Masonic Research Society
By Bro. F. W. Kracher
the Department of German, State University
Translation from the German)
document herewith presented
is a new translation, made especially for the National Masonic Research
of the oldest Regulations of the German Stonemasons – or Steinmetzen –
1459. The original German, as quaint as the English of Chaucer, may be
Die Romanische und Gotische
Architektur [Lib*], by
Max Hasak, published at
Stuttgart 1902. Other documents of the kind fall chiefly in the time of
Renaissance, and present nothing but unimportant extensions or
the first Regensburg Regulation. They are mainly as follows: – the
of 1459, the Torgau of 1462, the Basle of 1497, the so-called Brothers'
1563, and the Querfurt Regulation of 1574. Further, there were
of the original Regulation, such as those of Vienna, of Admont and the
of 1480. This interesting document brings up the question, so hotly
debated in Masonic
literature, as to the relation of the German Steinmetzen to the Guilds
on the one
hand, and to the Freemasons on the other. English writers, like Speth,
go so far
as to deny to the Stonemasons any esoteric lore, while German scholars,
Findel and Steinbrenner, insist that they were Freemasons. Of course
cannot be discussed in an introductory note, but we shall have
something to say
about it in due time. Meanwhile, with this debatable question in mind,
will find these old Regulations a very profitable study if they will
read them in
the light of what Brother Gould has to say in his "Concise History of
(pp 42-62) [Lib 1904] and on the
other side the discussions of Findel [Lib 1866] and Pierson
[Lib 1870] and
Steinbrenner [Lib 1882] in
their histories of the Craft. – The Editor.)
In the name
of the Father, the Son,
the Holy Spirit, and the mother Mary and also her saintly servants,
crowned in honor
of the holy quartet, be it stated that genuine friendship, harmony and
is the foundation of all virtues. For the common good and for the
all princes, nobles, lords, cities, founders, and monasteries who are
churches or other large buildings of stone or may erect such buildings
in the future,
this is written, so that each one may know his rights and privileges.
It is also
written for the benefit of all master masons and journeymen throughout
lands, who are especially desirous to keep the Craft clean from all
care, expense, and harm. Some of the regulations which the fathers had
with the best intentions are being misused by both, masters and
workers, and they
no longer endeavor to adhere to the rules. To change this condition,
of master masons and workers met at Spyr, Strasburg, and Regensburg
with power to
act for the Craft. The old existing rules were renewed and somewhat
bringing all peacefully together. After the regulations had been
written down we
solemnly promised not only to keep them ourselves but to enforce them
in the future
among the followers of the stonemason craft. The rules are as follows:
Whoever finds any of the rules in this
regulation too severe or too lenient may, in accordance with the
conditions of the
time or the country, add to or subtract from them. Any change must
the arrangement nor the spirit of the original rules and must then be
observed by all.
Any stonemason who has the desire to
join our order, for which this book is written, must promise (swear) to
the separate rules of our regulation. Master masons shall be those who
a stone structure according to a plan. They do not have to do actual
work with their
own hands unless they so desire. Whether they are masters or
journeymen, they ought
to conduct themselves honorably, harm no one in his rights, and in case
are to be punished in accordance with the rules laid down.
Buildings which are erected at present
and where the workmen are paid by the day are, Strasburg, Cologne,
Vienna, and Passau,
also in the workshops belonging to the same. Day wages shall continue
with these buildings and in no way shall the contract system be used,
so that no
interruption in the work arises due to the change from the day labor
system to the
In case of death of any stonemason
employed on a regular building, it is permissible that any workman or
of doing the work, apply for the vacancy. In this manner the
supervisors of the
work shall find a proper successor. The same rule applies also to a
understands stone masonry.
If a master should accept a second
job, or any master who is not occupied accept a new job, it is their
duty to start
work by the day immediately so that no discredit may come to the craft.
parties lodge complaint against a master as to the work or the
employment of a certain
kind of labor, then he shall be tried and punished according to the
rules. The complainant
may not carry his case that far but simply demand that the master begin
either by the day or contract. The master must then act according to
If a master in charge of some work
dies and another master steps in his place and finds prepared stones
in position in the wall or not, he is not allowed to remove placed
stones nor to
discard loose ones. This is necessary so that employers may not be
unnecessary expense, and that the master who did the work may not be
Should the employer wish to remove stones it may be permitted as long
as no danger
to the structure arises therefrom.
A master shall not hire out his masons
for any other work except such which is directly connected with the
hewing of stones.
He may use them for breaking stone, lime, or sand by the day or by the
danger of reproach.
In case masons are needed either to
hew stones or to set them, the master may shift them. Those so shifted
are not subject
to the rules set forth as long as they do it on their own accord and
Two masters shall not jointly supervise
a job or a building unless it be a small building which can be finished
year. Such a job may be undertaken with a partner.
If a master accepts a contract according to the
he must not change anything. The work must be done according to the
which he submitted to the employers, cities, or to the country. This
the weakening of any part of the work.
If there be any master or journeyman who
attempts to force a master, who
is conducting a job under these regulations, out of his position, he
shall be tried.
The same is to be done if one openly or secretly intrigues against any
his knowledge. No master mason or journeyman shall associate with him,
and no craftsman
belonging to the order shall work for him as long as he is busy with
the job wrongfully
obtained. This is to continue until the one forced out of the job shall
and explanations given him by the committee of master masons appointed
purpose by the order.
If anyone should attempt to break stone without
having previously served
as a regular workman and acquired some shop training, his stones must
not be accepted
by anyone. In case someone should do so, then no journeyman must stand
by him or
go with him, so that employers are not given unnecessary expense thru
such an unwise
No workman or master, neither parlierer
(instructor) nor journeyman shall
instruct anyone, not a stonemason, from any manual unless the
instructor be a member
of the craft.
No workman or master shall take any money from
a journeyman for teaching
him something concerning stone-masonry. No parlierer (instructor) or
shall instruct for money. If one wishes to show or teach something to
may do so step by step for fellow-workman's sake.
Any master having charge of a building may have
three helpers, either master
masons or journeymen. If he has more than one building he shall not
have more than
two helpers on the second building. Not more than five helpers shall be
on both buildings
No master or workman shall be taken into the
order who does not receive the
holy sacrament at least once a year, or who does not observe the
of conduct, or who gambles. In case such an unfit person did by chance
the order, no master mason should have any association with him
whatsoever. No workman
should work for him unless he turns from his old ways and has been
punished by those
who are in the order.
No workman or master mason should be
adulterous. Should one insist upon such
a course, no journeyman or stonemason should work for him or associate
If a fellow craft accepts work with a master
who has not yet been raised
to the rank of overseer in the order, he shall not be subject to a
may very well do so because each craftsman should seek advancement. The
should keep the rules of the order although he is not working in a
or for a brother of the order. Should one take a wife unto himself and
in a regulation shop but settle down in a city where he had to work at
he will have to pay four pennies poll- tax but be free of any other
tax, as long
as he does not work in a regular shop.
In case a complaint is made by one master
against another master that he
acted against the rules of the order; or by a master against a
craftsman, or by
a craftsman against another, it shall be brought to a master who has
to handle such cases. Both sides shall be heard, and then a day set
when the case
will be considered. During the time up to the trial no controversy
take place between master and worker until the case has been settled.
shall be given by masters, and this decision must be carried out. The
case is to
be tried where it arose by the master in whose jurisdiction it happened.
A "parlierer" shall respect his master and obey
him willingly in
everything pertaining to the craft. The same shall be done by the
If a journeyman decides to travel on, he should
depart from his master and
the shop without any complaint against him, and leaving no debts,
Any journeyman, in whatever kind of a shop he
shall be employed, ought to
be obedient to the "parlierer" and his master in everything pertaining
to the craft.
And he shall not scold about the master's work
secretly nor publicly, unless
the master were to act contrary to the rules of the order.
Every workman who has received the power to
enforce the rules of the order
in all disputes touching upon stonemasons and masonry, has also the
power to bring
to trial and to decide upon punishment. All masters, parlierers, and
be obedient to him.
Even though a craftsman has journeyed and
worked as a stonemason and made
advancement in the order, he should not be accepted by a master if this
be less than two years, and if he only wanted to do a little work.
Masters and workers belonging to this order
shall obey all the rules of this
regulation. Should one or the other break any one of the rules he is
not to be punished
if he repents and promises to keep the rule in the future.
Build Me a House – [A Poem]
Soul build me a house of Dreams,
And roof it with the stars;
With walls of awe and azure beams,
And ether bolts and bars.
A house of Joy, Oh Life build me,
With windows vision-wide;
With friends of Mirth and Ecstasy
To neighbor on each side.
Oh Love build me a House of Hope
Where happiness dwells free,
And set on a sunny slope
Of my heart's hill for me.
Oh Faith build me a House of Prayer,
With words that cry unsaid,
And rear to heaven a perfumed stair
On which my dreams may tread.
Oh God build me a house of Rest,
And hallow it with sleep;
Be Thou the one celestial Guest
My happy house would keep.
Let music wake me in the night
When this old house is still,
And let me feel a Presence bright,
That all the place would fill.
Make Us See – [A Poem]
God and Father of us all,
Forgive our faith in cruel lies,
Forgive the blindness that denies.
Cast down our idols – overturn
Our bloody altars – make us see
Thyself in Thy Humanity."
Glacier Park Hymn – [A Poem]
wrought He in His might,
Temples of shade and light,
Altars of praise.
On snow-clad mountain crest,
In vales with verdure blest,
Each heart with peace at rest,
Its homage pays.
O! Land of mighty form,
Sunshine and shifting storm,
Blest for all time;
By lakes of azure blue,
Glaciers of varied hue,
Our hearts to you are true,
Love's Trappist – [A Poem]
From "Poems," by G. K.
is a place where lute and lyre are broken,
Where scrolls are torn and on a wild wind go,
Where tablets stand wiped naked for a token,
Where laurels wither and the daisies grow.
Lo: I, too, join the brotherhood of silence,
I am Love's Trappist, and you ask in vain,
For man, through Love's gate, even as through Death's gate,
Goeth alone, and comes not back again.
Yet here I pause, look back across the threshold,
Cry to my brethren, though the world be old,
Prophets and sages, questioners and doubters,
O world, old world, the best hath ne'er been told.
The Establishment and Early
Freemasonry in America
By Bro. Melvin M. Johnson,
G. M. Of Masons in Mass.
Chapter II – Part 1
issues the writer has pointed
out that Massachusetts is entitled to precedence as the founder of
Masonry in America
whether determined upon the first presence of Masons, or upon the first
of Lodges, or upon the first exercise of authority from the Grand Lodge
Attention has also been called to the beginnings of Masonry in
to the acknowledgment at the time by Franklin and his associates in
of the precedence of Massachusetts.
next few years after Henry
Price organized the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston on June 30, 1733,
was established in other colonies. With this spread of the institution
will not attempt to deal except so far as it was fostered by, and
Price and his successors and tends to the historical establishment of
and authority for many years as Provincial Grand Masters for North
certain definite exceptions.)
already been made to
the extension by Grand Master Craufurd of Price's authority over all
and his immediate exercise of that authority by granting the petition
Franklin and his associates.
Price chartered a Lodge in
Portsmouth, N. H. The original petition for this Charter, dated Feb. 9,
is still preserved. On June 28, 1736, a petition was forwarded for the
of Brother Tomlinson to succeed Brother Price as Provincial Grand
Master. I can
find no copy of that petition. The Commission to Brother Tomlinson
date of Dec. 7, 1736, and arrived in Boston April 20, 1737. On St. John
day in 1737, occurred the first public procession of the fraternity in
Governor Belcher being in the line. The Masonry of South Carolina
sprung from Massachusetts
in 1735 Nova Scotia and the West Indies in 1738.
Pennsylvania Masonry ceased
utterly, being revived until 1749.
year 1738, Provincial Grand
Master Tomlinson went to England by way of Antigua where he stopped
to establish Masonry. On 31, 1739, he attended a meeting of the Grand
Lodge of England.
also, on December 27, marked
the beginning of the record pra of the First Lodge in Boston so far as
it has been
preserved. It is singular that the keeping of formal records did not
to these bodies founded in the early part of the eighteenth century,
but such seems
to be the case with all of them, both English and American. Careful as
was about keeping a record of his personal affairs, he caused no record
to be kept
of the affairs of his Lodge save a financial record. Or at least if any
it has disappeared as effectually as Franklin's Commission.
Tomlinson died in 1740 and
the Provincial Grand Lodge was held by Thomas Oxnard as Deputy Grand
March 6, 1744, when he received his Commission as "Provincial Grand
for North America in the Room of Our Bro. Robt. Tomlinson, Esq.,
In 1740 a
Deputation was granted from
Massachusetts for a Lodge at Annapolis and Bro. Erasmus James Phillips
to act in Nova Scotia.
Again it was
publicly proclaimed that
Massachusetts was the Mother of Masonry in America; For instance, on
Oct. 23, 1741,
Bro. Peter Pelham, Secretary of the First Lodge in Boston, in an
address of congratulation
to Gov. Wm. Shirley, made public claim that the First Lodge in Boston
was the Mother
Lodge of America.
