced into Mexico
by Mr. Poinsett, the American Minister, in 1825, and became the great
force of the
populist movement for a republic. The two rites nominated candidates
for the Presidency
and the Yorkino candidate was an Indian by the name of Gerrero. Not
battles of ballots the parties actually went to war. From that day to
has been powerful in Mexican politics. When the writer was in Mexico
ago, he asked an acquaintance if he were a Mason. The reply was: "No, I
meddled with politics." (35)
Enciclopédico Hispano-Americano," pages 687-703, Masonry was introduced
Brazil in 1816, and the first regular lodge was established in 1820. In
it was introduced in 1820, and in Peru in 1825. The Grand Lodge of
the first lodge in Uruguay in 1827. In 1857 a lodge and chapter were
Guayaquil, Ecuador; and the Grand Lodge of Venezuela was established in
addition to these lodges, we are told that the Grand Lodge of England
lodges throughout Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, which are
still in active
founding of Masonic lodges
throughout Latin America as soon as the bonds of Spain had been broken
is an indication
of their probable existence, sub rosa, at an earlier time. The fact of
disbandment of the Gran Reunion, and of the Logia Lautaro, is strongly
of their giving place to another organization. The way that prominent
men in South
American politics during the last century referred to these three
more or less together, suggests that the Logia Lautaro, was simply
temporarily adopted by members of the Masonic body who were banded
a special purpose. Otherwise it would have been natural for these old
in the struggle for freedom to have continued their organization, and
to have kept
thus alive the principles of the order among their children and
no small figure in the
settlement of the Texas problems, and Poinsett's activity in Mexican
Spanish government, through
its London and Paris spies, became aware of the intimacy between
Miranda and Bernardo
O'Higgins, the commission of his father, Ambrosio, was cancelled, and
ordered home for explanation. Ambrosio died in Peru, and probably never
he had been deposed.
evidently a scholar of
no mean ability. He was an enthusiastic maker of plans, but unable to
to perfection. Bolivar was perhaps the strongest of the great South
but he was also intensely selfish, and was willing to sacrifice any one
to obtain his own advancement. O'Higgins was faithful and patient,
of the time very quietly. San Martin combined in himself the good
qualities of all,
and having served as Grand Master of the Logia Lautaro for years, and
the freedom of Argentina, Chile, and Peru, turned his army over to the
"Liberador" who demanded supreme command, and then went into voluntary
banishment in France, that his presence might incite no possible
opposition to his
brother Caudillo, Bolivar. Whether or not San Martin was ever brought
to light in
a Masonic lodge, no truer Mason, nor one who more clearly illustrated
of our noble order, probably ever lived.
(1) Mitre, Vida
de San Martin,
Vol. 1, p. 135.
(2) Venezuela, p. 81.
(3) Argentina, p. 77.
(4) Colombia, p. 32.
(5) Latin America, p. 66.
(6) The Independence of Chile, [Lib 1911]
p. 101 and ff.
(7) p. 44.
(8) Vol. 1, p. 82.
(9) Vol. 1, p. 113.
(10) 1907, Vol. 1.
(11) Documentos para la Historia de la Vida. Publica del Liberador,
Vol. 1, p. 80,
(12) La Ostracismo de O'Higgins, p. 44.
(13) Noll & McMahon, Miguel Hidalgo y Castillo, p. 7.
(14) Belgrano, Vol. 1 p. 113. Also see
Blanco, Op. cit. p.
(15) Argentine Republic, p. 142.
(16) Independence of Chile, p. 102.
(17) Robertson, Op. cit. p. 316.
(18) Robertson, Op. cit. p. 317.
(19) Chatham MSS, 345.
(20) Robertson, Op. cit. p. 320.
(21) Robertson, Op. cit. p. 272 and ff.
(22) Robertson, Op. cit. 319.
(23) Op, cit. p. 338.
(24) Op cit. p. 49
(25) Vida de San Martin, Vol. 1, p. 135.
(26) Op cit. p. 269.
(27) San Martin, Vol II, p. 30.
(28) Vida, Belgrano, Vol. 1, p.
(29) Op cit. 269
(30) San Martin, Vol. 1, p. 135.
(31) Latin America, P. 65.
(32) Op, cit. p. 81.
(33) The United States and Mexico, Vol. 1, p. 62.
(34) Rives, Op. cit. Vol. 1, p. 163.
(35) (For information as to the influence of Mexican Masonic lodges see
p. 408, Suarez, Historia de
Mexico, 77-79; Zavala, Ensayo Hist. Vol. 1, 346; Tornel, Breve Resena,
REVELATION -- [A Poem]
made a pilgrimage to find the God:
I listened for his voice at holy tombs,
Searched for the print of his immortal feet
In the dust of broken altars; yet turned back
With empty heart. But on the homeward road,
A great light came upon me, and I heard
The God's voice singing in a nesting lark;
Felt his sweet wonder in a swaying rose;
Received his blessing from a wayside well;
Looked on his beauty in a lover's face;
Saw his bright hand send signal from the sun.
Look up, not
down; look out, not in;
not back; and lend a hand.
– E. E. Hale.
IN FELLOWSHIP -- [A Poem]
By C. M. Boutelle
foot to thy foot, howe'er thy foot may stray;
Thy path for my path, however dark the way.
My knee to thy knee, whatever be thy prayer;
Thy plea my plea, in every need and care.
My breast to thy breast, in every doubt or hope;
Thy silence mine too, whate'er thy secret's scope.
My strength is thy strength, whenever thou shalt call;
Strong arms stretch love's length, through darkness, toward thy fall!
My words shall follow thee, kindly warning fond,
Through life, through drear death – and all that lies beyond!
REALIZATION -- [A Poem]
L. C. Stewart, Florida
the quiet hours of evening, I doze by the study fire.
My mind on the plans of a palace, from lintel to towering spire.
Tinted its windows with colors, caught from the rain-bow at dawn,
Painted by hand of a Master, designs, man hath not drawn.
Stately columns of marble, carved to adorn its halls
Scenes from the noblest subjects, hang from its Jasper walls,
Truly a noble structure, wrought by the mind of man,
Shrine for some priceless Jewel, Flawless – Beautiful – Grand.
Yet were its corridors empty. hollow they sound to my tread
Cold and silent its chambers, as the presence of something dead.
A something seems to be lacking a feeling that dulls my pride –
As I gazed at my garnered treasures, What is missing? I sighed.
A beaver came to its portals, his garments tattered and worn –
All he once had, had long been Riven, to silence the sufferer's moan,
Bound un the wounds of cripples, dried he the widow's tear
Holding the babe to his bosom, lovingly quieting its fear.
Knelt by the side of the sinner, Yea – the scarlet woman of vice,
He whispered the old, old story, Love of a merciful Christ –
A light shone forth from his features, with a wondrous peaceful glow –
Surely, I said, 'tis a prophet come from the long ago.
He came to my gorgeons portals, in the chill of the evening tide,
Glanced at its cold, chill beauty, shivered and turned aside –
Amazed, I caught at his garments, Hold stranger, a reason I pray
Why quiver and turn to the darkness? – Enter, I beg thee and stay.
See – I have built me a palace, Jewell'ed its walls with arts,
Columned its halls with marbles, treasures from many marts
Yet I admit a yearning, Something – I have not attained
Seems to be casting a shadow, o'er pleasures I hoped to have gained.
He bowed his head as in sorrow, then stepped to the door by my side,
Glanced in at my marvelous beauties, then turning, sadly replied –
Brother, I see a widow, haggard, weary, and worn.
Three little hungry orphans, nowhere to call their own.
Thrown to the mills of Mammon, crushed neath its cruel stones,
Ground into shekels of silver, matters little their moans.
'Tis only the price of a picture, one of your Jewels of art
Yet can I see on the canvas, tears from a broken heart.
Down in the slums of a city, a brother striving to rise,
Striving to gain his manhood. the spirit within him cries
Give me the hand of friendship. that is mv prayer for help.
Did'st answer his call my Brother? Assist with part of thy wealth?
'Tis only the price of a column such as I see in yon nave,
Yet, I see by that column, the form of a Brother's grave –
What if its price had been given, with a smile and a word of cheer
Life might not have been failure, but brighter while he were here.
And so in the halls of your palace, lofty – gorgeous – wide,
Built from the tears of suffering, built with the spirit of Pride
Empty its heart to me Brother, cold as yon marble glove
The soul of the builder has never awaked to the beauty of "Love."
This is the Jewel missing, this, – the shadow that falls
Over your princely palace, over your lordly halls –
Search for this precious treasure, not in some distant land
Not in some wondrous building, wrought by the hand of man.
Deep in thy spiritual nature, search for its hidden ray
This pure white stone of the Temple; Light of a new born day –
Buried perchance in the rubbish, trampled and covered from sight,
The gift that was sent by a Master, burns with a luster bright.
I gazed at my royal palace, it slowly crumbled to dust
Judged by this humble Brother, merciful, candid, – Just.
Again, will I build a mansion, my labor has not been lost,
Each "Great Truth" discovered, ever has labor cost.
Here at my hand the quarries, here in the walks of life
Here will I rear a building, here in the midst of strife
I will build with the widow's blessing, paint with the orphan's smile,
Trim with the rays of gladness, caught from the face of a child.
Its columns in place of marble, shall be the strength of man
Saved from the life of madness, upright, noble, grand –
Wisdom, Strength and Beauty, they shall support my naves,
Keyed by the stone so priceless, the Great White Stone that saves.
I turned to thank my critic, only to find him gone,
To find that I had been dreaming, into the early dawn.
Light in the East was shining with glow of a crimson flame,
I thought of my dreamland treasures, thought of them only with shame.
Life seemed purer, grander – the restless longing ceased
Words cannot express it, this message out of the East –
Thy search for treasure's ore, a whisper drifted down
Thy soul can name the Jewel, that which was "Lost" is "Found."
Democracy and Masonry
By Bro. H. R. Best, South
became a Mason I was often
assured that Masonry had nothing to do with religion, but with this
cannot agree, as it seems to me that it has much to do with religion.
it does not deal specifically with orthodox creeds, but the very vitals
are involved, woven and interwoven through it all. A man must have
who passes through its sacred symbols, otherwise he would be a
No man, who is morally impervious, can be a true Mason.
In the next
place: – Since "We
meet upon the Level and we part upon the Square," it seems to me that
Masonic Brotherhood has before it a sublime mission at this particular
time in the
world's conflict of ideas. In such an age as this, it is not difficult
for a man
to speak on some phase of life; it is however a difficult task, in an
age so complex,
to survey the field of life, weigh the various forces of progress,
compare the organizing
ideals and arrive at an accurate generalization of truth. Still, I
thoughtful people will agree that the outstanding social fact of our
day is the
democratization of life.
of the race reveals a constant
tendency to Aristocracy. Aristocracy always ends in the oppression of
In the crude stages of the race, we see the strong man by brute force
leadership of his clan and wave the big stick. With the same motive,
later, he becomes
a soldier and with his army he conquers his fellows, going through
a throne. This is the Aristocracy of Force. This vantage he passes on
to his offspring
and thus we have the idea of "The Divine Right of Kings" and all its
results. This is the Aristocracy of Heredity. Later, as men form larger
culture, we have born the Aristocracy of Culture and Learning. Here men
because they have swallowed a college curriculum of classical
heathenism, they are
lifted above their fellows and it is not consistent with learning to
bear the burdens
of society. Then, as creative genius has produced wealth, we have,
this country, built up an Aristocracy of Wealth, which class has
insisted on its
right to plunder the public and outrage decency "within the law," or in
spite of it, and claimed immunity from punishment due social criminals.
against the philosophy of
Aristocracy, of the privileged few against the unprotected many, of
against the public weal, we have this modern uprising of the masses,
of a new democracy. Look at Art. There was a time when painters, for
the most part,
thought only of the gorgeous, the outstanding in nature; now they find
in some dull cut by the way, some meadow-brook with its pastoral scenes
or a peasant's
hut with parents and lusty off-spring about a simple board. These are
to inspire the genius of the modern painter. Again, look at the field
Once the poem was inspired by the idle luxury of the court and
dedicated to some
voluptuous queen. To-day, we are inspired by everyday-flesh-and-blood
we can know and love and serve. We are learning to "Live in a house by
side of the road and be a friend to man." Then look at Fiction. Once
or heroines must always, in the end, turn out to belong to the
instead of princes in disguise and masked knights and an endless
procession of impossibles,
we have a new moral picture being drawn in modern books in which the
heroines are found among the men, who swelter at the forge or women who
counters. We are getting "Inside the Cup" and cleaning out "the drains"
even under the pulpits of "sacred evils." We are finding the sources of
a new life in helping folks who wrestle with hunger in an empty bread
same tendency may be seen in education. The day when the educated man
as the man who had swallowed all the heathen gods and goddesses has
gone as it ought
to go. We are learning that education is not stuffing people on the
debris of ages,
but awaking the potentials of personality and turning a man loose in a
create some utility. The new education is culminating in The Kingdom of
We are finding that every man and woman has in them the elements of
should be developed to the maximum of individuality. This individuality
its medium of immortality through social service and thus:
common deeds of the common day
Are ringing the bells in the far away."
We are ever
in danger of hanging on
to cast-off husks of truth and losing sight of the vital organism that
seeks a newer
habiliment. This evil is what I call social appendicitis and in the
must be "cut out," else we endanger the whole social body. Now in this
new democracy, this kingdom of the common-place, we can all have a
part. It does
not destroy individuality but creates it. Altruism is the law of life
the maximum of personality. It calls every man to live for public weal.
every man as his own priest, prophet and king. Any religion, politics
that gives the destiny of people into the hands of a few, is dangerous
be resisted. The man, who is emancipated from the slavery of
selfishness, must stand
for the emancipation of all.
in the light of these
ideals, it seems to me that our Fraternity, based as it is on ideals of
can be a mighty factor in overcoming these ancient evils and enthroning
With the regard for history and a proper use of ancient foundations, we
thereon the structure of "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity," that shall
truly bless the world. It is this vision that thrills me; it is this
hope that makes
me join my little mite to yours in order that we shape with true
erect with correct perpendiculars the Temple of Life. If this be the
animates our brotherhood, we shall play well our part in that drama of
By Bro. Louis Block, P.
G. M., Fraternal Correspondent of Iowa
to many requests, we reproduce
the "Afterward" of Past Grand Master Louis Block in his report as
Correspondent of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, as expressive of the horror
and the ruin wrought to the finer fellowships of humanity. What the war
Masonry is shown by the following Resolution adopted by the German
dated Berlin, May 29th, 1915: – "In view of the attitude of Italian
who, inspired by French sympathizers, took part in the political
to the war, and thereby violated the cardinal principle of Masonry
such methods, the German Grand Lodge hereby severs all former relations
and French Free Masonry. Toward Free Masons in other hostile lands The
affirms the decision adopted at an earlier date, that all relations of
Bodies be suspended from the outbreak of hostilities.")
the love of country is,
The love that gives so willingly its life –
But, oh, we long for that more beauteous day
When love no boundaries shall know.
When man So love his fellow-man, where'er he dwell,
That he refuse to slay him.
Nor yet dare Send a soul into that great beyond
While yet that soul's experience on earth
For which God sent it forth is incomplete.
Beauteous the love of country is
The love that gives so willingly its life –
But may that day more beauteous soon come
When man, though loving not his country less
Shall more than country love his fellow-man."
started upon our journey to
visit the Grand Lodges just one year ago, it was with the pleasantest
For the world then lay smiling beneath the sunshine of peace, and the
of the people everywhere was most pleasing to behold. Involuntarily
from our lips the sentence hallowed by so many sacred memories: "How
how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!"
had the warm winds of summer
begun to turn the green of the fields into the gold of the ripening
a dark cloud blotted out the sunlit landscape, and we found ourselves
beneath the somber shadows of an awful war. Shocked and stunned we
before a perfect welter and whirlwind of hate, that seemed ready to
tear from the
human heart every last vestige of brotherly love. Never had human eye
beheld a war
so vast, so awful. The madness of murder and the lust to kill seemed to
the heart of man aflame, and none knew how soon the horrible holocaust
even the new world with its blight. Mighty hordes of what once were
men, led on
by leaders filled with the lust of empire, by crowned-heads goaded on
greed, swept down upon one another and left the land a blackened and
Nation after nation has slipped into the flood and been whirled away
into the mad
maelstrom. Even as we write the sons of sunny Italy, after having so
temptation, have at last succumbed to the horrid infection, and are now
their way northward into the land of the Teuton, swept on by the fire
seems to be in the air,
and we on this side must curb our desires, master our passions, and
pray God for
strength to resist, or we, too, shall be swept away into the horrid
flood of flaming
Just think of
it! Twenty-nine million
men flinging themselves at each other's throats; was ever horror so
before? Civilization? Was there ever any real civilization; will there
ever be any?
Will men never be better than beasts? What is to be the end of it all?
ever smile on us again, or will this bloody, burned, and sorely
burdened world blow
itself into blackened splinters as a culmination of the catastrophe?
so than that man should live on hating man, with the fire of brotherly
cold and dead in his stony heart!
And yet, and
yet, we Masons cannot
endure to have it so. We cannot, we dare not let it occur, that this
brotherly love, which with such sore and sharp endeavor we have so
to raise throughout the ages, should thus come toppling and tumbling
into the dust!
We cannot suffer the temple of humanity to be thus ruthlessly torn
down! Our hearts
cry out against any such dire disaster as that.
Why is it
that in every Grand Lodge
we have visited since this horrid war broke out, the Grand Master has
heartbroken accents this awful thing that has befallen us? Was it not
that he felt
that the very foundation of our structure was being threatened, so that
trumpet call was needed to rally men round about the standard of human
to drive back the hordes of hate and save man from self-destruction?
When you take
from Masonry its basic
principle of Brotherly love you have nothing left, absolutely nothing,
an empty last year's bird nest. So that with so much hate raging round
the very life of our order is itself at stake.
heaven's name what was there
to fight about? Before this awful war broke out men lived in
and happiness no matter what flag flew over their heads. Peace and
both sides of the line dividing nation from nation. What then did it
matter to the
ordinary individual whether he lived in France or Germany? Either place
then than is now the one into which both are merged; one for which
there is no fitter
name than "Hell-on-Earth!"
What was the
cause of it all? Was it
true that nations could no more stand prosperity than could
individuals? Was there
a grasping greed for gain that, under the pretense of preserving peace,
vast military machine made for murder on a mighty scale? Precipitating
war the world has ever known is scarcely preserving peace.
Side by side
with this foolish pretense
of "fighting for peace" stands that equally palpable pretense of
– of patriotism preached for the very purpose of hiding a passion for
with such vile patriotism as that! A nation that cannot treat another
but hungers to devour it; that is not willing to live and let live, is
dying for, much less living for. When my nation grows so mad with greed
will not do right, then it becomes my duty in a higher and nobler
loyalty to humanity
to abandon that nation to its fate. Yet my first duty is to try to save
itself. The cry, "My country, right or wrong," is wrong and not right.
For it we should substitute, "My country, may she ever be right and do
What is our
duty as American Masons
in this present crisis? Surely in loyalty to our underlying principle
as an institution;
in loyalty to the real welfare of the people, it must be to hold up the
our President in the hour of his strenuous struggle for peace. Not
since the days
of Abraham Lincoln has a lonely leader in the White House pled so
his people for the truth, and the right, and the love to prevail, and
we were unworthy
and traitorous ingrates did we fail to respond to his appeal.
For he pleads
the cause not of America
alone, but of that of humanity as well, and if we, turning a deaf ear
to his call,
shall join the blood-mad hordes of Europe, then we, too, shall both
meet the fate that shall surely be theirs. "For they that take the
perish with the sword!"
Here in the
western world two great
nations facing each other with never an army, a fort, or even a single
guard thousands of miles of border, have for over a hundred years
peace that blesses mankind, a thing which Europe, with the greatest
armies and the
mightiest war-machines the world has ever known, has most miserably
failed to do.
brethren, man's road to hope
and joy is never along the way of war, but ever along the path of
peace. As Masons
we are here on earth to learn to subdue our passions and improve
ourselves in Masonry,
which, after all, is but another name for the divine art of human
us pray that we may be ever true to our mission, ever loyal to the high
that is ours, that each one of us in his own humble place may do his
to speed the coming of the day –
the war drums beat no longer,
And the battle-flags are furled
In the parliament of man,
The federation of the world!"