Shirley was Belcher's successor.
The Masonic correspondence between these officials and the First Lodge
is so interesting historically that I quote from the records of that
Lodge as follows:
– Wednesday, September 23, 1741.
(At a regular
meeting of the First
Lodge in Boston, held) Wednesday, Sept. 23, 1741, our Rt. Worshipful
to the Brethren, that it was his opinion, some perticular order should
in toasting the health of our Rt. W: Bro: the Honble Mr. Belcher: and
that a Committee
might be appointed as soon as possible to wait upon him, with
the Lodge, of his past favors, and to return our thanks, etc.
next after the G: M: the
late Governor of this Province, is to be toasted in the following
manner, viz: To
our Rt. W: Bro: the Honble Mr. Belcher, Late Governour of N. E., with
Our Rt. W: Bro. T. Oxnard,
D. G. M., Brors. Phillips, Rowe, Price, Hallowell, Forbes, McDaniel and
be a Committee to form a speech, and wait upon the Honble Mr. Belcher
of this Society, and to make report of their proceeding the next Lodge.
Septemr 25, 1741, the Committee
appointed by this Lodge waited upon the Honble Mr. Belcher, etc., and
made the following
We being a
Committee by the Mother
Lodge of N. England held in Boston to wait on You, take this
Opportunity to Acknowledge
the many favours You have always shewed (when in Power) to Masonry in
in a More Especial manner to the Brethren of this Lodge, of which we
retain a most grateful Remembrance.
As we have
had your Protection when
in the most Exhalted Station here, so we think it is Incumbent on us to
Acknowledgment, having no other means to testify our Gratitude but
this; And to
wish for Your Future Health and Prosperity which is the Sincere desire
of Us, and
those in whose behalf We appear, and permit us to assure You we shall
Your most Affectionate Brethren & Humble Servants.
Peter Pelham, Secr.
In behalf of the Committee.
To which, we
receiv'd the following
I take very
kindly this mark of your
Respect. It is now Thirty Seven years since I was admitted into the
Honorable Society of Free and accepted Masons, to whom I have been a
& a well-wisher to the Art of Masonry.
I shall ever
maintain a strict friendship
for the whole Fraternity; & always be glad when it may fall in
my power to do
them any Services.
October the 14th, 1741.
Being Lodge Night, (it was) Voted, that a Committee be appointed to
wait on his
Excellency Governour Shirly to Congratulate him on his Advancement to
of this Province &c when it was propos'd, and agree'd that the
should form sd Committee, to act in behalf of this Society; Viz; Our
Rt. W. Brors
Thos. Oxnard, Forbes, Overing, Price, Hallowell, Jenkins, McDaniel,
and Pelham, and to make report of their proceedings next Lodge Night.
October the 23d, 1741. The
Committee appointed by this Lodge, waited upon his Excellency Willian1
and presented him with the following Address:
May it please
We being a
Committee appointed by the
Ancient and honorable Society of Free and accepted Masons of the
MOTHER, LODGE of
AMERICA held in Boston, presume to wait upon you with the utmost
Sincerity, to congratulate
your Advancement to the Government of this Province, and to assure your
that our Desire is that your Administration may be successful and easy.
We have had
hitherto the Honour of
His Majesty's Governor being one of our ancient Society, who was ever a
& faithful Brother to the Royal Art of Masonry.
And as it has
been the Custom for men
in the most exalted Station to have had the Door of our Society's
always opened to them (when desired) we think it our Duty to acquaint
with that Custom, and assure you, that we shall chearfully attend your
Pleasure therein; and as we are conscious that our Society are loyal
Subjects to His Majesty, so we may reasonably hope for your
and Protection, which is the Request of
Excellency's most obedient humble
Peter Pelham, Secr.
in behalf of the Society.
To which His
Excellency was pleas'd
to return the following Answer:
I Return the
Ancient and honourable
Society my Thanks for their Address, and Invitation of me to the Mother
Free and Accepted Masons of America; And they may rest assur'd that
and Fidelity to his Majesty will always recommend the Society to my
Favour and Protection.
the above Address to His
Excellency Wm. Shirley Esqr. &c. with his Excellency's Answer,
be printed in
one of the Publick papers next Monday.
May the 25th, 1743. Being
Lodge Night the following Brethren met.
Worshipl Bro: H: Price M pro:
Bro: Benj: Franklin of Phila. etc.
Augst 10th 1743. Being Lodge
Night, Voted, that Bror. Jenkins, Charles, Hall, H: McDaniel, Phillips,
take a proper opertunity to wait on Bro: Belcher, (our Late Governor,)
with an Invitation
from the Brethren, to give us the favour of his Company, at such time
as he shall
please to appoint.
9th, 1743. (o. s.)
appointed for the Entertainment
of the Honble Mr. Belcher (according to vote,) who attended with about
the Brethren in Open Lodge; and a Handsome Supper was prepar'd, after
which we took
leave of Our Hond Brother in the most solemn manner. (He soon after
sailed for England.)
Augst 26th, 1747. Being
Lodge Night, Voted, That Our Rt. W: Bro Oxnard G. M., Brors Brockwell,
T. McDaniel and Secray be a Committee in behalf of the Lodge to Send a
Congratulation to Our Honble Bror Belcher, upon his Advancement to, and
at his Government of the Jerseys.
Sepr 9th 1747. Being Lodge
Night. The Committee appointed to form a Letter of Congratulation to
Our Bro Belcher presented the same to the Lodge, which was to the
the Lodge. Voted therefore that the Secretary do forward the same as
soon as may
be, and the Commee have the Thanks of the Lodge for the same. It is as
It was with
the greatest pleasure and
the utmost Satisfaction We recd the News of your Safe Arrival at your
of the Jerseys; And from a Just Sence of the distinguishing marks of
shewn to the Antient & Honble Society of Free and Accepted
Masons when you fill'd
the Chair of Government in this Province, (which upon all Occasions we
but you would still Continue,) We cannot but hope the sincere and
of Our Lodge on your present happy Accession may meet with favourable
your adherence to Our THREE GRAND PRINCIPLES in your Firm attachment to
Person and Government with (with Joy we find) has preferr'd you to a
(an uncommon Instance of Royal Favour) and as the weight of so great a
be attended with many concerns, so we heartily wish a happy Concurrence
that may Render your Administration Satisfactory to your Prince,
your People, and Easy to your Self; so that full of Days and full of
but little Survives our Actions) you may finally meet with a reward of
and Happiness which will be as Eternal as Inconceivable.
By Order of
the Rt Worshipful the Provincial
GRAND MASTER of North America, and the Rt Worshipful Master, Wards and
the LODGE held in Boston N England Sepr ye 3. in the Year of Masonry
(Reply to the
above letter.) Wednesday
Novr. 11th, 1747. Being Lodge Night. Our Rt Worshl Bro: Oxnard G: M:
the Lodge, a letter from His Excellency our Bror Belcher at the
Jerseys, in Answer
to the Congratulatory one sent him from the Lodge, which was most
kindly Recd. and
Order'd to be read by the Secretary, and is as follows, Vizt
I have with
much pleasure Receiv'd
your respectful Congratulation of my Safe Arrival to this Government,
your Lodge in Boston ye 3 of Last Month. From the Testimonials I
carry'd with me
to London from your Lodge I was Receiv'd by the Rt HONOURABLE the GRAND
and at the Lodges where I attended as a WORTHY BROTHER; I shall always
Alacrity show Respect and Kindness to any one that may fall in my way,
who is a
BROTHER of the Society of FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS; and I am the more
in the Kings Repeated Grace and Favour as it does me double Honor in
Character from all Imputation, & setts me at the head of this
and may also Reflect some honour on the Society of FREE AND ACCEPTED
the King has so Publickly justified the Conduct of a Brother in his
of the Government of two of His Majesty's Provinces in New England for
I am much
Oblig'd to the Brothers of
your Lodge for their kind Wishes of my Welfare and Prosperity in the
of Government, but above all that they extend them to my Obtaining a
reward of hor
and happiness that shall be Eternal. I have been receiv'd by the Good
with uncommon marks of Respect and kindess, which I shall return by all
of Goodness in my Power, as may most of all contribute to their
to their quiet & Satisfaction.
May you Rt.
WORSHL BROTHERS, and all
and every one of your Lodge live long in much health and Ease, and in
Circumstances of Life as you would wish for your Selves, and when this
be Exchang'd for One that will have no end, May you all be happy thro
of God in Jesus Christ Our only Lord and Saviour, Amen.
Kingswood House in the City of
Burlington (New Jersey) this Sixth day of Octobr in the year of Masonry
To the Rt.
Worshl Thos Oxnard Esqr.
Provincial Grand Master of No. America
The Rt Worsl
Master, Wards & Fellows
of the Lodge of the Ancient and Honble Society of Free an Accepted
Masons in Boston.
Franklin was again visiting
his Masonic Brethren in Boston. On May 25, 1743, he and Price attended
of the First Lodge in Boston. Governor Belcher dined with the Brethren
of the First
Lodge Feb. 9, 1744, and soon after sailed for England bearing the
tidings of Masonry
in America and a letter from the Lodge which he read in person to the
held at the Devil Tavern, Temple Bar, London Sept. 26, 1744.
Master's Lodge in Boston, Price
was Master from its Constitution on Jan. 2, 1738, until his resignation
In 1746 Oxnard constituted a Lodge in Newfoundland.
Franklin revived Masonry in
Pennsylvania and, with full knowledge of the facts and the proper
course of procedure,
came again to Massachusetts for authority. In response, Thomas Oxnard,
of Price, and duly commissioned Provincial Grand Master for North
the rights and privileges for which Franklin petitioned. Thus, for the
Benjamin Franklin, leading Mason of Pennsylvania's earliest Masonic
the authority of Massachusetts and his need to apply to Massachusetts
to conduct Masonry in Pennsylvania. His authority under his
was instantly recognized at home. In the same year Price accepted
as Master of the Masters' Lodge in Boston, and a Lodge was chartered by
Newport, R. I.
Lodge in Boston was established
Feb. 17, 1750, and Price accepted the chair, although he was retiring
He remained active in Boston's affairs, joining the Boston Episcopal
Society the same year. August 12, 1750, Charters were granted from
Boston to Brethren
in Maryland and Connecticut, and, the preceding month, in Nova Scotia.
1751, another proclamation of the precedence of Massachusetts was made
in a request
to the Grand Master of England that all Deputations for any part of
should be asked from Oxnard and his successors, "which some Lodges have
observ'd" though "Masonry in British America has wholly Originated from
In 1750 P. G.
M. Oxnard also visited
England. On April 10, 1752, Pennsylvania sent tangible evidence of her
Massachusetts as the fountain head, for Brother McDaniel appeared for
at Philadelphia, and paid for its constitution thirty-one pounds and
On Oct. 13,
1752, Lord Colville had
gone to England, and on October 12 of the following year a letter was
voted to be
sent to him there. January 12, 1753, a Charter went from Boston to New
On Feb. 4, 1754, we find Oxnard again acting officially as Provincial
of North America in a Charter granted by him to Middletown, Conn., and
on July 12
Henry Price again assumed the East of the Grand Lodge after Oxnard's
died, the Provincial Grand
Lodge in Boston, on Oct. 11, 1754, voted that a petition be sent to the
of England for the appointment of his successor, also to be Grand
Master of North
America. Its last paragraph is as follows:
Whereas Masonry Originated Here anno 5733, and in the year following
Our then G.
M. Price received order from G. M. Craufurd to Establish Masonry in all
in Pursuance of which the Several Lodges hereafter mentioned have
from us. We therefore Crave due Precedency, & that in order
thereunto Our GM
Elect, may in his Deputation be styled GM of all North America, and
as in duty Bound shall ever Pray."
set out also the dates
of the constitution of Lodges in other colonies subordinate to Price,
Pennsylvania, as follows:
Philadelphia. 35 New Hampshire & South Carolina. 38 Antigua and
Nova Scotia. 46 Newfoundland. 49 Rhode Island. 50 Halifax in Nova
Scotia. 50 Annapolis
in Maryland. 53 New London in Connecticut. 54 Middletown in
Connecticut. 52 New
Haven in Connecticut.
was signed by the following
Brethren as a Committee, viz.:
McDaniel. Benjamin Hallowell. Chas. Brockwell. James Forbes. Robert
Coffin. Henry Leddell.
conceivable that this petition
did not truly represent the facts? Henry Price was in the chair and not
of suspicion has ever attached to him. Bro. Benjamin Franklin was
present. The Brethren
at that meeting and those who formed the Committee which drafted the
well acquainted with the history of Masonry in those times.
Of those who
was made or admitted Jan. 30, 1735, and rose to D. G. M. in 1737 and
was the accredited
representative of Philadelphia to the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston.
was made or admitted Jan. 23, 1735, and rose to D. G. M. in 1753.
a clergyman made or admitted Jan. 28, 1746, and rose to S. G. W. in
was made or admitted Nov. 20, 1735, and rose to D. G. M. in 1756.
was made or admitted July 25, 1739, and rose to D. G. M. in 1757.
was made or admitted Aug. 8, 1744, and rose to S. G. W. in 1758.
was made or admitted Oct. 11, 1749, and rose to M. of the First Lodge
in 1752 and
of the Masters' Lodge in 1755.
They were all
close associates of Henry
Price and so constant in attendance upon Masonic functions that their
literally hundreds of times in the first volume of the printed
those voting in favor of the resolution was apparently Benjamin
Of the others voting, Rowe was made or admitted July 23, 1740, and had
of the First Lodge in 1748; Leverett passed F. C. Oct. 11, 1749, having
abroad, Junior Warden of the same in 1750; Williams made or admitted
May 29, 1746,
Junior Warden of the Master's Lodge in 1750; Byard, made or admitted
May 11, 1748,
Senior Warden of the First Lodge in 1750; Erving, Junior Warden of the
same in 1753;
Pelham, made or admitted Nov. 8, 1738, Junior Warden of the First Lodge
in 1750; Tyler, made or admitted Feb. 11, 1749, Junior Warden of the
in Boston in 1752; Gridley, made or admitted Jan. 22, 1745, was also
the Grand Lodge, and while at this meeting was elected for nomination
Grand Master of North America. Ezekiel Price was Junior Warden of the
in Boston in 1752; Stowe had been present at the Grand Lodge as early
as 1753, though
I have not his official Masonic record; and Holbrook was Junior Warden
of the Second
Lodge in Boston in 1752. Many of them rose to great public prominence
and to exalted
Masonic station. Will anyone contend that these brethren did not speak
or that they did not know the facts about which they were talking? If
so, they also
discredit the intelligence of Benjamin Franklin, who was present and
in the Proceedings of that meeting of Oct. 11, 1754, and who wrote the
heretofore. No court in the world would decline to believe the evidence
of the men
named with their personal knowledge of the facts.
in argument has one Pennsylvania
partisan become, however, that he not only ascribes Franklin's acts to
political motives, but also quotes with apparent approval the words of
scurrilous writer of 1764 who calls Franklin "false and insidious," an
"ungrateful incendiary," of no consideration, a vilifier, and other
polite appellations. The impartial verdict of history has settled the
of Franklin. It is to be regretted that any writer, to bolster a weak
finds it necessary to republish such a maudlin attack. There is equal
evidence to discredit Washington and Lincoln and indeed every great man
has known. Even our learned Brother in Philadelphia, who would have it
that these Brethren had testified to what was not true, will hardly
of being prejudiced against Pennsylvania and in favor of Massachusetts.
he so belittle the intelligence of Franklin as to have anyone believe
not know all there was to be known about the then Masonry in
Philadelphia, or that
Franklin would have remained present and yet non-protesting in the face
of the solemnly
declared claims of Massachusetts, if he did not know them to be in
with the facts. Franklin's letters of 1734 show that the knowledge came
him and his participation in the meeting of 1754 shows that after
twenty years of
Masonic experience as the leading Mason of Pennsylvania, he still
"Masonry Originated Here (i.e. Boston), anno 5733 and in the year
Our G. M. Price received orders from G. M. Craufurd to establish
Masonry in all
first-hand testimony of
one who knew whereof he spoke is the letter of Aug. 6, 1755, written by
himself to the Grand Secretary of Grand Lodge of England, desiring a
pointing the noted Gridley as Provincial Grand Master. It is as follows:
& Dear Bro: – It was with
the utmost pleasure I saw a Letter from you to the Honble Peter Leigh
his Deputation appointing him Grand Master of South Carolina the last
year and whom
I have had the pleasure of seeing in our Lodges in Boston.
Inform you that as I rec'd
my Deputation from the Right Honble Lord Montague in April 1733 Signed
Batson Esq. D.G.M. George Rook James Moor Smith Esq. G.W., made out by
late Grand Secretary for North America, which I held four Years and
several Lodges, and was succeeded in the office by Bro: Tomlinson, and
Bro: Oxnard who Dying it Reverted back to me again according to the
Now with my consent all the Brethren in North America have made Choice
of our Bro.
Jeremy Gridley Esq. Counsellor at Law to be Grand Master for Three
Years, and then
the Brethren to have power to Continue him or apply for a new Grand
as our numbers of Gentlemen increase here and we are the oldest (or
Regular Lodge in America, We have made application to the Grand Master
for our said Bro. Gridley, which application and Three Guineas we sent
John Phillips last Dec to our Rev. Bro. Entick Minster at Stepney
desiring him to
forward the affair, but we are surprised that we have not yet Rec'd the
nor a line from Bro Entick, whose Receipt we have for the Three Guineas
p'd to him
by the said Capt. John Phillips who using the London Trade may be now
found at the
new England Coffee House at Change Time.
beg the favour of you to
make enquiry after the Money, and application Transmitted as aforesaid
to Bro. Entick
and as much as in you lies forw'd the affair, which I shall acknowledge
as a great
favour and will be a service to Masonry in These parts.
had as great Success in
America since my Settling here as in any part of the World (except
is not less than Forty Lodges sprung from my First Lodge in Boston.
desire that our Deputation may be made out for all North America or
over all North
America. I shall be glad of a few Lines from you even though you should
out and forwarded our Deputation before this Reaches you; as I shall
things to Communicate to you from Time to Time and cannot do it but by
you, most of my old acquaintances of Masons being either Dead or
Remov'd from London.
I have some remote thoughts of once more seeing London with all my
Brethren in the
Grand Lodge after Twenty Two years absence, In the mean Time I am
most affect and faithful
Bro. and Humble Serv't
Copy of a
letter, August 6, 1755.
Desiring J. Gridley's Dep.
Memorials to Great Men Who
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
1783, the Continental Congress
resolved, unanimously, to have an equestrian Statue erected of George
in the Nation's Capital, and the resolution specified that Washington
represented "in a Roman dress holding a truncheon in his right hand,
head encircled in a laurel wreath." The resolution was never carried
But in February, 1832, the House of Representatives resolved that "The
of the United States be authorized to employ Horatio Greenough, of
to execute, in marble, a full length pedestrian statue of Washington,
to be placed
in the center of the rotunda of the Capitol: the head to be a copy of
Washington, and the accessories to be left to the judgment of the
legislators may have had
an idea what a pedestrian statue was, artists and critics had not, and
their jokes about the wording.
took up his residence
at Florence, where he could get Carara marble, and where skilled
be obtained, and there modeled and chiseled the statue, which, when
about 21 tons.
In 1840 the
Secretary of the Navy sent
Captain Hull, in the famous old Frigate Ohio, to bring the statue to
States, but, on arriving and examining the work, it was found that it
was too heavy
to be carried on deck (it would have capsized the ship), so captain
Hull was obliged
to write to Washington for permission to tear out his decks, to get the
the hold. As the mails were carried in sailing ships at that era,
were consumed and it was finally determined to employ a Merchant ship
for the purpose.
months delay the statue
reached the Navy Yard at Washington, when it was discovered that there
was no derrick
there capable of lifting such a great weight, and, as Congress was not
and there being no money in the Treasury available for the purpose, it
to await Congressional action, and still further time was required to
When this was
accomplished, the Navy
Yard gate not being large enough for the passage of the statue, it was
to land it on large floats ("camels") and tow it via the canal to a
nearest the Capitol, and then skid it through the streets to its
was admirably done by Boatswain Waters. ** But when the statue had been
the east stairs of the Building it was found the door was too small to
Congress, however, supplied the funds to tear out the door framing and
was finally landed in the center of the great rotunda.
artists of Italy, who had
seen the statue had praised it so highly that its merit was accepted
The great sovereign people of the U. S., however, had become restive,
and it was
their privilege to find fault with something. The shape of the statue
did not conform
to the great vaulted dome above. The public was merciless in criticism.
himself admitted that the contours were not pleasing. The public
in vulgar puns. One of these is attributed to a "Hoosier" who had
the City for the first time, and had seen in the Patent Office (where
of a museum existed) the uniform and camp-chest of Washington. He
the statue and read the inscription on the three sides,
War: First in Peace:
First in the hearts of his countrymen," and, turning to his companions
he had interpreted it all. He said "Washington is saying here's me
me clothes is in the Patent Office."
The figure of
Washington shows him
handing his sword to Congress, and, with the other hand, pointing
towards the Heavens,
as if invoking aid and inspiration.
under the scoffs of an inconsiderate
and perhaps the unlettered part of the public, Congress had the Statue
of the Building, about 500 feet to the eastward, where it remained
until 1908 when
it was placed in the Smithsonian Institution.
To an Artist,
this piece of work is
a dream: It has excited the admiration of connoisseurs of every Nation.
The words of
Light Horse Harry Lee,
uttered at the funeral of Washington, are appropriately sculptured in
on the base, as quoted above, while, on the back of the chair, is
ad magnum Libertatis exemplum
nec sine ipsa duraturum
Rotunda there is a Crypt
of immense proportions, to which place it was intended to remove the
General Washington, but it was never carried out.
Washington was initiated in
Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4, in Fredericksburg, Va., on the 4th of
when in his 21st year. He was passed and raised in the same lodge. He
charter Master of Washington Lodge, in Alexandria. He took an active
part in Masonry
while in the Field, when circumstances permitted. One of the records
"immediately after the close of the negotiations at Yorktown (the
of Lord Cornwallis) General Washington, General LaFayette, General
Nelson and John
Marshall went together to Lodge No. 9, in Yorktown and there, by their
testimony to the beautiful tenets of Masonry." As Acting Master of
Lodge he laid the corner stone of the Capitol at Washington.
Houdon was a member of the lodge Soeurs, in Paris.
** Mr. Waters was a member of Naval Lodge.
Hunger– [A Poem]
Dana Burnet. Harper's Magazine
Starving Men they walk the dust,
With hunger in their eyes.
To them a Lighted House is like
A Lamp in Paradise.
It is the window in the dusk,
That marks the drifter's coast;
It is the thought of love and light
That mocks the drifter most.
Now I have been a Starving Man
And walked the winter dusk;
And I have known how life may be
A Heaven and a Husk.
The Fainting Hands they pulled my sleeve,
And bade me curse the Light.
But I had seen a Rich Man's Face
That looked into the night.
A hungry face, a brother face,
That stared into the gloom,
And starved for life, and starved for love
Within the lighted room.
hundred years Europe will be
either all Cossack or all Republic.
The Mason I Like– [A Poem]
Neal A. McAulay
kind of Mason that I like,
Is one who always goes to Lodge
When not detained by reasons good –
And tries no duty there to dodge.
Who to himself is never false,
But keeps his moral record clean
Because too proud to court the base
He scorns the actions that are mean.
The kind of Mason that I like
Will strive to treat his brother right
And make his welfare, when he can,
The measure of his own delight.
Who helps him bear his daily load,
And shields him with a friendly hand;
That kind of Masonry we know,
The world will bless and understand.
The kind of Mason that I like
Will not forget to think of God
Nor fail to choose the shining way,
And follows where the good have trod.
To serve Him with a willing mind,
He builds his temple to the skies
Where light and love eternal reign:
This is the Mason that I prize.
The Faith of America– [A Poem]
Not in dumb resignation
We lift our hands on high;
Not like the nerveless fatalist
Content to trust and die.
Our faith springs like the Eagle
Who soars to meet the sun,
And cries exulting unto Thee,
O Lord, Thy will be done!
Thy will! It bids the weak be strong,
It bids the strong be just;
No lip to fawn, no hand to beg,
No brow to seek the dust.
Wherever man oppresses man
Beneath Thy liberal sun,
O Lord, be there Thine arm made bare,
Thy righteous will be done.
The Plumb – [A Poem]
Neal A. McAulay
up your life like the temple of old
With stones that are polished and true;
Cement it with love, and adorn it with gold
As all Master builders should do:
Upon a foundation, well chosen and strong,
Build now for the ages to come:
Make use of the good, while rejecting the wrong –
And test all your work with the plumb.
Whence Came Freemasonry?
By Bro. J. W. Norwood, Kentucky
GREATLY to my
surprise as a charter
member of the National Masonic Research Society and a subscriber to
I find in the April issue a broadside attack upon "The School of
none he less unfortunate because cloaked with the language of ridicule
That it comes
from the pen of so distinguished
a Masonic journalist as Past Grand High Priest Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn of
editor of the Kansas City Freemason, surprises me still more. But
Kuhn to be a philosopher, he should not think it discourtesy if I
and suggest that there are more things in heaven and earth than are
dreamed of in
the honor to be a member
of the "Great School of Natural Science" any more than of Bernard Shaw
School of Dramatists, or the Futurist School of Music, though proud to
a Friend of Man and of the Work, like Abou Ben Adhem, perhaps Dr. Kuhn
consider me so biased as to ignore the following suggestions. [The
concerning "TK" and the remarkable book "The Great Work" [Lib
1913] in the May
issue of The Builder are much more in line with the spirit animating
those engaged in Masonic research than Dr. Kuhn's article, and because
of the disposition
to be fair, evinced by the editor, I am emboldened to make these
much real knowledge have
we of the origin of Freemasonry? What does Dr. Kuhn or any of the
he quotes, actually KNOW of the matter? Do they not all confess the
origin of Freemasonry
to have been before their day and generation? How then, can he
so dogmatically that "no one will deny that the so-called philosophy
into Masonry with the evolution of the Royal Arch," in answer to the
of the Great School that the Guilds of "Operative Masons" were but the
refuge and not the origin of the Masonic system?
historical discussion embracing
the various legends of Masonry were entered into, probably many would
be found to
deny what Dr. Kuhn so positively asserts. Of late years, not even the
of the Guild system, now almost extinct, have been able to prove their
case to the
satisfaction of all scholars. And then it is a matter of definition as
to the meaning
of Freemasonry, whether it is a mere social club or a system of
morality. Also one
might ask when or where the "Royal Arch" had its rise. There have been
many degrees of the name, extending back thousands of years before the
era to the "Holy Royal Arch" of ancient Egypt.
without knowledge of the subject,
is it fair to condemn? Is it Masonic?
of the "Great Work"
and its companion books of the "Harmonic Series" – the text books of
Great School, gave the present writer unalloyed pleasure. They also
belief in many statements contained therein.