Then, and then alone, shall we be content
to leave the issue in the hands of the Great Architect.
Masonic Living -- [A Poem]
James T. Wray, W. M. Evanston,
we try to live Masonically
As we perform our daily tasks?
Do we carry out the teachings
That's the question that – HE asks.
Do we apply to every second
Throughout every living day
The truths of the Square and Compass
We will find that it will pay.
Do we divide our daily lives
By the Gauge as we've been taught,
Do we always use the Gavel
On every word and thought?
Do we meet upon the Level
Will our acts the Plumbline stand
Is our parting Square and honest
Do we hear the lodge command?
Do we in the daily building
Of our lives and thoughts and minds
Have in our hearts the Trowel lesson
And use a love cement that binds?
The Higher Fatalism -- [A Poem]
the time be slow or fast,
Enemies hand in hand
Must come together at the last
No matter how the die is cast
Or who may seem to win,
You know that you must love at last! –
Why not begin?
Hew To the
By Bro. J. N. Saunders,
G. S. W., Kentucky
tendency of the students
of Masonry, manifested by almost all of them, is to create a mysticism
is given a forced interpretation by which they attempt to connect, as
origin, the symbols of Masonry with incidents of the pre-Christian era.
The men who
do this assemble isolated
facts, assume as true whatever links are needed to complete the chain
and in ecstasy
of delight exclaim – I have found it! I have found it!!
thoughtful man, who declines
to follow blindly, but demands to be shown, this species of Masonic
and this class of Masonic history is indeed laughable. An apt
illustration is found
in the blindly accepted interpretation given as the Masonic lesson of
proposition of Euclid – that Pythagoras, an illustrious member of the
discovering the square described upon the hypotenuse of a right angle
equal to the sum of the squares described upon the other two sides,
hundred oxen. This the lesson, in substantial entirety, as usually
taught is both
meaningless and historically incorrect.
was born about 582 B.C.,
and there is no historical inference that justifies intelligent
conjecture of the
origin of Masonry for more than a thousand years after that time,
unless such assumptions
are indulged as would discredit the verity of all history.
was a scholar and a traveler,
and is due the honor of having raised mathematics to the rank of a
science. He had
no connection with Masonry, for Masonry did not exist. He did belong to
based upon the ideal of abstinence and hardihood and even community of
by no justifiable stretch of the imagination can it be in any way
any fact which leads even to reasonable supposition that he was a
Mason, or that
Masonry, or any antecedent organization from which it was derived,
existed at that
How much more
satisfying to the man
of thoughtful intelligence is it to discard all such patch work
fact, deduction, imagination, fabrication and sheer nonsense, and look
squarely in the face. Masonry is a noble institution, the gradual
outgrowth of the
divinely implanted social instinct by which men of similar tastes have
together into what is now a powerful and cohesive organization, but the
which has been gradual, and made possible by men who have themselves
left no data
by which to judge with accuracy the place and period of its origin. Its
a slow development which did not attract the attention of the writers
until its full attainment. The symbols now employed to convey its
been of gradual adoption, and are but the result of the love of all men
expression of truth. Why not let us seek a direct approach to the
reason for the
symbols employed? The reason that addresses itself, in simplicity, to
the open mind
is more to be relied upon than that which requires genius to conceive
to express, and whose line of reasoning is so occult as to addle the
brain and bewilder
the understanding of the plain man who in plain way seeks plain facts
in plain fields
of plain truth.
diagram alluded to but
reveals the fact that in a right angle triangle the square of the base
to the square of the line of altitude is equal to the square of the
their terminal points and on which line depends the perfect angle.
the application of this
figure to the very object of Masonry – the perfect character in man.
of the foundation or base line represents the physical efforts of man,
of the line of altitude represents the intellectual and moral uplift of
the sum of his physical efforts added to the sum of his intellectual
and moral aspirations
form his character. As the square of the level base line added to the
the upright altitude equals the square of the line on which depends the
angle, so the sum of man's physical efforts if level with industry and
to the sum of his intellectual and moral aspiration, if upright,
the character on which depends the perfect man.
Why then does
not the geometric diagram
serve as a symbol to portray the perfect man rather than to recall the
of beef cattle by a man who had no connection with our Order? It is a
explanation to me, and the same objection prevails to many of our
of strained coincidences upon which some base the conclusion that
Solomon had really
felt our grip and heard our secret pass word.
The Winds of God -- [A Poem]
the azure spaces,
Athwart the vasts of sky,
With winnowing of mighty wings
The winds of God go by.
Above the meres and mountains,
With unseen sandals shod,
Above the plains, with choric strains,
Sweep by the winds of God.
"Peace! – in His name!" they murmur;
"Peace – in His name!" they cry –
"Oh, men, give ear! Do ye not hear
The winds of God go by
Memorials to Great Men Who
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
bronze statue of Frederick
the Great, in Washington, is a replica of the one in Dresden, and was
to the United States by the Present Emperor, Wilhelm. It was unveiled
on the 19th
of November, 1904.
It has not
the prominent location it
deserves: It stands on the Esplanade in front of the Army War College,
at the foot
of Four-and-a-half Street, near the extreme southern end of the City,
and is out
of the usual path of tourists.
unveiling and dedication of
this splendid work of art there was the entire Diplomatic Corps, in
of every Corps of the Army and Navy in full-dress uniform; Judges of
Court of the United States, Governors of States, etc.
special guests was General
Lowenfeld, the representative of the Kaiser.
which held the veil, were
broken by the Baroness Von Sternberg, wife of the German Ambassador.
was by the Bishop (Protestant Episcopal) of Washington, Mr. Satterlee:
speech was by the German Ambassador, Baron Von Sternberg; the
acceptance by Mr.
Roosevelt, the President of the United States; the principal address
was by the
Hon. Charlemagne Tower, our Ambassador to Germany, and the benediction
by the Rev. Mr. Menzel of the German Lutheran Church.
President had signified his
acceptance of this memorial from the Emperor of Germany, a protest
against its acceptance
and installation was received by the President, from the Polish
whose see is at Chicago; but the President had already accepted it.
the 19th of the following
January (less than two months after the dedication) a bomb of high
power was exploded
on the base of the Statue by some unknown person or persons. The bomb
had a time
fuse, which gave the vandal an opportunity to escape. The injury to the
Catholic Federation was
suspected, but an Irishman was afterward arrested in New York against
was evidence, but was released on the claim of insanity.
of the Catholic Federation
claimed that Frederick II was a despot and that the statue should find
on “soil mad sacred by the blood of martyrs of liberty."
Great was an admirer
of George Washington and a friend of the new Republic: It must not be
that the war of George III upon the Colonies was unpopular in Great
much so that the king was unable to get men in England to enlist and
to go into Hesse Darmstadt and Hess Castle, in Germany, to hire the
to fight the Colonists: It was then that Frederick the Great learned of
further enlistments of Germans for the purpose. Frederick the Great
sent a sword
to Washington with the Message:
the oldest General
living to the
Great was a Mason of
the 33d degree, and has the credit of revising the Ritual of the
giving it to us substantially as we now have it.
By Bro. Geo. W. Warvelle,
through the Reports of Brother
Warvelle, as Committee on Fraternal Correspondence of the Grand Royal
of Illinois, are many scholarly and wise little essays on matters of
and instruction. These little essays deserve a wide reading for their
their lucidity, and their importance to the Craft, and we are
permitted, by the
kindness of the author, to reproduce them from time to time; beginning
following little gem, which will give our readers a foretaste of what
is to come.
– The Editor.)
We often hear
the interrogatory, "What's
in a name?" And, usually, the question so propounded is pregnant with
"Nothing." Indeed, this is a generally accepted opinion. But, is it
true? Let us investigate it a little, for the reason, if none other,
that what is
known as the ineffable Name is the very essence of the Masonic system.
It would seem
that in primitive thought
the personal name of an individual was not regarded merely as an
attribute – a simple
designation. On the contrary it was treated as an integral part of the
– of his being. Hence, it followed
an injury or insult to a name reacted upon the person who bore the
our great intellectual advance have we wholly outgrown this primitive
your own case. Would it not seem as though you had lost your
personality if you
should be deprived of your name? Can you, by any effort of the
disassociate yourself from it? Is not an injury to your name still
resented by you
as an injury to yourself – you, the conscious Ego? Then is not your
name, in fact,
a part of yourself? And, this being true, is it not easy to extend the
even greater force, to the name of the deity? As has been well said by
"for the practical purpose of life the name confers or creates
This fact exerted a profound influence in the earliest development of
The vague sense of spiritual power first became centered in the idea of
or a personal god, when it received a name." And we can readily
if the names of men were held so dear, how sacred must be the names of
And we may further understand why this feature should have become a
of all religions when we remember that it has for its basis the primal
of the name as a part of the Self.
It was also
thought in an earlier and
ruder age, as it still is among many savage tribes, that the essential
deity was lodged in the name, and that a knowledge of this name would
to exert practically the same power as the deity himself. And so, we
find the gods
of the ancient world sedulously concealed their names. Particularly is
of the Semitic nations and it has been surmised that it was the fear of
subjection of their deity, through the malicious use of his name by an
led the early Jews to conceal it so effectually that it is now lost.
This name –
the true divine name – as it was not to be spoken, has now come to be
as the "Ineffable Name" and as such it figures in the symbols, rituals
and philosophy of Freemasonry.
It is a
curious fact, however, that
the doctrine of the ineffable Name is not confined to any one form of
nor to any particular people or age. It is held in common by many
faiths, being found in the rudest superstitions of savage races as well
as in the
most developed faiths of civilized peoples. But this is only another
such were needed, of a widespread belief of the fact that the name is
of the essence
present time the current transcription
of the Tetragrammaton J H V H is
but the pronunciation as well as the derivation of this name are still
controversy. By some modern critics the name is derived from the names
divinities, supposed to have been nationalized by Moses. Others derive
it from an
Assyrian form of the divine name, but all of these derivations are in
conjectural. It is contended by some of the scholars that as the name
of the national
deity it must have been older than the time of Moses, as the name of
of Moses is compounded with it. For the most part, however, Jehovah is
as having been originally a family or tribal god, either of the family
Moses belonged or of the tribe of Joseph. That it was, in fact, only a
of El which became current within a powerful circle, and which, on that
was all the more fitted to become the designation of the national god.
earlier periods of its history
the name was not associated with any idea as high as that of "creator,"
but as the religion of Israel developed in spirituality and depth it
with new and richer meanings. So, too, primarily, Jehovah was strictly
God, and it was not until long, very long, afterward that He came to be
as the God of the Universe.