Series Vol 1
Harmonics of Evolution by Florence
Harmonic Series Vol 2
The Great Psychological Crime by J. E. Richardson
Harmonic Series Vol 3
The Great Work by J. E. Richardson
Harmonic Series Vol 4
The Great Known by J. E. Richardson
Harmonic Series Vol 5
The Great Message by J. E. Richardson
to deny matters of which
he had no knowledge, there was only one course to pursue, without
away and refusing to investigate what had been offered in the way of
some very dark subjects. As a Master Mason pledged to the search for
Truth, he would
have been false to his obligations not to have made some effort to
prove or disprove
matters of such alleged vital importance.
so far, has been, that
I have been unable to prove one single assertion made by the author of
Great Work," false in any particular. Nor have I ever found anyone else
has. I should be greatly pleased to discover any man or set of men who
can do so.
contrary, a somewhat careful
excursion into the realms of history, archaeology and comparative
indicated the truth of those brief statements connecting the Great
School with the
origin of Freemasonry, so sneeringly flouted by Dr. Kuhn.
The author of
the "Great Work"
is a Freemason, a member of the same rites of which Dr. Kuhn is a
member. He has
not sought to impress the philosophy of the "Great School" upon
nor to force the two into a companionship. In the sense the term is
the "Great Work" is not even regarded as a "Masonic Book."
Yet no more
beautiful exposition of
the Masonic tenets could be imagined than that contained in the works
of this true
friend of humanity. The very spirit of all that relates to Freemasonry,
paraphrased in the words of Dr. Kuhn himself:
have always believed that Freemasonry was a very practical thing; a
manifests itself, chiefly in a man's life; that it is a life and not a
living and doing, not dreaming and philosophizing. That it was a
day practical system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by
not veiled to confuse or hide, but to make plain; not buried in symbols
but to fix indelibly, some plain, possibly homely truth."
The value of
individual effort and
personal responsibility is made plain without even the aid of symbols
which beautify and make impressive the Fellowcraft degree. The living
of a life
in conformity to a "practical system of morality," is insisted upon as
forcibly as ever done in a Masonic lodge. Dreaming and philosophizing
not the basis of "The Great Work."
beliefs in a Supreme Being
and in a life after physical death are asserted to be scientifically
true and proof
is offered to all who will take advantage of it. And here comes the
hesitates and Religion denies. It almost seems as though Material
Science will investigate
before Religion is willing to admit the possibility that the
is only "natural" after all.
strong the disbelief of
the searcher after Truth, no true Freemason will ever dogmatize over
his own assumed
knowledge. There is but one road to Truth. Wherever it leads, whatever
delusions it overturns, the true Builder will follow it. If a thing is
cannot be otherwise and all the ridicule in the world will not make it
of the National Masonic
Research Society owes it to himself and to his membership in the
Society, to investigate
the claims of the "Great School," regardless of his prejudices or
If he can find one thing in the entire philosophy set forth in its text
to the principles of Freemasonry, he may be excused for dropping the
warning his fellows against it. If he should discover that the friends
of the work
are the truest friends of Freemasonry in this hard and cynical world,
at a time
when friends are most needed, he may find himself entered upon a road
liberty and the pursuit of happiness," that many have dreamed of, but
will clear the air somewhat
if we state, once more, the position of Dr. Kuhn and the Editor with
regard to the
Great Work, which Brother Norwood and some others seem to
facts must be kept in mind if we are not to fall into hopeless
confusion in our
criticism and appreciation of the book, such facts as these:
the Great Work professes to be an exposition of the teachings of an
of Natural Science which has existed from the beginning of time, having
in its keeping
records reaching back beyond the days of Moses, if not further, which
the inspiration of Buddhism, early Christianity, and Freemasonry.
Surely these are
amazing statements, and yet not one item of evidence is offered in
support of them.
Some of us cannot accept such statements without facts to justify them
on the authority
of an anonymous author, and therefore we make request for proof. Truly
that is reasonable
if we are to seek for the truth, much less find it.
the Great Work purports to tell us the origin of Freemasonry in its
chapter on the
Lineal Key – and this is really our only interest in the book as
students of the
history of Masonry. Masonry, we learn, is, or was, until it turned out
one of the efforts of the said Great School to instruct mankind and
lead it into
the light. Here again no evidence is set forth but only bare
affirmation of a man
who does not even sign his name – and many Masons seem willing to
he says over against the labors and researches of their own historians.
Norwood says he has not proved the statements of TK false in any
not ask TK to prove that they are true, and save himself the logical
of trying to prove a negative? If the origin of Masonry is obscure that
is no valid
reason for accepting the theory of TK, which is still more obscure.
Some of us,
because we love Freemasonry,
flatly refuse to accept any such account of its origin when no facts
to prove it. No consider! This book calmly tells us that Masonry is
only a makeshift
substitute for something withheld by a mythical Great School, a faded
sham, an echo,
an imitation, if not a counterfeit – not the real truth that makes men
fraternal, but a thing almost worthy of contempt alongside the alleged
Indeed, Masonry is only used in this book as a kind of tail to fly the
kite of the
Great School in which the author is, apparently, an instructor. Seldom
have we seen
a book which so belittles the noble order of Freemasonry – not
perhaps, but actually so none the less – and some of us resent it.
despites, we find Masons accepting
the whole book as if it were a revelation. It is indeed strange. And
without any evidence save the dicta of a man whom they never saw and
they do not know. If this is what is meant by Masonic Research, then we
well set fire to our libraries and set sail into fairyland, the while
we make contest
as to who can spin the most extravagant fancy and call it history.
Great Work teaches a very
noble and inspiring system of moral philosophy, and emphasizes the
practicing it. With most of its ethical teaching we agree, though we
would use different
words to express it. (For example, much is said about "the constructive
of the universe" – a large remark, truly – which we take to mean the
on which the universe is constructed; since no one ever heard of a
anything, not even a sewing machine.) The reading of the moral thesis
of the book
will do a man good. It will bring him to pause and think if he is
living a careless
and unworthy life. It will compel him to realize that intelligent
is the only solid basis of character, and inspire him to do justly and
But the value of its moral teaching does not prove that its historical
are true – not at all. The two things are different, and the one does
author of the Great Work
claims to have found, or rather learned, a process by which he not only
actually has, demonstrated scientifically the fact of life after
The formula is not disclosed in the book, it being deemed indiscreet
to make it known; but the author offers to teach it to anyone who
worthy to receive it – making himself, in this way, a kind of keeper of
to a knowledge of a future life. It may all be true. For ourselves, we
to live by the ancient, high and heroic faith which Masonry teaches in
and simple drama, and face the future as brave men have faced it before
Brother Norwood can understand,
from this statement of our case, why we suggested that the Great Work
read with discrimination and care, like all other books. He agrees that
it is not
a Masonic book, albeit written by a Mason, it is said, and professing
to tell us
the origin, or rather the decay, of Masonry. If we have dealt with this
the book sharply, and not without satire, it is because it is an injury
to the cause
of Masonic Research. If we have not made the matter plain in this
it is because we are hopelessly stupid and will not try it again. – The
sunbeam fell across the way I trod.
"Whence do you come?"
I asked; it said, "From God."
"Where do you go;
what is your mission here?"
With radiant head
The sunbeam brighter shone.
"I am the love of life," it said.
"Death has no
existence for the
wise man: it is a phantom made hideous by the ignorance and weakness of
Change is the evidence of movement, and movement is life. The very
not decompose were it dead; all the molecules which form it remain
alive and are
in motion to disintegrate. And you think that mind is the first to be
and lives no more! You believe that thought and love can cease when the
matter never perishes!"
– Eliphas Levi
By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
"Landmarks of Masonry" are terms which appear throughout the literature
of Masonry, and are the source of deep study by many Craftsmen who have
time, talent and genius to promote the best interests of our fraternity.
subject of "landmarks,"
as on the subjects of history and symbolism, there is a great diversity
both by Grand Lodges and by individuals, and the need of a comparison
of ideas which
are held by those who have made the subject a study was the cause which
us to compile this article.
"What is a
a debatable question. It has been answered in part by definitions; it
has also been
answered by enumerating certain laws or customs which are considered
the authors of the compilations; it has also been considered a proper
legislation by some Grand Lodges and they have enacted laws as to what
are to be
considered landmarks in their jurisdiction.
organization of the Premier
Grand Lodge in 1717, the "Charges of a Freemason" were extracted from
the old manuscript copies and a set of thirty-nine "General
were adopted, the last of which reads in part as follows: "Every Annual
Lodge has an inherent power and authority to make new Regulations, or
to alter these,
for the real benefit of this ancient Fraternity: Provided, always, that
Land-Marks be carefully preserved." This is the earliest mention of
in connection with Freemasonry.
that time nor at any subsequent
period can we find any enumeration of landmarks by the Grand Lodge of
"Modern" or United.
On Oct. 19th,
1810, the Lodge of Promulgation
resolved "that it appears to this Lodge, that the ceremony of
of Masters of Lodges, is one of the two Land Marks of the Craft and
ought to be
We are left
entirely in the dark as
to what they considered the other landmark. This is the only case where
been able to find any attempt to say how many or what constituted a
1856 when the Grand Lodge of Minnesota adopted a list of twenty-six
had the force of landmarks, which was two years earlier than Bro.
enumerated his list which has been generally considered the first
attempt to enumerate
We will give
the definition of landmarks
by several learned brethren.
nature of the Landmarks
of Masonry, there has been some diversity of opinion among writers; but
the safest method is to restrict them to those ancient, and therefore
customs of the Order, which either gradually grew into operation as
rules of action.
or if at once enacted by any competent authority, were enacted at a
period so remote,
that no account of their origin is to be found in the records of
(Albert G. Mackey, Masonic Jurisprudence page 15. [Lib 1872])
definition of Landmarks
shows that an enumeration of them is scarcely possible. All we can know
it is a law or a custom that has existed from time immemorial. If any
usage exists, and has existed so long that its origin is unknown, it is
(Josiah Drummond, Maine Masonic Text Book. [Lib 1923])
to the Landmarks
of Masonry, some restrict them to the O.B., signs, tokens and words.
the ceremony of initiation, passing and raising; and the form,
dimensions and supports;
the ground, situation and covering; the ornaments, furniture and jewels
of a Lodge,
or their characteristic symbols. Some think that the order has no
its peculiar secrets. (Geo. Oliver, A Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry
those principles of
action to be Landmarks which have existed from time immemorial, whether
in the written
or unwritten law; which are identified with the form and essence of the
which, the great majority agree, cannot be changed, and which every
Mason is bound
to maintain intact, under the most solemn and inviolable sanctions."
Principles & Practice of Masonic Jurisprudence [Lib 1869]) "Those
fixed tenets by which the limits of Freemasonry may be known
and preserved." (Dictionary of Freemasonry, Morris. [Lib*])
Landmarks of Masonry are
those ancient principles and practices which mark out and distinguish
as such, and they are the source of Masonic Jurisprudence." (Lockwood's
Law and Practice, [Lib*] Page 14.)
My idea of an
Ancient Landmark is a
rule or usage of the Premier Grand Lodge which cannot be abrogated,
off the offending Body from the Universal Craft." (W. J. Hughan.)
"A belief in
God, our Father;
in the immortality of the soul; in the brotherhood of man; and in the
practice of all the moral and social virtue, were the essentials, our
duty to God,
our country, our neighbor and ourselves, was everywhere and universally
These we take to be the Landmarks of the Order." (John Q. A. Fellows,
G. L. of La., 1889.)
that cannot be established
by the writings of the fathers, or other recognized authorities, to
have been the
rule or belief among Freemasons in 1723 and before, or that is not now
accepted as such, can hardly be held as Landmark. (H. B. Grant, Const.
G. L. of
to be a Landmark,
must command the universal respect and observance of all Masons." (T.
Iowa Proc. 1889, Page 106, cor. report.)
fundamental principles of
the Ancient Operative Masonry were few and simple, and they were not
Each lodge was independent of every other, and there was no superior
all. Each was composed of Apprentices and FellowCrafts. Each had its
Wardens, and these were elected by vote of all the members. The ancient
show by what principles the relations of those of the fellowship to
each other were
regulated; and these may not improperly be said to have been the
the Craft." (Albert Pike, Iowa Proc. 1888, Page 156, cor. report.)