Thus far we
have employed the name
of Jehovah, but this is not really a word of any language, neither is
it the name
now generally recognized and used by the biblical scholars. The Jews,
of later periods,
at least, either from religious awe, or from a misunderstanding of Ex.
XX, 7; Lev.
XXIV, 16; abstained from pronouncing the divine name, and whenever it
reading substituted therefor the word Adonai (Lord). As only the
of the word was written, (thus J H V H) in time the true pronunciation
Subsequently the revisers of the Jewish scriptures, known as the
this consonantal outline with the vowels e (for a) o a of the word
and thus we get the present name which, it will be perceived, is
distinctly a hybrid
form. It is now generally agreed among scholars, however, that the true
of the name is Jahwe (Yahwe), a conclusion which is supported not only
by the linguistic
argument derived from the fact that the various contracted forms in
which the name
appears, either separately or in compound proper names, are all
reducible to Jahw,
but also by the testimony of ancient tradition.
of the name is involved
in some obscurity. It does not seem that the Hebrew phrase lends itself
to translation into idiomatic English, and the scholars are not wholly
respect to its etymology. The translation furnished by the Authorized
the Scriptures in Exod. III, 14, "I am that I am," is the one employed
in all Masonic liturgies. The Revised Version gives the same
translation with the
marginal readings, "I am because I am," or, "I will be that I will
be." The Douay Version, following the Latin Vulgate, renders it "I am
who am," and-" He who is." The English rendering of the Septuagint
seems to be, "I am he who is," or "who exists." The biblical
scholars, as a rule, translate the phrase, "I will be what I will be,"
and "I will." This latter seems to be the true grammatical reading, as
the words, in the original, are in the future tense. The root, however,
is 'to be,"
and the essential meaning throughout the scriptures is "the being," or
states the long held
and generally received opinion concerning the meaning of the phrase. As
stated, however, the etymology of the word Jahwe, is still unsettled
and many of
the biblical critics are of opinion that the better translation is, "He
causes to be," or "He who causes to happen." This view is now held
by a very large number. It will be perceived that it still emphasizes
fact of being and, it is contended, in a much more satisfactory manner
vague "I will be what I will be." It is also more in consonance with
views of the Israelites concerning the Deity at the time of its
we may translate the phrase,
or even though we may be unable to state its meaning in words the ideas
connotes are the highest conception of God that can be framed – sublime
and comprehensive – the great
mystery of Nature which is
at the heart of all things and connects all things into one whole. But
mystery we may never know, for it is no given to the finite to
comprehend the infinite.
As a fitting conclusion I quote the words of Kant (Kritik der
German; 1914 English], pg. 197):
"Perhaps in all human composition there is no passage of
greater sublimity, no amongst all sublime thoughts any which has been
expressed, than that which occurs in the inscription upon the temple of
Great Mother – Nature) :"
am whatsoever is – whatsoever has been whatsoever shall be: and the
veil which is
over my countenance, no mortal hand has ever raised."
No Church but Man -- [A Poem]
Sam Walter Foss
creedless love, that knows no clan,
No caste, no cult, no church but Man,
That deems to-day, and now, and here
Are voice and vision of the seer,
That through this lifted human clod
The inflow of the breath of God
Still sheds its apostolic powers, –
Such love, such trust, such faith be ours.
We deem man climbs an endless slope
Toward far seen tablelands of hope;
That he, through filth and shame of sin,
Still seeks the God that speaks within;
That all the years since time began
Work the eternal Rise of Man;
And all the days that time shall see
Tend toward the Eden yet to be.
Too long our music-hungering needs
Have heard the iron clash of creeds.
The creedless love that knows no clan,
No caste, no cult, no church but Man,
Shall drown in mellow music all
The dying jangle of their brawl;
Such love with all its quickening powers, –
Such love to God and man be ours.
The Fatherland -- [A Poem]
James Russell Lowell
is the true man's fatherland?
Is it where he by chance is born?
Doth not the yearning spirit scorn
In such scant borders to be spanned?
Oh, yes! his fatherland must be
As the blue heaven wide and free!
Is it alone where freedom is,
Where God is God and man is man?
Doth he not claim a broader span
From the soul's love of home than this?
Oh, yes; his fatherland must be
As the blue heaven wide and free.
Where'er human heart doth wear
Joy's myrtle wreath or sorrow's gyves,
Where'er a human spirit strives
After a life more true and fair,
There is the true man's birthplace grand,
His is a world-wide fatherland!
Where'er a single slave doth pine,
Where'er one man may help another –
Thank God for such a birthright brother –
That spot of earth is thine and mine!
There is the true man's birthplace grand,
His is a world-wide fatherland.
is an open forum for free
and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own
is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society as such, does not
one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers to
all alike a
medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by
HEAR now the
history of a word as it
has come down to us from days of old. In the ancient Guilds of
artisans, the skilled
metalsmiths of the Middle Ages, an Apprentice toiled for seven years at
When at last his hand was trained, and he had wrought some beautiful
in beaten silver, he brought it to the Master of the Guild and said,
my experience!" Having worked for seven long years, the sum of all his
patience and aspiration was in that tiny bit of shining metal; it was a
his character which, as the word tells us, is something carved.
man who achieves a delicate
and difficult task, he had made many mistakes, had spoiled many a piece
had dulled the edge of many a tool. He had spent painful days and
nights in labor,
and his Masterpiece, his Experience, was the sum and reward of all his
He had given himself to his task with enthusiasm; he had obeyed his
faith had made him faithful – and the whole was in that tiny bit of
silver. He might
now take his kit of tools and go out as a journeyman, a Master of his
is a parable of how a man
becomes a Master Mason, not by receiving a Degree, but by the
attainment of a habitual
mastery of his appetites and passions by the Reason and the Moral
Sense; a habitual
mastery, as Pike reminds us, not a never-failing mastery – for that is
which few mortals win in this world. The task of every man is to take
the raw material
of his life, with whatever of glowing passion or hard heredity it may
it as it is, and by patience in spite of blunders, by perseverance in
face of failures,
by loyalty to an Ideal and fidelity to a noble Life-plan, shape it into
beauty and enduring worth.
No man who
has tried it needs to be
told that this is no easy task, albeit for some it is easier than fold
it was easier for Emerson than for Burns, who tried so hard and failed
By the same token, since every man fights a hard fight, no one can
boast over his
fellow; and if, by reason of rare power or a sweeter ancestry he is
the failures of his fathers, it is the more reason why he should be an
and aid to his fellow men. No man wins this victory all at once, or
once for all.
Let him who thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall, for the
enemies of Mansoul
are many and exceeding cunning.
said, "it does not take
much of man to be a Christian, but it takes all there is of him," and
have added that it takes all his time. Just so, if one would be a
Master Mason in
very truth, and not in name only or the wearing of a pin, he will find
that it asks
for all that he has of wisdom and of wit, the while he divides his time
rest, and the service of his kind. How well Wordsworth knew who he
'T’is the most difficult of tasks to keep
Heights which the soul is competent to gain:
Man is of dust ;"
and as all
are made of the selfsame
dust, it become us to be gentle as it behooves us to be just. More and
we grow older, and learn the perils of the roar and remember how often
we have failed
and how far we have wandered, the words of Goethe come to mine.
our lifetime we see
that performed by others to which we ourselves felt an earlier call,
but had been
obliged to give up, with much besides, then the beautiful feeling
enters the mind,
that only mankind together is the true man, and that the individual can
joyous and happy when he has the courage to feel himself in the whole."
Here is the
great Fraternity in whose
heroic and inspiring fellowship we live, and by whose inspiration we
may win victory
– man in God, and God in Man willing the God to be! Yet in each soul
there is something
unique, something not to be found anywhere else, a beauty peculiar,
precious, as no two leaves on a tree are alike, and no two sunsets the
man must make Research to find that hidden Pearl of Eternity within his
that star which shines for him alone – "My Star," as Browning called
and having found it, let him follow it and he will find himself, his
his God. Even so, each of us by mastery of himself, may add a pearl of
to the common wealth; each may set a new star in that sky which arches
What though a
man win wealth and the
applause of fame, and have not Charity, it is nothing; what though he
sway the world
with his eloquence and miss the high prize of "self-knowledge,
and self-control," even if men erect an obelisk of gold above his grave
is a monument to a failure. He only is wise who lives a simple,
life, building on the Square by the Plumb, toiling in the light of
Browning would say, did we alter one word in his lines -
is all or nothing; it's no mere smile
Of contentment, sigh of aspiration, sir –
No quality of the finelier tempered clay
Like its whiteness or its lightness; rather, stuff
Of the very stuff: life of life and self of self."
* * *
Masters of Tomorrow
a Society of more than
ten thousand members one finds men of varying types of thought, as well
as of different
degrees of interest and training; and it is not easy to edit a journal
all will find equal inspiration and value. What will appeal to the
is often over the head of the young man who, though he is the Master of
is really an Apprentice in the study of the history and philosophy of
men, many minds; but we are finding the range, and while it is
difficult to hit
so many marks at the same time, our aim is to reach every man who has
we have more than once
confessed, our chief concern is for the young men – the shock-heads,
God bless them!
– who are to take our places and lead the Fraternity forward in the
days to come.
Sixty years ago Robert Lowe, in the beginning of the University
in England, made the slogan, "We must educate our masters;" and that is
also a necessity in the development of Masonry. More young men new to
of Masonry are enrolled in this Society than in any other body of
on earth; and it is of vital importance to the future of the Order that
started right, not only as to the facts of Masonic history, but also,
and much more,
as to its spirit, its meaning, and its mission among men.
masters of tomorrow are
led to see clearly what Masonry is, what it is trying to accomplish,
and in what
spirit it labors, the future will suffer from a misunderstanding, if
not a misuse,
of Masonry. Once they really see what Masonry is, they will not think
of it as a
kind of secret annex to the club-life of the day, or what is still
worse, as a mere
weapon with which to fight a party or a sect. They will know that it is
fellowship of free men for the practice of righteousness and the
culture of good-will,
seeking to train men for the service of humanity, to heal the
bitterness of the
world, and to promote its peace!
behalf we toil, seeking the
truth for the love of it and the freedom which it gives, insisting that
distinguished from conjectures, and history from tradition; granting to
every liberty to exploit his fantastic philosophy, but reminding him
that the glory
of Masonry is its simplicity, its moral teaching, its spiritual faith
and its practical
value. Nor can we ever be turned aside one iota from the path wherein
walked, in whose tradition we stand and upon whose foundation we build;
in mind the young men who are to make the future greater than today,
Masonry more than we love any theory of it.