Landmarks were, in fact,
the secrets which existed amongst the Operative Masons in the days when
supplied the membership of the Craft." (W. B. Hextall, Ars. Q. C. XXV,
91. [Lib 1912) "The
Ancient Landmarks of Freemasonry, like all other landmarks material
or symbolical, can only preserve their stability, when they reach down
to sure foundations.
When the philosophic student unearths the underlying rock on which our
rest, he finds our sure foundations in the triple dogma Georgia – of
of God, the Brotherhood of Man, and the Life to come. All laws, customs
that obtain amongst us and do not ultimately find footholds on this
basis, are thereby
earmarked as conventions and conveniences, no way partaking of the
nature of Ancient
Landmarks." (Chetwode Crawley, Ars. Q. C. XXIII. [Lib*])
Congress at Chicago in
1893 defined the landmarks thus:
Ancient Landmarks are those fundamental principles which characterize
defined by the Charges of a Freemason, and without which the
be identified as Masonry, combined with the essentials of the unwritten
by which brethren distinguished each other as Masons."
a few of the definitions
of landmarks by individual brethren and the collective opinion of the
at Chicago, 1893, which was very representative of Masonic scholarship
we will give what each Grand Lodge in the United States does or does
not do in respect
|| Alabama recognizes as the landmarks the Old
Charges of 1722 by Anderson.
|| Arizona is the only Grand Lodge on which we
have no authentic information. We have searched the proceedings in vain
to find what they hold to be the landmarks and have not been favored
with a reply to our letter of inquiry.
|| Arkansas has no enumeration of the landmarks.
|| California has no legislation on the subject of
landmarks, but as a general proposition accepts Mackey's twenty-five.
|| Colorado has never adopted a particular list of
landmarks, having been governed by the old constitutions and those
published in Mackey's Encyclopedia.
|| Connecticut has adopted as its code the
treatise known as "Lockwood's Masonic Law and Practice" and by
inference holds to the specification of Landmarks contained therein.
|| No mention is made of Landmarks in the
Constitution of 1909 and no list of landmarks appears in their code.
| District of Columbia
|| The District of Columbia accepts as the
landmarks the twenty-five laid down by Mackey. In the Masonic Code of
1905 is a valuable address on the "Outline of Masonic Law," by Geo. H.
Walker, P. G. M.
|| Florida has never taken any action on the
subject of landmarks.
|| Georgia has no list of landmarks. Art. IV of
the Constitution of 1909 reads: "The Grand Lodge shall have power as
follows: To propose, enact and establish new regulations for the
government of the Craft within its jurisdiction, and the same to alter,
amend, explain or repeal, not contravening the ancient landmarks of the
177 reads: "The Unwritten Law, the Immemorial Usages, the Landmarks and
the like, of Masonry, are not repealed by the adoption of any
Constitution and By-Laws, nor is it in the power of any man or body of
men to change, alter or repeal these or any of them."
|| Idaho has no legislation defining or
enumerating what landmarks are.
|| Illinois has no legislation defining landmarks.
Illinois follows Robbins and Drummond on this subject.
|| No mention is made in the Indiana Constitution
of Landmarks; and no list of landmarks appears in their code.
|| Iowa has no list of landmarks. The following is
Sec. 5, Gen. Law: "The unwritten laws of this jurisdiction consist of
the time honored customs and usages of the Ancient Free and Accepted
Masons, of general recognition, as they are found in the traditional
and historic records of Freemasonry and adapted to the conditions and
time in which we live, together with such rules for application as will
perpetuate its integrity and usefulness, and not repugnant to its
|| Kansas does not consider the landmarks a
subject for legislation. With their code they publish the "Bassett
notes" containing list of landmarks by Mackey, Morris, Simons and
Lockwood for the information of the brethren.
|| The declaration at the beginning of the
Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 1908, reads: "The Grand
Lodge of Kentucky acknowledges belief in God to be the great
fundamental principle and Landmark of Masonry upon which our fraternity
Ancient Charges of 1723 are printed on pages 200-205, and on pages 209
to 240 are the "Ancient Landmarks with supporting evidence," by H. B.
Grant, 54 in number. (G. W. Speth reviewed them in Ars. Q. C. VII.)
|| Louisiana Constitution of 1902, Sec. 4, second
paragraph, considering the powers of the Grand Lodge reads: "It may
make all laws and regulations necessary for the government of the
lodges and brethren under its jurisdiction, and for the propagation and
advancement of the true principles and work of Ancient Freemasonry, not
inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution, the old Charges
of Free and Accepted Masons of 1723 hereunto annexed, or the ancient
usages and landmarks of the Order."
44 reads: "That the only written landmarks are those in the ancient
Charges of the Craft, forming part of the Constitution of the Grand
Lodge; and the unwritten, those contained in the ceremonies of
initiation, and the ties which bind us together as Masons: Nor is it
proper by legislation to make any new obligations with penalties
attached, nor for a lodge to attempt, by resolution, to define the
landmarks of the Craft."
Further Light in Masonry – [A Poem]
L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
I look down the misty past
Through its vistas dim and weird and vast,
Through the centuries of life and joy
And the monuments of its employ,
My craving centers in the plea
For "further light in Masonry."
The stones were from the quarries raised,
And paths through mighty forests blazed.
The throbbing heart of labor then
Was in the patient days of men.
But much is vague, and hence my plea
For "further light in Masonry."
And as the craftsman learned the arts
Of the operative in all its parts,
And traveled to foreign lands away
To wages earn and skill display,
My heart goes with them in the plea
For "further light in Masonry."
And as those builders, great in heart
And in the world's then foremost art
Sought in themselves the nobler things
That brotherhood unfailing brings,
I catch their spirit in my plea
For "further light in Masonry."
And O, what minds conceived the plan
Of working out the art for man
From the symbols to the lessons taught
That have so long such blessings brought!
My wonder accentuates the plea
For "further light in Masonry."
And through it all their work so rare
Was guarded with such tender care
That centuries of dire unrest
Left all their landmarks at their best.
All this gives interest to my plea
For "further light in Masonry."
Than this, there is no richer field.
The quest, the rarest treasures yield.
And the rewards? O brother mine,
They may not all be known in time.
Let life be one insistent plea
For "further light in Masonry."
Thou Little Heart – [A Poem]
this wide world not large enough to fill thee,
Nor Nature, nor that deep man's Nature, Art?
Are they too thin, too weak and poor to still thee,
Thou little heart?
Dust thou art, and to dust again returnest,
A spark of fire within a beating clod.
Should that be infinite for which Thou burnest?
Must it be God?
many disguises and many
moods. Sometimes the unexpected leaps from its hiding place and strikes
blows right and left, like Orestes among the steers in Tauris, or a
maniac let loose
among sane men. But sometime Fate lurks in her lair, silent poring over
of the future, and she notes all we say, scrawling 'Folly' against our
and stamping 'So be it' under the carelessly spoken jest.
– F. Marion Crawford.
is an open forum for free
and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own
is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not
one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers to
all alike a
medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by
Prayer in Masonry
No Mason, we
are told, ought ever to
enter upon any great and important undertaking without first invoking
the aid of
Deity. Even so, but how few pause to consider how large a place prayer
has in Masonry,
and what this means for the culture of the soul. A Lodge is a temple;
at its center
is an altar of light; its rites are an allegory of human life. It is
thus that Masonry
is mystical, as music is mystical - like poetry, like love, like all
else that makes
it worth our time to live and look up at the stars. For mysticism is
only a big
word for the deep truth that the kingdom of heaven is within us. As
well ask why
birds sing and flowers grow as to ask why man prays. He cannot help it:
unto dream may pass:
Deep in the heart alone
Murmurs the Almighty One
His solemn undertone."
sermon of Emerson was about
prayer, and it had three points. First, all men are always praying;
prayers are answered without fail; third, beware, then, what you pray
it mean your undoing. These statements, if they seem startling at first
none the less true, and they go down to the root of the matter. All men
praying whether they know it or not. When a farmer sows his seed, by
that act he
makes prayer to the God of the harvest. If a man of science seeks
truth, it is because
he believes that truth exists and that it can be found. Unconscious
ever, his search is a prayer to the God of truth. The religion of a man
is not what
he professes, but what he lives out and acts upon from day to day. His
life is his
religion, and what he most desires is his unceasing prayer.
are answered without fail,
since by a law of the mind we become what we pray for, seek after, and
When we have a thing in mind it is not long before we have it in our
not in our hands. On the kind of asking a man does depends the quality
of his manhood
and the worth of his life. If his unconscious prayer be solely for
he will become a materialist, and learn, perhaps too late, that nothing
success. His prayer is not only answered, but the deed of transfer is
his face, as the deed is also recorded on the face of him whose prayers
for him a citizenship in the Kingdom of Light. As Elizabeth Browning
a mother undefiled
Prayer goeth on in sleep, as true
And pauseless as the pulses go;"
answer is recorded in a face
written all over with the hieroglyphs of beauty, and in lines where
asleep when they are weary.
wise warning, so little heeded,
to be careful what we pray for, especially in youth, for in old age it
upon us. At last, there seems to fulfill itself for every man that
adage of Goethe
which, when we first read it, appears a mere paradox: "Of that which a
desires in youth, of that he shall have in age as much as he will."
a man be careful what he desires unconsciously today, for tomorrow he
may get it,
and the price he pays for it may mean the defeat and ruin of everything
desired. Moral victory lies in teaching the deepest desires of our
nature to serve
the highest ends of life. Our characters are the sum of our answered
reveal today what we have been really asking, desiring, pursuing in the
have passed; For what a man is speaks louder than what he says, and his
desire is an unceasing prayer the answer to which is inevitable.
Father we are united, to
the last man of us, forever. No man liveth unto himself, no man prayeth
not even when he enters the closet of his heart to pray to the Father
Not my Father, but "our Father," must be his prayer, each one praying
for all, and all for each one. For better or for worse, for richer or
life and death and the Beyond men are held together by ties of
and destiny. By the same token, no man may ever hope to find God save
as he seeks
Him in the great communion of humanity. This is the Prayer of
Brotherhood, in which
no man will wish to ask anything for himself that he does not ask, with
for all his fellows. Only when he resolves to share the fate of his
or no light, heaven or no heaven, do the heavens open and the light of
shine round about him.
let those who will go in
quest of the secrets of Masonry to some remote Arcana of the Occult,
but if we look
into our own hearts we shall find its most precious mysteries, the
while with clasped
hands we offer our prayer at its Altar of Light, drawn together by our
and necessity into a sweet, forgiving Charity, if so that we may be
worthy of the
mercy of God, having learned to be merciful to one another. Even so
each may learn
the sovereign Secret not only of Masonry, but of human life, and become
into that eternal mysticism which is the soul of all symbolism, as it
is the strength
and solace of all souls that struggle and aspire!
A number of
Brethren have written to
say that they cannot understand our "hostility to the philosophy of TK
forth in the Great Work." Why, God bless you, we have not so much as
the philosophy of TK, except to praise it. With the central chapters of
we have no quarrel at all, having learned its teaching long ago from
his "perfecting principle in Nature," in harmony with which, as he
we must order our lives if we would live nobly and happily. That
philosophy is no
more peculiar to TK, save in his manner of stating it, than is the
table, which was in use several years before he wrote the Great Work.
is one thing, history is another, and it ought not to be difficult to
between them. Of course it is unpleasant to be handcuffed, so to speak,
down to documents, but if we are to have any historical research we
must deal with
facts and proofs, and no amount of moral philosophy can relieve us of
What we have done is to ask for proof of the astonishing statements
made in the
Great Work as to the origin and history of Masonry, not out of
hostility to the
writer or his book, but in behalf of the truth of history.
* * *
The Editor of
the Occult Review has
the kindness to say "that The Builder and The New Age are not in the
but there is nothing in English Masonic literature to compare with
Such words, coming from so noble a scholar, are most encouraging, and
we are happy
to share them with the Brethren who edit the official organ of the
in its Southern Jurisdiction. We quote these words for the opportunity
offer of expressing our appreciation of the attitude of the Masonic
at home and abroad, toward this Society, its journal, and its purpose
Almost without exception our Brethren of the press saw, at once, that
is in no sense a rival of any Masonic publication, but has a field and
its own, unique and vastly significant, the working out of which means
of Masonic journalism of every rite and jurisdiction. For this spirit
and good will we are profoundly grateful, and we sincerely hope that it
in any way be marred.
– The very interesting
article in the June issue of "The Builder" by Bro. Kuhn, entitled "When
the Almond Tree Blossoms," brings to the mind of many readers a deep
consideration of the meaning of the many beautiful metaphors in which
chapter of Ecclesiastes abounds.
version of this beautiful
chapter, as given in the article, demonstrates in a measure by its
of the meaning of the text, that there are different understandings of
some of its
metaphors, an apparent fact that I confess that I had never noticed
I refer in
particular to that part
of the 5th verse "and desire shall fail" which to my mind, and I have
always heard it so considered, points out the time that comes with
age when the circulation of the blood is less rapid, when the
duller in many a delicate nerve, calloused or weakened by long action
by abuse, when the stiffening of muscles with the lapse of time leave a
for the sports and action of youth, when the appetite has grown more
feeble as compared
with the strong appetites of youth and childhood, when the fires of
youth have cooled,
those fires which potent manhood in its prime, shows with greatest
vigor and which
often seem uncontrollable.