* * *
The essay on
the influence of Masonry
on the liberation of Latin America in this issue, like the thesis by
in the last issue of The Builder, is a piece of real research, as
it is valuable. Happily we are able to present both of those admirable
in full, without chopping them up into sections, as, unfortunately, we
had to do
with the splendid series by Grand Master Johnson which now comes to a
Hemenway is widely known in other fields of scholarly labor, as for
monumental volume, which has become a standard treatise, on "Legal
of Public Health Administration," [Lib 1914]
which welds the two sciences of law and medicine into the one science
Health. His interest in Latin American Masonry grew out of his labors
on the literary
staff of the Chicago Evening Post, and his essay is the fruit of long
a field hitherto little explored.
was wont to regard his
contemporaries as an "unco squad," but we have no such mind toward our
fellow-workers, albeit we wish some of them would mend their ways – as
Brethren take our little paragraph on "When is a Man a Mason?" and fire
it off as their own. No matter; what we had in mind was to express
of the department called "The Deeper Problems," conducted by Brother
Higgins, in the Masonic Standard of New York. Nor do we forget the
careful and accurate
essays of Brother J. L. Carson, contributed to the Virginia Masonic
Journal, a selection
of which in permanent form would make a book worthwhile. Readers of
will soon meet Brother Carson face to face, and we are quite sure they
with us both as to the quality of his work and the fineness of his
* * *
Bledsoe, of California,
in a letter to the Lodges of his Grand Jurisdiction in regard to the
of Masonry, has some pertinent things to say about the necessity and
of Masonic Research. He announces the appointment of a Committee on
– which Committee is already in conference with this Society – to
formulate a plan
of procedure. A few sentences will show the drift of the letter of the
is among the Brethren a pronounced craving as well as necessity for
and education along the lines of the true spirit, purpose, philosophy
of Masonry… Masons as well as profanes are becoming more appreciative
of the fact
that the real genius of the institution lies not in its obligations,
work or mere mode of operation, but in its broader conception – its
human life, its opportunity for true service, its development of the
fraternal element in man's make-up. This tendency is made evident in
and requests coming to the Grand Master's office, from time to time,
for the service
of those who, skilled in Masonic lore, traditions and symbolism, may
instruct the Brethren through the medium of articles, lectures and the
this behalf I have felt extremely chary about recommending every
lecturer who feels the 'call' to go forth and instruct the fraternity…
matter of Masonic lectures is a matter meriting genuine concern.
a frequent subject, as well as source, of inspiration, because of its
bounds and possibilities has been in some instances overworked. In the
much so-called 'Masonic History,' as the same is dilated upon by
lecturers, is nothing
more nor less than 'Masonic Hysteria!' "
That First Scottish Rite
Editor: – It seems to
me that Brother Warner in his letter entitled the First Scottish Rite
things twisted as to facts and dates. It is surely news to read that
was commissioned by the Grand Orient of France to carry the Rite of
North America," whereas his commission bore date of Aug. 27th, 1761,
ten years before the Grand Orient of France came into existence. As his
has been printed so often, I am at a loss to know how anyone could have
such an error. Some writers say that Morin was commissioned by the
of Emperors," others by the Grand Lodge of France, and that his
was signed by eight persons and by Daubantin, "by order of the Grand
But no one can pretend that it was authorized by the Grand Orient
before that body
existed. Nor is it correct to say that Morin was a Scottish Rite Mason.
is common enough – even Samuel Oppenheim, in his history of "The Jews
in the United States Before 1810" [Lib 1910]
stumbles into it – but that is all the more reason why it should be
and set right. Of course, an editor cannot keep tab on all his
I think this matter of sufficient importance to call your attention to
it, for the
benefit of others who may be confused by it. Accept my fraternal
regards and best
Furgeson is entirely right
both as to the Commission of Morin not being authorized by the Grand
Orient of France,
and as to the error, all too common, of calling Morin a Scottish Rite
we are grateful to him for calling attention to the facts. Morin was
never a Scottish
Rite Mason nor was Francken, nor was Hays. They all belonged to the
Rite of Perfection,
which consisted of twenty-five degrees, and not to the Ancient and
Rite, which consists of thirty-three degrees. Even Masonic historians,
Furgeson points out, are continually falling into this error, and
confusion worse conformed. The Body at Albany, created in 1767,
belonged to the
Rite of Perfection, as did the Bodies at Charleston, created in 1783.
We had no
Scottish Rite on this Continent until Col. John Mitchell and Dr.
established the Supreme Council for the United States on the 31st day
of May, 1801.
By the kindness of a Brother of the Rite, we have this testimony of
Hon. Giles Fonda
Yates Grand Commander of the Supreme Council for the Northern Masonic
in an address delivered by him on Sept. 5th, 1851, to the Northern
In the course of his address Brother Yates said that, after having
revived the Lodge
at Albany, New York, which was founded by Francken, one of the deputies
made aware of the
new Constitution of the Thirty Third Degree, ratified on the 1st of
May, 1786, conferring
the Supreme Power over our Rite on Councils of nine Brethren, I
hastened to place
myself in correspondence with Moses Holbrook, M. D., at the time
Commander of the Supreme Council at Charleston, and with my esteemed
McCosh, Grand Secretary of the last named Council, and Brother Gourgas,
time Gr. Sec. Gen. of the H. E. for this Northern Jurisdiction. Lodges
in the Counties of Montgomery, Onondage, Saratoga and Monroe in the
State of New
York, were successively organized, and placed agreeably to the
the superintendence of the Grand Council before named. The
establishment of this
last named Body was confirmed, and all our proceedings in 'Sublime
were legalized and sanctioned by the only lawful authorities in the
the aforesaid Supreme Councils."
By all means
let Brother Warner continue
his studies, and give the Craft the results of his researches, but the
his work will be enhanced by keeping these facts and distinctions
clearly in mind.
Fifteen years ago, Brother George F. Moore, now Sovereign Grand
Commander of the
Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, said that the history of
Rite had not been written, and that statement is still true. Here is a
for a careful student. – The Editor.)
* * *
– I have been much pleased
with the selection of poetry in The Builder. To every Brother who has
to subdue his passions and improve himself in Masonry, there are
to Masonry not alone in literature and in social life, but in Nature.
If you have
space to spare at some time in the future, I believe many Brethren have
Brother Greenleaf's beautiful poem "The Temple," and it would do them
good to read it.
I have also
applied Gerald Massey's
beautiful thoughts to my ideal of Masonry to much advantage. Our whole
so centers about the thought of Immortality, that this from Massey
cannot be out
of place in our literature:
its features fade in light of unimagined bliss,
We have shadowy revealings of a Better World than this:
A little glimpse when Spring unveils her face and opens her eyes
Of the Sleeping Beauty in the soul that wakes in Paradise;
A little drop of Heaven in each diamond of the shower
A breath of the Eternal in the fragrance of each flower!
A little low vibration in the warble of Night's bird
Of the praises and the music that shall hereafter be heard!
A little whisper in the leaves that clap their hands and try
To glad the heart of man, and lift to Heaven his grateful eye.
A little semblance mirrored in old Ocean's smile and frown
Of His vast glory who doth bow the Heavens and come down!
A little symbol shining through the worlds that move at rest
On invisible foundations of the broad Almighty breast!
A little hint that stirs and thrills the wings we fold within,
And tells of that full heaven yonder, which must here begin!
A little springlet swelling from the fountain head above,
That takes its earthly way to find the ocean of all love!
A little silver shiver in the ripple of the river
Caught from the light that knows no night forever and forever!
A little hidden likeness, often faded and defiled
Of the great, the good All-Father, in His poorest human child!
Although the best be lost in light of unimagined bliss,
We have shadowy revealings of a Better World than this!"
part of this letter was written
a month ago, and I enclose a copy of "The Temple." by Brother
which in my opinion is the most beautiful Masonic poem, except "Every
by Pike. Remember this also, Mom Massey: "There is no pathway man hath
trod, by faith or seeking light, but ends in God."
S. H. Shepherd, Wis.
first part of his letter
and the last, Brother Shepherd has paid us a visit, and we shall not
live long enough
to forget it. He is a man for whom Masonry has done much, and who would
for Masonry in return, one who is seeking, what all of us are seeking
to be what
St. Paul said we should be, "God's poems." His study of Landmarks has
made him known to our readers, as we trust other studies of his will do
to come. Cicero advised busy men, especially lawyers – for he was a
lawyer – to
read a little poetry every day, if only to keep open a window toward
the City of
Light. Otherwise, he said, the soul will become dry and hard amid the
dust and din
and litter of our labor. Keeping this danger in mind, we have thought
to select snatches of great music for our pages, if so its melodies may
the work of the Builders. Brother Shepherd understands our purpose, and
us two sweet songs; perhaps others will do likewise. – The
* * *
Dear Sir and
Brother: – First let me
congratulate you most heartily upon your success in making a magazine
which is worthy
of the best in Masonry. It might be invidious to say that The Builder
is the first
Masonic periodical in which are united intelligence, high purpose,
literary ability, but it is the first one that I have seen. While true
to the Landmarks
and to the spirit of the Fraternity, you know the difference between
tradition, and between fact and allegory. It is dangerous to trust the
of our ritual to a literal-minded man, or to that of a visionary.
present wish is to suggest what
I believe to be the alternative meaning of the word "travel," as used,
for example, in the phrase "travel for at least one year." It does not
always mean journey, I think, but sometimes labor; and it is the same
is now-a-days usually spelled "travail." The word in its present
"travel," has also the meaning of labor, and was frequently used in
sense in the early days of Masonry.
It has always
been used in this sense
by the Shakers, who speak of "travelling in the gospel," "travelling
out of sin," etc. I find in a book on Shakerism, published a hundred
ago, the "travail" of Freemasonry compared with the Shaker "travail."
Regensburg Regulations, 41, as published in The Builder for September,
Master shall make any laborer a parlierer, although he may have served
as an apprentice, but who has not at least traveled one year."
There is a
curious analogy in the double
meaning of the word "journey," derived from the French "jour,"
a day. It came to mean a day's travel, or a day's travail. In Masonry,
was a man who worked by the day, not a traveler. Our ancient Operative
set great store by day's wages. The third Regensburg Regulation
contains this: "Day
wages shall continue, and in no way shall the contract system be used."
insistence upon the day-labor system, and upon rules in favor of the
or day's-work man, in distinction from the contract laborer, throws an
side-light upon one of the Chapter Degrees.
Regulation 25, begins thus:
"Even though a craftsman has journeyed and worked as a stonemason, and
advancement in the order, he should not be accepted as a Master if this
be less than two years." Here "journeyed" may mean either "served
as a day's-workman," or "passed from place to place." The well-known
double meaning of the old word "hail," which sometimes signifies
and sometimes to conceal, is an interesting parallel. This is of slight
for publication, but it may interest for a moment.
Harlow H. Ballard, 33d Hon., Mass.
* * *
Editor: – After reading
the letter from Brother Arthur B. Rugg, of Minneapolis, headed "The
of Truth," one finds it rather difficult to decide whether or not
places the seal of his approval upon "The Great Work." Like you,
Editor, I am not of those who regard a difference of opinion as a
However Brother Rugg seems to have taken Masonry, the Great School,
and Mary Baker Eddy, and tangled them up in such a manner as to render
impossible for one to distinguish the point at which he is driving. For
he says "The question would not be the demonstration of a future life,
the realization of the truth of the continuity of life." May we not
this discussion leads?
Alwyn Vickers, Alabama.
* * *
Faith in Each Other
– What are the essentials
of success in the attainment of the ideals of Freemasonry by the
In answer thereto, and as an illustration. The following advice,
hint by Brother George W. Kendrick, of Past Grand Master of
Pennsylvania, will be
found a valuable guide:
longer are men banded together in our Fraternity to erect physical
overcome physical foes. The light that we follow leads to a keener
insight, a better
understanding and a nobler expression of the human faculties. The
which we labor are constituent elements of every human being, and our
to learn how to use the materials to construct temples of the mind and
will be pleasing to the eyes of the Great Architect. For this work
are preliminary to success. We must have faith in each other;
confidence in the
success of our efforts as long as they are rightly directed, and we
must cast out
every hatred and all uncharitableness. Constituted as we are, we strive
the highest and best, confined to no creed, not bound by any political
lines. Our strength is greatest and our opportunities for good are most
and therefore our responsibilities weightiest, in times like these,
lurks in every corner, ready to be swept by the winds of ignorance and
to shake the foundations of confidence in God's greatest work – Man."
John C. Yorston, Philadelphia.
* * *
Newton: – As a basis for
certain historical research it seems to me that there should be made a
of all distinguished Masons in this country before a given date, as
nearly as could
be discovered. This should be made from the old Lodge records, and the
names should be arranged alphabetically. The record should give the
record, and dates. The fact that a certain name is not found is not
that he was not a Masons hint the finding of a name recorded is proof
that he was
a member of the Order. There is no question as to the fact that Masonic
has been used as a means of influence in governmental affairs.
stated positively that
Thomas Paine was not a Mason, and only the day before I read your
statement an admirer
of Paine said just as positively that Paine was a Mason. This admirer
of Paine was
the son of an English clergyman who was born in the early part of the
I do not know upon what evidence either statement was made – but in
we must remember that formerly the records were frequently not well
kept, and that
degrees were loosely conferred. Further, though Paine might not have
been a Mason
in this country, he may have joined the Order in France.
H. B. Hemenway, Illinois.
for our statement that Paine
was not a Mason was the positive statement to that effect in more than
one of his
biographies. Mackey is also explicit on the point. The notion that he
was a Mason
is probably due to the fact that he wrote an essay on Freemasonry [Lib 1810], but the
essay, while ingenious in its argument, betrays a vast incomprehension
of the Order. Still, he may have joined the Fraternity in France after
his essay, and if there is any record or proof of that statement we
shall be very
glad to know it. The suggestion of Dr. Hemenway is a good one,
especially as regards
distinguished men – our Presidents, for example
– some of whom are said to have been Masons,
while others deny, or
have no proof, that they were Masons. –
* * *
Editor: – May I not call the
attention of the Brethren to the following history of the Cable-tow as
"The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man," [Lib 1913] by Albert
Churchward? No doubt you are familiar with it, but it will interest
many by showing how far back he traces the Cable-tow, and also as
we have not considered the meaning of what is one of the first things
we meet in
Masonry. You surely have begun at the beginning, and your discussion of
makes one realize how much there is of interest and importance in the
things of the craft. The Passage from Churchward is as follows:
many of our Fraternity know the real import and meaning of the
it was a chain or rope of some kind, worn by the initiate, or those
about to be
initiated, to signify their belief in God and their dependence on Him,
solemn obligations to submit and devote themselves to His will and
the fact that he is neither naked nor clothed is an emblem that he is
– a mere child of nature – unregenerate and destitute of any knowledge
of the tree
God, as well as being destitute of the comforts of life. This is the
state in which
we find ourselves as candidates. The chain was used by the Druids and
as a symbolism, as above stated. Also that he was being led from
darkness to light,
from ignorance to knowledge of the one true and living God, Creator and
all. That the rope appears around the neck of more than one in these
– seven in some – is only a symbol of 'the seven powers' – as 'the
and each one of the weavers of these represents one of the seven
attributes of Horus
I. in their sacerdotal duties. Originally it was one only which was
Horus I. and Amsu – the risen Horus or Horus of the Spirit. Horus,
having been led
or passed through dangers, difficulties, darkness and death in the
as Amsu, the first risen man-god, and attached to his crown of two
feathers – denoting the two lives,
earthly and spiritual
– is this cable-tow or rope, as a symbol that it is a 'power' which has
through from earthly to spiritual life."
David Duncan, California.
The Future of Masonry
If Masonry is
to be a factor in creating
a noble future for our race, we must not be content to learn only the
the dead past, we must also master the knowledge of the living present.
prove ourselves to be "sons of the Light," and assimilate into our
work the truths of modern thought and research. An institution resting
but its past, is a mummy, not a living body. He who makes Masonry a
reality in the world is the real Mason.
Masonry by A. S. Macbride.
"In A Nook with a Book"
The Jews and Masonry
have not seen the booklet
entitled "The Jews and Masonry in the United States Before 1810 [Lib 1910]," by Samuel
Oppenheim, a reprint from the publications of the American
Jewish Historical Society, will find it exceedingly interesting and
author, albeit not himself a Mason, has given us a fine piece of
taking up, first and briefly, the relation of the Jews to Masonry in
then tracing the presence and influence of Jewish Brethren in the early
each of the Grand Jurisdictions of the country. As a kind of text, he
words of Rabbi Isaac Wise:
is a Jewish institution whose history, degrees, charges, passwords, and
are Jewish from the beginning to the end, with the exception of only
and a few words in the obligation. The beauty and pride of Masonry is
character, its tendency to fraternize mankind, and its being free from
which have been ever the efficient causes of hatred, persecution,
fraud, and rude
Massachusetts, we find a
very good sketch of the life and Masonic services of Moses Michael Hays
spelled Hayes – who, as a deputy of Francken and Morin, brought the
Rite of Perfection
to the old Bay State. From this account, he was a gracious and noble
man, of fine
character, of beautiful home-life, devoted to the interests of
after his death, and owing to prejudice against his race made use of by
fanatics – always experts in matters of prejudice – his good name was
Howbeit, he was Grand Master of Massachusetts, Paul Revere serving as
him, and is entitled to all the honors that belong to the memory of a
good man and
Rhode Island, we find that
the author makes out a fairly good case in favor of that blurred,
battered and much-debated
scrap of paper which records a tradition which haunts the annals of
that Grand Jurisdiction,
to the effect that Masonry was brought to the Island in 1658; that is
to say, long
before the "revival" of Masonry in 1717. The scrap of paper reads as
as far as it can be read:
ye (day and month obliterated) 1658 wee mett att y House off Mordecai
and affter Synagog Wee gave Abm Moses the degrees of Maconrie.
For the most
part, Masonic historians
have been wont to pay scant attention to such a document, as Grand
does in his study of the Early History and Establishment of Masonry in
but the argument of Oppenheim is worthy of notice.
At any rate,
he offsets, to a degree,
the arguments against it, such as that there was only one degree in the
of that day – about which no one can be dogmatic – and other points of
For the details of the discussion, we must refer our readers to the
under notice. All through the author is careful to give his
authorities, and his
essay is valuable as showing how early and how deeply our Jewish
Brethren were interested
in Masonry in America.
* * *
Masonry and Music
It was in
accord with ancient usage,
and with the eternal fitness of things, for the Grand Lodge of Illinois
its well-edited and neatly bounded book of "Appropriate Odes for Use in
Work," [Lib*] concerning which Brother Isaac Cutter, Grand Secretary,
Point, Ill., can furnish information. We say that it is accord with
for the Masons of olden time were wont to sing a great deal, especially
of festival and play; and they had many such times of feast and fun –
that our bread-and-butter Masons of today are well-descended – as
witness the collections
of their songs which remain to this day. Indeed, one scholar, seeking
of the word Mason, has actually traced it back to the word "table.”
his derivation will not pass muster; no matter, it serves to show the
fun and frolic
which marked the social life of the older Masonry.
The object of
the Grand Lodge of Illinois
is to enrich the ritual work of Masonry with a more liberal use of
and its purpose is as wise as it is worthy. There is much in Masonry
which no word,
no symbol may express, and which only music, the most infinite of all
can utter; so much of that sweet, eternal mysticism which is like
the Fatherland of the soul; and we need to make a better and wiser use
of the only
art which carries the soul forward out of the shadows of Time into the
Eternity – that holy sacrament of song whereby things inaudible may be
loved. The advent of great temple organs in our temples bespeaks this
and foretells the higher ministry of Music in the Masonry of the future.