These, to my
mind, are the "desires"
which fail, and which the writer of the beautiful lines had in mind and
expressed in the revision when it says "and all stimulants fail" which
introduces a new thought not in line with the rest, as a means of
the failure of desire and other growing debilities, of which there is
elsewhere in the discourse which confines itself entirely to man's
until "the dust shall return to the earth as it was."
that I have expressed the
meaning of this passage in a better way on page 122 of "Poems of the
hoary head, like Almond tree, conspicuous will seem
Among the congregation where perchance he may appear,
Like the grasshopper so lively, now, almost as in a dream
He becomes a heavy burden and his path is dark and dream
Then with his weakened faculties, and cooling of youth's fire
And his appetites and passions duller grown in later years,
He has reached at last the period of the failure of desire
And his conduct, with the quiet mien of apathy appears."
It may be
that in some instances the
arrangement of the discourse into verses, mars the continuity of the
often a revision such as this, bringing in new words in places, with a
meaning from those of the text, presents the reader with a less
beautiful idea than
the words of the original text, especially when the new word chosen is
with the old word, and the word "stimulant" by no means represents the
same idea as "desire" although it may sometimes be used to incite
and so may many other things.
Lewis A. McConnell, Michigan.
grateful not only for this
good letter, but also for the opportunity which it gives of calling
a volume of verse, entitled "Poems of the Temple," in which Brother
has interpreted, often in beautiful and noble form, much of the spirit,
teaching and aspiration of Masonry. The poems deaf with the Landmarks
of the Order,
its Biblical imagery, its legendary history and lore, its symbols, its
simple truths, its patriotic faith and passion. They breathe a spirit
of faith and
love and loyalty such as only one who has "labored on the Temple" can
know, and those who read them will discover anew what it means to think
of duty, of God, of character, of immortality in terms of Masonic
imagery and faith.)
* * *
Raking In the Rubbish
My dear Sir:
– I regret to say that,
since reading your book, The Builders, my former enthusiasm for the
has been jolted. I find to my surprise that in your book you only
Speculative Theories of alleged authorities on Freemasonry, and, like
many of them,
you confound the Spiritual Builders of Human Character with the temple
in "physical material." Such an imputation seems to me ridiculous, and
I cannot bring myself to believe that Socrates, Pythagoras, Jesus and
the two Saints
John were simply members of an ancient Bricklayer's Union, or skillful
or architects of material edifices. To me they were Freemasons,
building and teaching
others to build the Temple of their own character, that is, each
freeing his individual
soul from evil passions, desires and tendencies, and thus preparing
them as acceptable
to the Craft before the Supreme Architect as just and upright Masons.
I still more
regret your derogation
of the Great Work as unmerited, prejudicial, and unworthy of a man of
ideals and lofty aspirations. And, speaking from personal experience, I
to say that any earnest, sincere and unbiased Mason will find in the
a more fruitful field of more practical knowledge, truth and wisdom in
day, than a thousand prejudiced men could find in a thousand years
the obsolete theories and musty records of ill-informed authors. Your
book is an
elaborate compendium of what you found by hard labor in the Rubbish of
It will produce no better results than to lead members of the
into the wilderness of man-made opinions. Unable or unwilling to prove
or demonstrate its fallacy, you reject a message that points out the
way to "More
Light." And thus, once more Intellectual Vanity triumphs over true
and Wisdom hides her face, ashamed of her fruitless appeals to the
children of men.
G. A. Walter, Chicago.
this letter, as an example
of many others, to show that the Great Work and its propaganda means
of Masonry and an injury to the Fraternity. Here is a Brother who, from
height of imaginary knowledge, looks down upon men like Gould and
Hughan – not to
speak of ye humble editor and author – as rakers in the rubbish, the
vanity who leave a scrap-heap for a monument. Apparently he regards the
of organized Masonry – one of the great institutions of mankind – as
and unworthy of study. What he means by Masonry, is hard to know. If
builds a beautiful character is to be reckoned a Mason – as this
Socrates and Jesus – why not include the women also; our mothers, for
loyal in their faith, so lovely in their lives, whose hearts are homes
prayer? Of course, the purpose of Masonry is to teach men to build
such is also the purpose of the home, of the church, and of every human
worthy of our honor. Masonry is unique only in the form in which it
genius of the higher human life, and the method which it uses to
promote it. As
such it is a definite institution, having a history and an
organization, the better
to promote that spiritual building of character of which our Brother
we think that history and organization are worthy of respect. To be
did not belong to a Bricklayer's Union – no, He was a carpenter – but
we are quite
sure that He would not sneer at a company of bricklayers, as our
to do. Like the Great Work – whose heavenly wisdom he contrasts with
– our Brother belittles the old operative Masons, not knowing,
probably, that the
order of Freemasons included the greatest artists and thinkers of the
fact he might learn from one of those "ill-informed authors" whom he
to look down upon. Finally, we have not been guilty of any "derogation"
of the Great Work and its author. For all the good the book has done we
but when it purports to give the origin of Masonry, we ask for proof.
No doubt it
is refreshing to disregard facts and glide smoothly over the glassy
road of imaginary
history, but that is not Masonic Research. The late William James once
essay "On a Certain Blindness in Human Beings,” and we fear that the
letter is an example of it. – The Editor.)
* * *
A Good Thrashing
Editor: – Ye writer has
read your comment on Hysteria and Hysterics, and noted your invitation
to give you a good thrashing. The writer does not wish to rush into
print. He believes
there are others who can make a better presentation of his views, for
they are legion
– not the views but the others. But he wants to talk Will you listen?
He will promise
to use none but kind words. He believes that you will agree with him
that it is
practical to offer effective criticism without being unkind.
broad, brotherly spirit
of your Foreword in January. Let me quote: "Masonry is a form of the
Life upon earth, an order of men initiated, sworn and trained to make
sweet reasonableness and the will of God prevail." Are those your
There is a lot more in that same Foreword of like import, like this for
"Everything is ruined by hate. Love is the one mighty Builder, and they
in vain who build upon any other foundation." There is more yet, and
sentiments evoked a mighty "so mote it be" from all who read your
Ye writer is
one of the many who took
exceptions to Brother Kuhn's Hysteria article. He even reduced a draft
of his position
to writing but the opportunity for sending it passed by. Nor is he
ready to admit
that he lost his poise His protest (which you did not get) was against
of Brother Kuhn's article. It is the same spirit that is moving him to
talk with you. In this article you say:
too long the field of Masonic research has been a happy hunting-ground
for the faddist,
the hobbyist, the half-baked mystic, not to mention the inveterate
crank who seems
to think that Masonry is a mathematical puzzle instead of a human
upon spiritual reality."
Who are the
faddists, the hobbyists,
the cranks? Are they not Masons? There are Masons and Masons. Ouite
true. But what
is the process of making Masons of Masons? You yourself have supplied
"Love is the one mighty Builder." Whence came the aforesaid faddists,
hobbyists, cranks, etc? From out the great world-school. Why are they
so illy informed?
Evolution is slow but sure. They will reach all levels in time. Can we
in the process of unfolding? Manifestly. How? Try this: – “Love
and is kind; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all
Editor, ye writer is sure
that you get his point of view. There are a lot of faddists, hobbyists,
the fraternity, and for no other reason than that the fraternity has
made them so
– created them, in a way. The soul yearns for light. Masonry says,
is light." They go, but instead of light they find only greater
of the stygian mist the soul reaches and takes hold of any and every
truth. But still it gropes.
But behold a
beacon in the sky – the
National Masonic Research Society! See the multitudes gather around its
Hear the shouts of gladness. Almost a Hosanna! Is there any wonder that
has made mighty strides? Too long we have had stones for bread, but now
we are to
So much for
ye writer's protest. He
has spoken plainly, but charitably. He invites no contest, wants no
He seeks no space in The Builder. The only contest he will entertain is
to see whether
he can best his Brothers in enlarging the usefulness and influence of
He believes implicitly in the tenets of Brotherly Love, Relief, and
Truth. He believes
that controversial argument and satire are out of place in a Masonic
best wishes for the continued success of the Society, and with
fraternal good will
to you, dear Editor, I am,
R. M. Ogilvie, Nevada.
(Truly, it is
a joy to be thrashed
in so gracious a manner and by a man of so sweet a spirit. We are
for such a letter. No, Brother Ogilvie, we have not forgotten that
which you refer so kindly; its spirit is still our guiding ideal.
Howbeit, in speaking
of The Builder, that Foreword said: "Critical it must be, since
as Arnold defined it, is appreciation, estimate, co-operation in the
truth. Those who write for these pages may expect to have their
theories put to
the test of reason and fact in the open forum of debate, which is what
after truth most desires." Therefore we cannot agree with Brother
controversial argument has no place in a Masonic Journal, since by free
debate welcome by the truth. Surely it is no departure from the spirit
of the Foreword
when we put the theories of TK and others to the test of reason and
fact for that
is all we have tried to do. Satire, to be sure, is a dangerous weapon,
it is aimed at a theory, or a type, and not at an individual, it is
Indeed, one can hardly make a sensible remark about an absurdity
of some sort conscious or otherwise. Jesus of Nazareth was one of the
masters of satire this earth has known. We do not profess to be like
Him – would
God we were – but we beg our Brother to believe we have not written a
in any spirit of unkindness; not one, for we have no such spirit. – The Editor.)
* * *
Masonry in the Home
– A short time ago I had
a conversation with a young Mason who said to me something like this: –
are the Master of a Lodge and know all about the duties of a Mason. Now
the duties of a Mason? I do not know what they are. Only one thing I
Masonry teaches Brotherly Love, and that is in direct conflict with
And furthermore, my father never taught me that truth, but taught me to
in his own money." He further told me other things which his father had
him, most of which were bad; and right here is a lesson for all Masons,
is the teaching of their Children. How careful we should be in our
homes and in
what we teach the young. If Masonry means anything it ought to show
itself in the
Home, as well as in the Lodge, making us better husbands and fathers;
ought to make
itself felt in the example we set for our boys of Purity, of Brotherly
Charity. If we leave our Masonry behind us in the Lodge "When the gavel
to close;" it will be of little worth to ourselves or to the world.
A. R. Kafton, Utah.
* * *
An Esoteric Novel
– I am sure that many
readers of The Builder would be interested in a very remarkable novel,
Layman Revato," [Lib 1914] by E. P.
Buffet, a philosophical story the subtitle of which is descriptive
of its kind: "A story of a restless mind in Buddhist India at the time
Greek influence." Such a novel is not to be judged by the accepted
modern fiction which make the novel little more than a postponed
wedding, or funeral.
Who runs may not read this story, and its type is rare enough to be
worthy of attention;
for it was meant to appeal to a limited audience of those interested in
philosophy and culture, and belongs with "Marius the Epicurean" [Lib
Vol 1, Vol
2] rather than with the mass of current
fiction of the day. The love motive is a minor feature, but the thought
is most engaging, especially to those who would like an exposition of
system. If any of your readers find as much pleasure in this book as I
they will be grateful for having had their attention directed to it.
Ay, The Builder
indeed, it is great!
Theodore Liggon, St. Louis.
(We may add
that "The Layman Revato"
is published by G. E. Stechert & Co., New York, $2.00. It is
indeed a brilliant
story, albeit rather heavily freighted, at times, with words which
require a glossary.
However, as a portrayal of the perpetual conflict between the Greek
expression and the Buddhist religion of repression, as well as for its
translations of Buddhist literature, it is exceedingly worthwhile,
often, of the charm and atmosphere of Kipling's Kim.)
* * *
A Great Masonic Book
– Among the books recommended
by you to Masonic students and libraries I have failed to notice
of Masonic Geometry and Symbolism," [Lib*] by the late Judge H. P. H.
of this city, which was published by the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Judge
was a Past Grand Master of Masons in Illinois, and an honorary member
of the Colorado
Grand Lodge, a great scholar, an enthusiastic Masonic student, and a
good man. In
my humble opinion his book is one of the most valuable contributions
ever made to
Masonic literature. It was the fruit of many years of labor, and will
instruct any Mason who reads it. Allow me to suggest it to your
Ralph E. Stevens, Denver.
and with your estimate
of Judge Bromwell and his book we fully agree, but we had the
impression that the
book was out of print. If we are wrong, we shall be very happy to
spread the good
news to that effect. Indeed, so many of the very best Masonic books are
of print, or else so difficult to obtain, that we have found it a
problem; not wishing
to recommend books which no one could buy. For example, Preston's
of Masonry, to name no other, is hard to find. Here is an opportunity
for some wealthy
Mason to render an inestimable service to the Fraternity, for which
will bless him in the times to come; that is, by providing a fund,
under the direction
of this Society, whereby the classics of Masonic literature can be
a form worthy of their value, each one to be edited by a competent
critical notes to illumine the text. Such a set of books wisely
edited, and tastefully printed, would be a boon to the cause of Masonic
We hope that some Brother who has had it in mind to do something for
the study side
of Masonry will take due notice, and find it in his heart to govern
– The Editor.)