* * *
readers are not familiar with
the work of Fabre, whom Maeterlinck called the Homer of the insects,
now is the
time to make friends with one of the wisest, sweetest, greatest souls
of this or
any other age. His biography, by Legros [Lib 1911],
is a volume of shining pages, made vital by a thousand human touches
laughter and tears, with here and there, like swift flashes of
that send a ray of light into the deep mystery of the world. Behind it
it is a human soul so simple, so artless, so unconscious of its
greatness, so unforgettably
lovely, and a genius as rare, surely, as ever the round world has seen.
have read his Mason-Bees, his studies of the Fly, the Spider, and the
populations in the grass [Lib Fabre's Book of Insects: 1921;
Life of the Caterpillar: 1916; Life of the
Fly: 1919; Life of the
Spider: 1916; Life of the
Weevil: 1922; Social Life
In The Insect World: 1914;
The Mason-Bees: 1914; The
Mason-Wasp: 1919], can
testify to a new sense of the infinite ingenuity of Nature; of God
first, God last, God infinitesimally vast. When long time has passed,
and the awful
war has become a sad echo in the world, the name of Fabre will still
a white star.
Questions and Discussion
In the June
issue of the Masonic Journal
of South Africa I read an address by you on the Ministry of Masonry, in
refer to a description of the initiation of a Mason by Count Tolstoy.
Will you not
give the reference more specifically?
It is found
in "War and Peace,"
[Lib 1869] by Tolstoy
– a book the reading of which will make vivid the great battles
now raging in the east – but as that prodigious novel is published in
to give you the pages would do little good. You can find it, however,
to Part five, chapter two.
* * *
Brother: – I am an old man,
and I find that there grows upon me a feeling – I do not say a fear –
my body dissolves in death my mind will also melt into the universal
whole and lose
its identity. Is this a common experience?
perhaps due to the natural
lowering of vitality, and a slackening of the pulses of life. Yet there
is no reason
in fact for feeling so. Every analogy of nature, as far as we can see,
another direction. No atom is ever lost as we now know, nor can any
element be changed
into another element. Water may be separated into oxygen and hydrogen,
gas loses its identity or ceases to be. Hydrogen holds its own through
Nor can force be destroyed, and this must be true of the force – if
such it be –
which we call mind. When Emerson died, not one atom of his body was
one element lost its identity. Why fear, or feel, that his great and
amid whose white shadows men saw truth as the face of God, was
dissipated and lost?
Every fact we know tells us that such a feeling is without basis, save,
as we have
said, in physical conditions.
* * *
In your book,
you express wonder that St. Thomas, the patron saint of architecture,
is not honored
by Masons along with the two Saints John. I have been unable to find
any basis for
saying that Thomas was, or is, the patron saint of architecture. What
is your authority?
It rests upon
a lovely legend, never
better told than by E. A. Green, in his "Saints and their Symbols,"
1909] as follows.
When Thomas was at Caesarea, it was shown him in a vision that
he should go to Gondoforus, king of the Indies, to search for skilled
erect the most beautiful palace ever seen. He obeyed, and the king
gladly, furnishing him with architects and money. Thereupon the king
went away for
two years. When he was gone, Thomas spent the money for charity. The
and was so angry that he cast the Saint into a dungeon, intending to
him some horrible death. But the king's brother died, and four days
to the king and told him that he had seen a shining palace which Thomas
for him in heaven. Then the king released the Saint. It is with
reference to this
legend, which is as old, almost, as the church, that Thorwaldsen when
he made his
statue of St. Thomas, now in Copenhagen, revealed him with a square
rule in his
hand – the Saint of the Builders.
* * *
visiting Brother was examined
by a committee of our Lodge, and proved very proficient, it was
that he could not give the Masonic Word, which he said was communicated
to him in
so low a voice that he could not hear it. The Master declined to admit
gave rise to some discussion afterwards, and I put it to you.
of course, was within his
rights, but it is a rule, we believe, that no one thing taken by itself
made a test of whether a man has received the degrees of Masonry. It is
possible that the Brother was right in saying that the word was
whispered to him
in so low a voice that he could not understand it; we have known cases
of the kind.
Moreover, it is an unfamiliar word in a different language, and might
slip the mind.
Had the Brother been an imposter, he would have had the word, or
* * *
to a Mason should a woman
be to give her the privilege of wearing a Masonic emblem? If the
to a wife, widow, mother, sister, daughter, does the daughter still
hold it after
marrying a man who is not a Mason? Similarly, does the mother of a
Mason hold the
privilege if his father is still living and not a Mason? Does the rule
the Chapter, Commandery, and Scottish Rite?
The custom of
extending the protection
and courtesy of Masonic fellowship to the ladies of Masons, while not a
legislation – so far as we are aware – is as beautiful as it is useful.
in all Rites of the Order, and we see no reason why a daughter should
privilege by marrying a non-Mason, if she cares to invoke it. As it is,
is not enough practiced among us, especially in the North and West, and
is a part of the chivalry of the Order.
* * *
In 1866 the
State of Louisiana issued
for revenue purposes, two Lottery stamps of the value Of 7 1/2 and 12
the former of which has, as its most prominent feature, the Masonic
and letter G. Why, and with what authority was the Masonic emblem used?
Richard Lambert, to whom we
referred this inquiry, says that, so far as the Proceedings of the
Grand Lodge of
Louisiana, of which he is Grand Secretary, show, there was no Masonic
for such use of the emblems. He recalls that at that time the whole
state was in
the hands of the Negroes – the Governor and Legislature being of that
color – and
he thinks the Negro lodge might have granted the privilege. Brother
address is Masonic Temple, New Orleans, would thank Brother Mitchell to
see the stamp.
* * *
inquiry about the Cable-tow,
it may interest the Brethren to know that it has no symbolic meaning in
Lodges where it is used only in the first degree, when its physical use
Cable-tow not be a symbol
of that moral cable by which an apprentice is raised to the plane on
which the Fellowcraft
is supposed to stand? And in the Fellowcraft degree might it not be a
re-enforcement – a buckler – an added strength, to assist the Craftsmen
the rough ashlar a perfect one? I would suggest that we make the Cable
using honor truth, justice, chastity, charity for the links thereof;
true and strong, then welding this mystic Cable to our hearts let us
anchor it firmly
to God, Home, and Country.
– J.H. Jones, Iowa.
Cable-tow is something already
woven, by which we are brought into the Lodge, and by which we may be
if we be unworthy, or unwilling, to proceed. What is it in a man by
which he is
drawn into Masonry, and which, later, becomes the measure of his
he vows to do certain things if within the reach of his cable-tow? Here
very wonderful, if we think of it, and worthy of deep thought.
* * *
The 47th Problem
of the 47th Problem of
Euclid, to my mind, is as follows: The problem demonstrates that in the
of an edifice there are certain unalterable laws that govern the
result. If these
laws are deviated from in the slightest degree the result will be at
man is the architect of his own destiny. To gain a desired and pure
proper means must be employed. Do not delude yourself. The laws
are as inviolate as the laws of Euclid.
– E. E. Murray, Montana.
Allow me to
suggest as the longer leg
of the Pythagorean triangle, Charity. Conscience says "Ought." But
may be sadly warped by education. Charity, being the very breath of the
God which is in every man, unerringly reveals the truth. Hence
by Charity, cannot go wrong. And he who to a square Conscience adds a
(which never faileth) Will live on the square to God, his neighbor and
– A. S. Harriman, Grand
Let us take
the square on the hypotenuse
as representing our duty to God, the square on the base our duty to
the square on the altitude our duty to ourselves. Let the base signify
one side of the square Reason – the altitude Intellect, and one side of
Sentiment. Thus, Conscience acted upon by Reason results in the
fulfillment of our
duty to our neighbor. Intellect acted upon by Sentiment results in the
of our duty to ourselves. But in the faithful performance of our duty
to our neighbor
and ourselves, we cannot fail to fulfill our duty to God. Therefore,
our duty to
God essentially necessitates and embodies the conscientious discharge
of our several
duties to our neighbor and ourselves.
– Leland Kress, Iowa.
* * *
Years ago I
read a book called "Ginx's
Baby," and I have often wanted to know who wrote it. Perhaps you can
pleasure. " Ginx's Baby,
his Birth and Other Misfortunes," [Lib 1871]
was written by Edward Jenkins, the son of a Canadian minister, who died
at Upper Norwood, England. He wrote other books, one that attracted
being "Little Hodge" [Lib 1878];
but none equalled the fame of Ginx's Baby, which ran through sixty-six
in a few years. Our copy happens to be the eleventh American edition.
It is one
of the keenest satires ever written on sectarianism and its folly when
* * *
Will you be
good enough to tell me
something of the personal history of Edward Waite, the author of the
Tradition in Freemasonry?" [Lib 1911 Vol 1,
Vol 2] I have
looked in vain for any material regarding him.
In an early
number of The Builder we
shall publish a sketch and appreciation of Brother Waite – an honored
and dear friend
– as an introduction to one of the most fruitful and suggestive
lectures on Masonry
which we ever remember to have read. If our Brother will wait a wee
bit, he will
receive more than we could give him in a brief space.
* * *
I am not
quite satisfied with what
has been said, either by Prof. Pound or by Mrs. Roome, about Pike and
troops. After reading the military reports of the battle of Pea Ridge,
on both sides,
it seems to me that Pike miscalculated his ability to restrain the
force he had
raised. This is not to his discredit, especially when it was against
this is too large a question
for our space here but the Brother will find new material on the
subject in a volume
entitled "The American Indian as a Slave Holder and Secessionist," [Lib
1915] by A. H.
Abel, published by Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland. It deals not
only with the question here asked, but with the whole history of the
of the Confederate government.
Articles of Interest
of the Solar Disk, by H.
R. Evans. The New Age.
Freemasonry as a Means of Preserving the Peace of the World, by Sir
The Scriptural References in our Ritual, by J. Young. Transactions
Lodge of Research,
G. F. Fort. by A. E. Bear. Miscellanea Latomorum, London.
The Grand Lodge of Virginia, by J. L. Carson. Virginia Masonic Journal.
The 47th Problem of Euclid, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard.
From the Bridewell to the Bridal Altar.
Oriental Consistory Magazine.
The Jews and
Masonry in the United States
Before 1810, [Lib 1910] by Samuel Oppenheim.
Bloch Pub. Co.,
40 East 14th St., New York.
Odes to be Used in
Masonic Work. [Lib*] Grand
Lodge of Illinois.
Fraternity, [Lib*] by W. F. Cleveland.
Iowa Masonic Library.
Let There be
Light, [Lib*] by George B. Winslow,
Grand Master, Kentucky.
Latomorum, Vol. 2, London, [Lib*]
Version of the Bible and its
Influence, [Lib 1910] by A. S. Cook. G.P.
When a Man Comes
to Himself, [Lib 1915] by Woodrow Wilson.
Harper & Brothers, New York.
Fabre, Poet of
Science, [Lib 1911] by C. V. Legros.
Century Co., New York.
Goethe, [Lib 1915]
Paul Carus, Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago.
Mithraism, [Lib*] by W. J. P. Adams.
Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago.
of Questions on "The Builders"
Compiled By "The Cincinnati
Masonic Study School'
version of the original book is provided as reference [Lib 1914]
What are all things human (not excepting
the church itself) apt to become? Page 51.
What did the great orders of antiquity
accomplish in ages of darkness? Page 524
Is it possible to trace Masonry along
historical lines? Page 79.
Who were the Four Crowned Martyrs'
How did Freemasonry during the Middle
Ages assist those who were persecuted by bigoted fanatics and what was
of the latter? What is said of Masonic Toleration? Page 100.
What condition of thought existed in
the Middle Ages? Page 100-141-148.
For whom were the Masonic Lodges of
the middle ages a sure refuge? Page 100.
State the mission of Freemasonry in
the Middle Ages; draw your own conclusions as to its present mission,
your part in the work of sustaining that mission. Page 121-289-290.
What were some of the laws which the
old Craft-masonry sought to train its members to make them good and
true men? Page
What is said of the morality of 1724? Page
How does Lowell define Freemasonry? Page 272.
What is known of the so-called Wm. Morgan
incident and what was its effect?
Name some of the eminent men of history who
have been Masons. Page 232.
What are the two aspects of the nature of man,
which lift him above the brute
and bespeak his divine heredity? Page 270.
"To fit one's self to know the Truth" (Page 59)
as related to acting
on the square or building character; what is it? Page 275.
What symbols betray the unity of mind and its
kinship with the eternal? Page
Give dates and description of Cleopatra'
Needle, (The famous Obelisk) and
the discoveries made incident to its removal to New York City in 1879
Who was Osiris and how did he meet death? Page
What is said of the resurrection of Osiris?
What is said of Osiris forming a secret Order
and how does it compare with
Masonry? Page 47, 48.
What reason is given for the claim that Masonry
had its origin while the
Temple of Solomon was building? Page 79.
What is said of the antiquity of Masonry, based
on records of the middle
ages? What had it in its keeping? Page 97.
What is the value of Leader Scott's theory as
to the link between the Roman
College of Artificers and Freemasonry? Page 98.
What does an inscribed stone dating from 712
prove as to the antiquity of
Masonry? Page 89, 90.
How must we regard Masonic legends and symbols
in relation to the early history
of the race? Page 97.
How far back do we have records of old time
Masonry? Page 102.
How far back do we have records of North
American Masonry? Page 206.
What are the "title deeds" of our order? Page
Give name, date, record and a digest of the
oldest record of Masonry. Page
When was the first time the name Freemason was
known to have been recorded?
What is the Regius M. S.? Page 104, 106.
How was the Regius document regarded by Gould
and Albert Pike? Page 106.
Give name, date, record and digest of the
second oldest record of Masonry.
According to the Regius M. S. and the Cooke M.
S. where did Masonry originate?
What is the Cooke document? Page 106.
What is the purport of the Harleian MSS.? Page
What document was discovered in the Bodleian
Library at Oxford? Page 111.
What caused the Freemasons to be persecuted
before the Reformation and in
what year in England was a statute enacted curtailing the privileges of
To what purpose did some Masons devote
themselves up to the revival in 1717?
What led to the revival of Freemasonry in 1717?
Has ever any order claimed such a legendary or
traditional history as Masonry?
Why was it that during the purely operative
period the ritual of Masonry
was naturally less formal and ornate than it afterwards became? Page
What is known of the existence of Masonry in
England and Scotland prior to
1717? Page 159.
Where did the name "Accepted Masons" come from?
What is said to be the earliest reference to
the initiation of a Speculative
Mason in England' Page 161.
What caused the renewed interest in Freemasonry
in England in 1666? Page
What was the condition of Society in 1724? Page
Why did Masonry alone of all the trades and
professions live after its work
was done preserving not only its identity of organization but its old
usages and transforming them into instruments of religion and
Give a short sketch of the various schisms of
Masonry and what resulted?
What is said of founding the Grand Lodge of
England in 1717? Page 181, 182.
When were the various Grand Lodges united, and what was included in the
of union? Page 220 Note 1, and 221 Note 1.
What is said of Masonry as being an ancient
institution and what does it
do for its members? Page 239.
Why are some people opposed to Freemasonry?
Why criticize Masonry? Page 252.
What are the real obstacles that thwart the
nobler aspirations of humanity
and why is jealousy the worst of them all? Page 246.
Does Freemasonry belong to any one age or to
any religion? Page 253.
What and by whom were the many arts handed on
to the Pyramid Builders of
Old Egypt? Page 9.
What was the symbol of the Pyramid as compared
to the square temple of the
early Egyptians? Page 15.
What may be hidden in the undiscovered chambers
of the Pyramid, what would
be the result of discovery? Page 18.
How did Albert Pike, in his letter to Gould,
describe Freemasonry and its
Symbolism? Page 18.
What is said of the antiquity of the simple
symbols of the Masons as related
to the famous Obelisk known as Cleopatra's Needle in Central Park, N.
Y.? How old
is the Obelisk supposed to be? Page 23.
Of what is the pyramid an image, as stated by
Plutarch? Page 27.
What is said of the Pillars? What did they
represent in the old solar myths?
What did they represent in India and among the Mayas and Uncas? Page
What is written on the walls of the Pyramid
concerning death? Page 40.
How long did Pythagoras have to wait to be
taught the hidden wisdom of Egypt?
What use did he make of it? Page 47.
Who was Pythagoras and what secret order did he
found? Page 48.
What does St. Paul say of the early teachings
and mysteries? Page 50.
What does Plato say of the men in the early
ages who established the mysteries
and what were their intentions? Page 52.
What qualifications are necessary for knowledge
of higher things? Why? Page
Can fitness for the finer truths be conferred?
Without moral development, what would be the
result of the teaching of the
sages? Page 63-1.
What is meant by those "fit to receive it,"
that is those who understand
the hidden teaching of the world? Page 63.
What did Pythagoras say of the science
of numbers? Page 15
El Ostracismo del Jeneral O'Higgins
Mac60 / auth. Mackenna B. Vicuna. - Valparaiso : Imprenta I Libreria
del Mercurio, 1860. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 586. - Spanish - 40.2 MB.
Fabre, Poet of Science
Leg11 / auth. Legros Georges / trans. Miall Bernard. - London : T.
Fisher Unwin, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 353. - 11.6 MB.
Fabre's Book of Insects
Fab21 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 8.5 MB.
Ginx's Baby, his Birth and
Jen71 / auth. Jenkins Edward. - Boston : James R. Osgood & Co.,
1871. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 128. - 5.5 MB.
Car15 / auth. Carus Paul. - Chicago : Open Court Publishing, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 380. - 15.7 MB.
Historia de Belgrano
Mit81 / auth. Mitre Bartolome. - Buenos Aires : Imprenta y Libreria de
Mayo, 1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 815. - Spanish - 40.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
Kant's Critique of Judgement
Kan14 / auth. Kant
Immanuel / trans. Bernard J. H.. - London : Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 483. - 18.8 MB.
Kritik der Urteilskraft
Kan22 / auth. Kant Immanuel. - Leipzig : Felix Meiner Verlag, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 440. - German - 23.4 MB.
Legal Principles of Public
Hem14 / auth. Hemenway Henry B. - Chicago : T. H. Flood & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 897. - 33.6 MB.
Life of the Caterpillar
Fab16 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - Toronto
: McLelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Ltd., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
378. - 9.7 MB.
Life of the Fly
Fab19 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 12.5 MB.
Life of the Weevil
Fab22 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Compnay, Inc., 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 4.9 MB.
Jen78 / auth. Jenkins Edward. - London : William Mullan & Son,
1878. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 8.4 MB.
Memorials of the Masonic Union
Hug18 / auth. Hughan William J. - Leicester : Johnson, Wykes &
Paine, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 169.
On the Origin of Freemasonry
Pai10 / auth. Paine Thomas. - New York : Elliot and Crissey, 1810. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 4.7 MB.
Saints and their Symbols
Gre09 / auth. Green A E. - London : Whittaker & Co., 1909. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 202. - 30.0 MB.
Social Life In The Insect World
Fab14 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. Miall Bernhard. - New York : The
Century Co., 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 349. - 13.9 MB.
The American Indian Vol 1 As
Slaveholder and Seccessionist
Abe15 / auth. Abel Annie H. - Cleveland : Arthur H. Clarke Co., 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 385. - 11.8 MB.
The Authorized Version of the
Bible and its Influence
Coo10 / auth. Cook Albert S. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1910. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 96. - 3.3 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Emancipation of South
Mit93 / auth. Mitre Bartolome / ed. Pilling William / trans. Pilling
William. - London : Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 524. - 20.0 MB.
The Independence of Chile
Chi11 / auth. Chisholm A. Stewart M.. - Boston : Sherman, French
& Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 339. - 13.3 MB.
The Jews and Masonry in the
United States Before 1810
Opp10 / auth. Oppenheim Samuel. - New York : The Jewish Historical
Society, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 104. - 2.9 MB.
The Life of the Spider
Fab161 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New
York : Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 406. - 9.9
Fab141 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New
York : Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 6.6
Fab191 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New
York : Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 7.9
The Rights of Man
Pai17 / auth. Paine Thomas. - London : W. T. Sherwin, 1817. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 232. - 13.9 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
War and Peace
Tol69 / auth. Tolstoy
Leo. - Pictou : ronigo, 1869. - Digital : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1171. - 3.9
When A Man Comes to Himself
Wil15 / auth. Wilson Woodrow. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 47. - 1.0 MB.