* * *
All Aboard, Going West
– I play be going out
of your line, but I would like to know if any of the officers or
members of the
Research Society lecture before Masonic Lodges; also, if any of them
coming West to the Exposition this year? If so, I would very much like
with them, so as to arrange for a number of talks to our Lodge, and
perhaps to other
Lodges hereabouts. We would like especially to have talks by informed
the Iowa bodies on rudimentary lines, such as would interest the
and provoke them to study. Almost all of our visitors and lecturers
talk along advanced
John H. McGehee, P. O. Box 467, San Jose, Cal.
that Brethren going West
during the summer and autumn will keep this in mind, and communicate
McGehee. Meeting their Masonic fellow-workers in the West will add to
of the journey, making new friends while promoting an interest in the
* * *
Masonic Calendar publishes
an article on the well-worn controversy between Massachusetts and
to seniority in Masonry, and says: "The upshot of the dispute will be,
unless an agreement is soon arrived at, some other state, such as
Virginia or South
Carolina, will step in and receive the verdict from the rest of the
NO! To quote
from Sheridan's play,
"It is a very pretty quarrel as it stands." Virginia Masonry – of
the best – has never found it necessary to enter controversies to
sustain its Royal
Lodge of Virginia was organized
in 1778, and all others on this continent since that time. Virginia
in existence in the early half of the eighteenth century, as records
show, and there
is sound reason for the deduction that they existed as early as any, in
oldest English settlement. But Virginia never had that curious anomaly,
Grand Lodge, some specimens
of which still exist in the British Isles and elsewhere, is not,
a Grand Lodge at all. It is not sovereign, and cannot even choose its
Grand Master. It is little more than a District Deputy's gathering of
for local purposes, and never was more than that.
American colonies gained independence
and became sovereign states the (English) Provincial bodies, if they
as regular organizations, which is doubtful to say the least, ceased
They died. "Freemasonry notwithstanding, still survived," as did the
This shows the ephemeral character of these temporary expedient bodies
inferiority to the Lodges themselves.
American Grand Lodges can trace
their lineage to Lodges alone and the relative age of those Grand
Lodges must be
counted from their organization by the constituent Lodges.
its existence in 1778 –
the first of all. Descent from a previously existing, temporary
ephemeral body subordinate
to higher authority is simply ridiculous.
Motherhood, we are content to
let those who will quarrel. Our Masons scattered over the great West
and South and
helped to sow Masonic seed all but everywhere. Our seniority as a
Lodge is so indisputable that we see no sense in controversy.
could claim descent from the
Grand Lodge at York through the "Grand Lodge of Ancients" in England
through that of Scotland. We could not claim that as a Grand Lodge, nor
bodies are not in dispute,
and those so-called bodies were English. Of American Grand Lodges ours
is the senior.
No Grand Lodge to-day recognizes any but Sovereign Grand Lodges, and no
maintain that Provincial Lodges were ever Sovereign.
– Jos. W., Eggleston, P. G.
of Questions on "The Builders"
Compiled by "The Cincinnati
Masonic Study School."
For a paginated version of ‘The
When is God considered one? Page 22.
Who have been the men who have done most to
establish the city of God on
earth? Page 286.
Does Freemasonry teach the Fatherhood of God
and the Brotherhood of Man and
what are the two rocks upon which Masonry has always stood? Page 134.
What question is asked every candidate? Page
How does God work in this world? Page 296.
What is the first and last thing in the
Universe? What is the highest and
deepest thing? Page 267.
If the city of God be established on earth what
will become of the wrangling
sects? Page 286. How would this effect business conditions among men?
What is known of the society called "The
Guilds?" Were the Guild
Masons ever admitted into Freemasonry? Page 119.
What was the object in forming the Grand Lodge
of England? Page 174 to 184.
When were the Grand Lodges of Ireland,
Scotland, and France created? In what
year? Page 205.
What was the nature of the opposition to the
Grand Lodge of England? Page
What is the genius of Masonry, as stated in
"The Builders?" Page
What view of Freemasonry had Henry Hallam (not
a Mason) of the middle ages?
Who was Hermes? Page 194.
Why cannot the gates of Hell prevail against
Masonry? Page 262.
What effect has the Egyptian teaching on the
Hebrews in regard to the origin
of Masonry? Page 109.
What is one of the oldest instincts of
humanity? Page 19.
What gives man hope of life after death? Page
Whence cometh light and hope? Page 179.
In what sense has a man always been a citizen
of two worlds? Page 19.
What is the result if we can conceive of our
separate existence? Page 38.
What did Emerson and Addison regard as proof of
immortality? Page 39.
What is found in the ancient Egyptian "Book of
the Dead" (The Book
of Resurrection) relative to immortality? Page 39-2.
To what ancient religion can the various dramas
of faith be traced? Page
What reason has man for believing that the
race, sinking into the grave,
will rise triumphant over death? Page 41.
What meaning had the Egyptian drama of eternal
life for deeper minds? How
was the idea of eternal life taught in the Hermetic lore of Greece?
What cartoons in stone are mentioned as
indicating immorality among the Roman
clergy? Page 99.
What has Masonry to say regarding the
Immortality of the Soul? Page 277-278.
What is known of Isis and what reference does
she bear to modern Masonry?
What is said of the burial of Osiris? Page 45.
How far can initiation prepare men for truth
and to what extent can the initiate
make use of said teaching? Page 63.
How "build" in this world to gain a foregleam
of the world to come?
How many and what are the names of Freemasons
who were signers of the Declaration
of Independence? Page 225.
What is known as the Secret Doctrine or Hidden
Wisdom taught by Master Jesus?
Jesus and other lesser lights have said: "Live
the life to know the
Doctrine" – elucidate this idea from the Masonic point of view. Page 69.
What does Josephus say the style of the temple
(Solomon's) was? Page 76.
What is known of Inigo Jones of England? Page
What Jesuit plot was hatched in Rome, Italy, to
expose the secrets of Freemasonry?
What people are known as Jesuits? Page 210, 211.
What is the difference between a Freemason and
a Jesuit? Page 210-211.
When will the law of the jungle cease? Page 286.
Why does the Triangle and the Circle form the
keystone of the ornamental
tracery of every Gothic Temple? Page 121.
What is meant by Hebrew Kabbalists? Page 156.
Did the Kabbalists make use of any emblems of
Masonry and did they mean the
same to the initiates of both the Kabbalists and the Freemasons? Page
To what degree do the Kabbalists connect their
teaching with that of the
symbolism of the Temple of Solomon? Page 191.
As Ruskin puts it, why is there no such thing
as liberty, and how may man
attain that which he calls liberty? Page 7.
How did the ancients regard Light and Darkness?
What was light considered by the early men?
What are the conclusions of the wisest minds as
to the meaning of life and
the world? Page 20.
What is said of man's desire to live? Page 39.
What is the author's intent in presenting his
subject relative to life and
the World? Page 269 note.
What is said of the ceremony of initiation of
Lucius into the mysteries of
Isis? Page 51.
Why is liberty the chief glory of Masonry? Page
102, 122, 127, 266, 272,
How did it come that Freemasons took Liberty
for their motto? Page 122.
What is said of Union, Liberty and Love? Page
Why did all those who have fought for Liberty
and Freedom like Washington,
Mazzini and Garbaldi seek the friendship of the Masonic order? Page 230.
What follows Masonry wherever it flourishes and
is allowed to build freely
and what follows where Masons are hindered and persecuted? Page 231
What has Masonry preserved to humanity and the
Church? Page 168-169-252.
What are the two extremely simple and profound
principles which Masonry lays
great emphasis upon? Page 254.
Why should the Soul of man be free to think and
act according to his own
standard of right? Page 272.
What is the real question of life and how is
Masonry related to this question?
Why is it worthwhile to live a true life? Page
To whom does Freemasonry appeal? Page 283.
What is each lodge? Page 288.
What is the law of life? Page 291-2.
What is the relation of thought to the life of
man? Page 294.
Why must we Masons learn to "Love one another?"
What was Edward Markham's conception of
Brotherhood? Page 282.
What is Life? Page 297.
What is the object in presenting a copy of "The
Builders" to every
Mason within the Grand Jurisdiction of Iowa? Page 8.
"In A Nook with a Book"
The Arcana of Masonry
How I have dwelt with you in dreams
So long, so intimately, that it seems
As if you had borne me: Though I could not know
It was so many thousand years ago!
And in my gropings darkly underground,
The long-lost memory at last is found
Of Motherhood - you the mother of us all!
And to my fellow-men I must recall
The memory too: that common Motherhood
May help to make the common Brotherhood."
fertile land in Egypt is only
a fringe to the Nile, so to the ancient dwellers of that country human
to be only something temporarily afloat on the great stream of death.
They had their
eternal pyramids as tombs for their kings, and their Cities of the Dead
homes for the people. They seemed, indeed, to have lived only in order
to be buried,
life at most but a butterfly which fluttered for a few days. They
deepest thought in the figure of the Sphinx, half human, half animal;
the idea of the Veil which no one has lifted.
And yet, in
no land under the sky,
perhaps, has faith in the future life been more vivid, more
it was in ancient Egypt. There, through untold ages, in picture, in
stately ritual, the soul of man-made protest against death, refusing to
the Grave as the gigantic coffin lid of a dull and mindless universe
upon it at last. Hence the Book of the Dead, which had been better
named the Book
of Eternal Life, in which they enshrined their profound and prophetic
their forecasting faith. Hence, also, their use of symbols, since "the
which are unseen may be known by the things which are seen," that is,
of symbols and parables. Hence, again, their great order of The
Mysteries, in which
was enacted the ancient allegory of the eternal life, of spring
winter, of the soul triumphant over death.
has vanished, leaving
only its tombs to tell its story, but its thought remains, its faith
forth in a rich and eloquent symbolism wherein, if a man search, he
will find roots
of every philosophy and the sublime poetry of the Eternal Religion.
There the Mason
finds his tools teaching the same truths which they teach today, the
of faith, the same ideal of a House of Life built in imitation of the
for Egypt was the cradle of Masonry. Such is the thesis of Dr. Albert
in "The Arcana of Freemasonry,"* [Lib 1915]
dedicated to all Masons "of whatever clime and whatever creed who take
in Masonic Research," in which he traces our simple symbols back so far
it makes one dizzy to follow his flight.
As in "The
Signs and Symbols of
Primordial Man," [Lib 1913] so here,
with an erudition as remarkable as his enthusiasm is infectious,
he finds the explanation not only of Masonic symbols, but of the
teachings of every
religion, in Egyptian eschatology - that is, in its vision of last
on the screen of thought by the prophetic faith of a mighty people. If
accept his statements in all their details, we are convinced that his
is sound, and that he who would know the real origin of Masonry, in its
at least, and its symbolism is its soul, must go back to old Egypt
where men not
only thought, but built, for Eternity. Space does not permit a minute
this brilliant series of essays, but he who reads it, with other works
of like learning,
will be disposed to make the words of the poet his own:
Egypt! Mighty Prophet, Seer blest,
On whom those truths so rest,
Which we are toiling all our lives to find."
by Wm. Tait, Belfast, Ireland.
* * *
accurate, suggestive and valuable
is the little book called "The Master's Assistant," [Lib*] by Delmar D.
Darrah, editor of the Illinois Freemason. It is exactly what its title
a hand-book on Masonry, its history, organization, landmarks, laws,
rules, and precedents,
furnishing in compact and dependable form much information which
officers of Lodges
are much in need of and for which they are constantly in search. The
tempts to quotation, and perhaps the following lines, dealing with
will best disclose its fine spirit and its practical worth:
is too frequently mistaken for Masonry. There is no greater error than
the two, for they are as widely different as day and night. Ritualism
the vehicle by means of which the sublime truths of Masonry are
conveyed to the
hearts and minds of men. Passing through the ceremonies of the several
not make Masons. If the forms and ceremonies through which a candidate
to work a change in his heart, and to lift him to higher conceptions of
duty, of love, then they are no more than the tinkling cymbal and the
candidate for the degrees should be presented with a genuine white
Many Lodges do this, but there are some which are too miserly to adopt
or may present the candidate with an apron with three strings to it,
two of which
they use to tie the apron on the candidate, and the third to pull it
into the possession of the Lodge."
impressions are lasting and the idea which a man forms of Freemasonry
on his first
night will be a deep and lasting one. All through his progress in
Masonry he should
be treated with such courtesy and decorum as will convince him that he
received into a society of gentlemen distinguished for gentility and
* * *
idle hour, ye scribe bethought
him to reread "The Symbolist Movement in Literature," [Lib 1908] by Arthur
Symons - a man with the learning of a scholar, the insight of
a poet, and the pensive, dreamlike soul of a mystic; and he fell upon
which may help some young Mason to know what symbolism really is:
symbolism there can be no literature; indeed, not even language. What
themselves but symbols to which we have agreed to give certain
began with the first words uttered by the first man, as he named every
or before them, in heaven, when God named the world into being. And we
see, in these
beginnings, precisely what Symbolism really is: a form of expression,
at the least
but approximate, for an unseen reality apprehended by the
consciousness. It is sometimes
permitted us to hope that our convention is indeed the reflection
rather than merely
the sign of that unseen reality: we have done much if we have found a
sign. "A symbol," says Comte Goblet d'Alviella, in his book on The
of Symbols [Lib 1894] "might be
defined as a representation which does not aim at being
a reproduction." Originally used by the Greeks to denote "the two
of the tablet they divided between themselves as a pledge of
it came to be used of every sign, formula, or rite by which those
any mystery made themselves known to one another. Gradually the word
meaning, until it came to denote every representation of idea by form,
of the unseen
by the seen. "In a symbol," says Carlyle, "there is concealment yet
revelation: hence therefore, by Silence and by Speech acting together,
comes a double
significance." And, in that fine chapter of Sartor Resartus, [Lib 1897] he goes
further: "In the Symbol proper, there is ever, more or less
directly or indirectly, some embodiment and revelation of the Infinite;
is made to blend itself with the Finite, to stand visible, and as it
me where I can find the
lines quoted at the close of your Easter editorial. I have looked
them. I regret to trouble you, but would like to know the name of the
written by the late Richard
Watson Gilder, former editor of the Century Magazine, and may be found
in his poems,
published complete in one volume by Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. [Lib 1908]
* * *
I am a newly
made Mason and also a
student of the Bible, and I find the height of the two pillars at the
King Solomon's temple, as given in the lecture, rather puzzling. It
seems to me
clearly inaccurate. What about it?
Brother N. R. Parvin, Grand
Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and ask him
for a copy
of the report of a special committee on "Inaccuracy of Work," [Lib 1904] presented
to the Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1904, by Brother J. W. Barry. The
report has to do with that very question, and you will find it very
not only in its able and thorough discussion of the subject, but also
in its revelation
of the different heights to which those pillars ascend in the work of
* * *
To settle a
discussion please answer
the following: A says we have never had a President who was not a
Mason. B says
we have had several but is unable to name them. Which is right?
– T. A. S.
Presidents were Masons:
– Washington, Jackson, Polk, Fillmore – who, however, recanted his
the Morgan excitement – Buchanan, Johnson, Garfield, McKinley,
Roosevelt, and Taft.
Johnson, we believe, was the only President who was a member of the
* * *
What is the
best biography of Thomas
Paine? Was he a Mason? I have heard that he was and that he was not,
what is the
The life of
Paine [Lib 1893, Vol 1, Vol
2] by Maurice Conway is perhaps the
best. No, Paine was not a Mason, though he wrote an essay on "The
Freemasonry," [Lib 1810] in which he
held that the Order derived from the ancient Druids, as Winwood
Reade did, later, in "The Veil of Isis." [Lib 1861] Conway
suggests that the preface to Paine's essay of Masonry was probably
written by his devoted friend, Colonel John Fellows.
* * *
In your book
The Builders – in the
chapter on the Working Tools – you refer to the oldest book of China as
that the Square and compasses were used as symbols long before our era.
no other examples?
many of them; take this
example from Maspero's "Guide to the Cairo Museum," [Lib 1906] as follows:
"The Mason's Level and Square belonged originally to the
class of tools which were placed in the tomb that the dead might use
them for his
own utility. They helped him to build himself a house, perhaps the
he built himself in Heliopolis, according to a passage in the Book of
(The Book of the Dead is actually a collection of various funerary
texts, spells, Incantations,
hymns, litanies, etc. found in different burial sites. The Collection
of the British
Museum [Lib 1920], the Renouf Translation [Lib
1904], and the Translations of H.M. Tirard [Lib 1910] present excerpts from various
papyri. The most complete Book of the Dead is the ‘Papyrus of Ani’
which is here
in a translation by Wallis Budge in three volumes [Lib 1913, Vol
Vol 2, Vol 3 (36
Colour Vignettes)]- ‘The Book
of the Dead’ by
George H. Boker [Lib 1882] is a poem about the
Book of the Dead - rhm)
one of the same emblems
found on the tombs, of members of the Roman Collegia, and if we are
Krause held, to trace our Masonic descent through the Collegia of Rome,
which Rome had with Heliopolis renders the foregoing item doubly
* * *
There is a
quotation from Lincoln with
regard to the Roman Church and its influence in America, which I have
seen a number
of times, the last time, I believe, in Brother Lemert's pamphlet on
and Freemasonry." [Lib*] Is it authentic?
Lemert refers us to Chiniquy's
"Fifty Years in the Roman Church," [Lib 1886]
but he is uncertain as to how far that book may be trusted. As one of
of Lincoln, we are quite sure the quotation is not authentic, albeit
Herndon, may have said something of the kind. But such words are
foreign to the
spirit and style of Lincoln himself.
* * *
What do you
regard as the best definition
of Masonry? There are several, but I have found none to satisfy me. Any
be greatly appreciated.
If you are
thinking of Masonry as an
institution seeking to embody a pervasive and benign spirit, we know of
better than that given in the old German "Handbuch," a follows: –
is the activity of closely united men who employing symbolical forms
from the mason's trade and from architecture, work for the welfare of
morally to ennoble themselves and others, and thereby to bring about a
league of mankind, which then aspire to exhibit even now on a small
* * *
Clarence M. Boutelle, author
of "The Man of Mount Moriah?" [Lib*] I have read this book three or
times, and find it one of the most delightful stories I ever read.
our information about
Brother Boutelle is meager. He once lived in Iowa, where he was
prominent both as
an educator and as a Mason – was superintendent of school: at Decorah
at one time
– but whether he is still living or not, we do not know. He moved from
Iowa to Wisconsin,
first to Chippewa Falls, and then to Marshall – perhaps, if he is still
some reader of The Builder can tell us more about him. He wrote many
books and poems,
including a number of stories published, for the most part, in Frank
Weekly, and some of which were afterward issued in book form – such as
of Sin, The Man Outside, The Artificial Fate Beyond the End, and so
* * *
Do you know
the name of TK? If so,
why not tell it, as many of us would like to know it. Why should he
Yes, we know
the name of TK, but for
reasons set forth in his books he prefers to remain anonymous, and we
wish, the more so because he has requested us to do so. Therefore it is
of no use
to ask us to disclose his name.
* * *
Articles of Interest
Customs of German Lodges,
by Emil Frenkel. The Trestle Board.
Promotion of the Unity of Masonry. Bulletin International Bureau of
Franklin, Man and Mason, by T. G. Kerwin. Oriental Consistory Magazine.
The True Destiny of Man, by J. B. Kerning. American Freemason.
John Harrower – Freemason and Schoolmaster, by H. R. Evans. The New Age.
The Medieval Guilds, by J. E. Morcombe. American Freemason.
The Kabalistic tree of Life, by J. H. Power. Occult Review
* * *
The Arcana of
Freemasonry, [Lib 1915] by A. Churchward.
Allen & Unwin, London.
Ceremonials of the
Grand Lodge of Iowa.
Emerson, [Lib 1915] by O. W. Firkins.
Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston.
Relations, [Lib 1914 Vol 1, Vol 2]
by Henry Holt. Houghton, Mifflin
Movements in India, [Lib
1915] by J. N. Farquhar.
Plotinus, [Lib 1914;
Vol 1, Vol 2]
by W. R. Inge. Lindsey Press,
The Living Universe, [Lib 1920] by H. T. Bray. Truro Pub Co.,
History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Dictionary of Symbolical
Oli53 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1853. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 408. - 12.0 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 025 - 1912
Ars12 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529. - 35.8 MB.
Fifty Years in the Church of
Chi86 / auth. Chiniquy Father Charles P. - New York : Fleming H. Revell
Company, 1886. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 857. - 42.7 MB.
Guide to the Cairo Museum
Mas06 / auth. Maspero
Gaston C C / trans. Quibell
J. E. and A. A.. - Cairo : Printing Office of the French Institute,
1906. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 499. - 16.3 MB.
Harmonics of Evolution
Hun97 / auth. Huntley Florence. - Chicago : Florence Huntley, 1897. -
Vol. Harmonic Series Vol 1 : 5 : p. 471. - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
Inaccuracy of Work
Bar04 / auth. Barry J W. - Cedar Rapids : Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1904. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 30. - 1.5 MB.
Marius the Epicurian Vol 1
Pat851 / auth. Pater Walter. - London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 241. - 7.8 MB.
Marius the Epicurian Vol 2
Pat85 / auth. Pater Walter. - London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1885. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 220. - 7.2 MB.
Sim69 / auth. Simons John W.. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co., 1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 326. - 13.0 MB.
Masonic Text Book
Mai23 / auth. Maine Grand Lodge / ed. Drummond Joshiah. - Holden :
Grand Lodge of Maine, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 142. - 0.4 MB.
Modern Religious Movements in
Far15 / auth. Farquhar John N. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 499. - 22.7 MB.
On the Cosmic Relations Vol 1
Hol14 / auth. Holt Henry. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 523. - 33.3 MB.
On the Cosmic Relations Vol 2
Hol141 / auth. Holt Henry. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 482. - 31.5 MB.
On the Origin of Freemasonry
Pai10 / auth. Paine Thomas. - New York : Elliot and Crissey, 1810. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 4.7 MB.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Fir15 / auth. Firkins Oscar W. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 390. - 11.9 MB.
Car97 / auth. Carlyle Thomas / ed. MacMechan Archibald. - Boston : Ginn
& Company, Publishers, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 515. - 26.3 MB.
The Arcana of Freemasonry
Chu15 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Unwin Ltd., 1815. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 362. - 10.9 MB.
The Book of the Dead
Bok82 / auth. Boker George H. - Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott
& Co, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 213. - 3.9 MB.
The Book of the Dead
Bri20 / auth. British Museum. - London : Printed by Order of the
Trustees, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 51. - 5.0 MB.
The Book of the Dead
Ren04 / auth. Renouf
Sir Peter Le Page / ed. Navelle E.. - London : The Society of Biblic
Archaeology, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 462. - 19.3 MB.
The Book of the Dead
Tir10 / auth. Tirard Helen M. - London : Society of Promoting Christian
Knowledge, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 194. - 15.8 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 1
Bud13 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 417. - 22.5 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 2
Bud131 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 377. - 18.4 MB.
The Book of the Dead Vol 3
Bud132 / auth. Budge E A Wallis. - New York : G. E. Putnam's Sons,
1913. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 44. - Vignette 2 and part of Vignette 19
missing - 4.8 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Great Known
Ric24 / auth. Richardson John E. - Chicago : Great School of Natural
Science, 1924. - Revised : Vol. 4 Harmonic Series : 5 : p. 377. - 9.1
The Great Message
Ric27 / auth. Richardson John E. - [s.l.] : Great School of Natural
Science, 1927. - Vol. 5 Harmonic Series : of 5 : p. 375. - 7.9 MB.
The Great Psychological Crime
Ric15 / auth. Richardson John E. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co.,
1915. - 15th Edition : Vol. 2 Harmonic Series : 5 : p. 420. - 18.0 MB.
The Great Work
Ric13 / auth. Richardson John E.. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co.,
1913. - 15th Edition : Vol. 3 Harmonic Series : of 5 : p. 457. - 16.0
The Layman Revato
Buf14 / auth. Buffet Edward P.. - Jersey Citi : Edward P. Buffet, 1914.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 117. - 4.6 MB.
The Life of Thomas Paine Vol 1
Con931 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 413. - 9.9 MB.
The Life of Thomas Paine Vol 2
Con932 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons,
1893. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 495. - 16.2.
The Living Universe
Bra20 / auth. Bray Henry T. - Chicago : The Truro Publishing Co., 1920.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 436. - 9.1 MB.
The Migration of Symbols
dAl94 / auth. d'Alviella Goblet. - Westminster : Archibald Constable
and Co., 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 315. - 8.8 MB.
The Philosophy of Plotinus Vol 1
Ing18 / auth. Inge William R. - London : Longmans, Green and Co., 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 287. - 11.6 MB.
The Philosophy of Plotinus Vol 2
Ing181 / auth. Inge William R. - London : Longmans, Green and Co.,
1918. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 265. - 13.2 MB.
The Poems of Richard Watson
Gil08 / auth. Gilder Richard W.. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 515. - 13.7 MB.
The Religious Philosophy of
Ing14 / auth. Inge William R. - London : The Lindsey Press, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 57. - 1.7 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Symbolist Movement in
Sym08 / auth. Symons Arthur. - London : Archibald Constable &
Co. Ltd., 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 203. - 3.6 MB.
The Traditions of Freemasonry
Ste82 / auth. Steinbrenner Godfrey W.. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 391. - 18.1 MB.
The Veil of Isis or the
Mysteries of the Druids
Rea61 / auth. Reade W. Winwood. - New York : Peter Eckler, Publisher,
1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 246. - 7.0 MB.
Traditions of Freemasonry
Pie70 / auth. Pierson Arthur P. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 36.6 MB.